The Multiplication of Rewards and its Causes: Imam al-Sa’di

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di mentioned the following benefit in his book of thematic tafsir:

فائدة: ورد في القرآن آيات كثيرة فيها مضاعفة الحسنة بعشر أمثالها، وورد أيضا آيات أُخر فيها مضاعفة أكثر من ذلك، فما وجه ذلك ؟ ـ

A point of benefit: In the Qur’an, there are many ayaat which mention the multiplication of good deeds by ten, and there are also other ayaat which mention the multiplication by more than that, so what is the explanation of that?

فيقال: أما مضاعفة الحسنة بعشر أمثالها فلا بد منها في كل عمل صالح كما قال تعالى: { مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ‌ أَمْثَالِهَا }  [ الأنعام: 160 ]. ـ

One can respond: As for the multiplication of good deeds by ten, then this must happen for every righteous good deed, just as Allah said:

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ‌ أَمْثَالِهَا

Whoever comes with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof [6:160]

وأما مضاعفة العمل أكثر من ذلك فله أسباب، إما متعلقة بنفس العامل، أو بالعمل ومزيته أو نتائجه وثمراته أو بزمانه أو مكانه. ـ

But as for the multiplication of deeds by more than that, then there are certain causes for that – either something related to the doer himself, or related to the deed being done and its merit, or the outcome of the deeds and its fruits, or to its time or place.

فمن أعظم أسباب مضاعفة العمل إذا حقق العبد في عمله الإخلاص للمعبود، والمتابعة للرسول، فمضاعفة الأعمال تبع لما يقوم بقلب العامل من قوة الإخلاص وقوة الإيمان. ـ

So one of the greatest causes of the multiplication of deeds is when the slave actualizes both al-ikhlaas (sincerity) to the Object of worship as well as following the example of the Messenger. So the multiplication of deeds follows from and corresponds to the strength of his ikhlaas and the strength of his eemaan that is enacted in the heart of doer. Continue reading

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Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 5/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing as a series. For a guide to the different sections, click here. Sheikh al-Shinqitee continued with the fifth section of his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم لأماناتهم وعهدهم راعون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن من صفات المؤمنين المفلحين الوارثين الفردوس : أنهم راعون لأماناتهم وعهدهم ، أي : محافظون على الأمانات ، والعهود ، ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَ‌اعُونَ

and those who, in respect to their trusts and their covenants, are keepers [23:8]

In this noble ayah, Allah mentioned that one of the qualities of the successful believers who will inherit al-Firdaws is that they are keepers of their trusts and covenants – meaning: they are protective over their amaanaat (trusts) and ‘uhood (covenants).

والأمانة تشمل : كل ما استودعك الله ، وأمرك بحفظه ، فيدخل فيها حفظ جوارحك من كل ما لا يرضي الله ، وحفظ ما ائتمنت عليه من حقوق الناس ، ـ

And the word al-amaanah (trust) encompasses everything which Allah has entrusted to you and commanded you to preserve and protect. So this includes safeguarding your limbs from anything that is not pleasing to Allah, and safeguarding the whatever rights of the people have been entrusted to you. Continue reading

Be More Concerned about the Actions of the Heart than the Actions of the Limbs: ibn ‘Uthaymeen

In part of his tafsir of surah al-Taariq, sheikh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen wrote:

وقوله تعالى : [يَوْمَ تُبْلَى السَّرَائِرُ] ، أي : تختبر  السرائر ، وهي القلوب ، فإن الحساب يوم القيامة على ما في القلوب ، والحساب في الدنيا على ما في الجوارح ، ولهذا عامل النبي – صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم – المنافقون معاملة المسلمين حيث كان يُسنأذن في قتلهم فيقول : { لا يتحدث الناس أنّ محمد يقتل أصحابه } فكان لا يقتلهم ، وهو يعلم أن فلانا منافق ، و فلانا منافق ، لكن العمل في الدنيا على الظاهر ويوم القيامة على الباطن [يَوْمَ تُبْلَى السَّرَائِرُ] أي : تختبر ، وهذا كقوله تعالى : [ أَفَلَا يَعْلَمُ إِذَا بُعْثِرَ مَا فِي الْقُبُورِ * وَحُصِّلَ مَا فِي الصُّدُورِ ]  <العاديات 9، 10>  ـ

Allah’s statement [describing the Day of Resurrection]:

يَوْمَ تُبْلَى السَّرَائِرُ

The Day when the secrets will be tested [86:9]

meaning, when when the secrets will be put through a testing, and “the secrets” is referring to the hearts. For the reckoning and judgement of the Day of Resurrection will be according to what is in one’s heart, while the reckoning and judgement in this worldly life is according to what is outwardly manifested. It was because of this that the Prophet treated the munaafiqoon (hypocrites) as Muslims when he was petitioned for permission to kill them and responded by saying, “Let the people not say that Muhammad kills his companions”, and so they were not killed even though he knew that such-and-such person was a munaafiq and that so-and-so was a munaafiq. Deeds are taken according to what is apparent in this worldly life, while deeds will be taken according to their inner dimensions on the Day of Resurrection. Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 4/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing it as a series. For a guide to the different sections, click here. Sheikh al-Shinqitee continued with the fourth section of his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم لفروجهم حافظون إلا على أزواجهم أو ما ملكت أيمانهم فإنهم غير ملومين فمن ابتغى وراء ذلك فأولئك هم العادون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآيات الكريمة : أن من صفات المؤمنين المفلحين الذين يرثون الفردوس ويخلدون فيها حفظهم لفروجهم أي : من اللواط والزنى ، ونحو ذلك ، وبين أن [ ص: 309 ] حفظهم فروجهم ، لا يلزمهم عن نسائهم الذين ملكوا الاستمتاع بهن بعقد الزواج أو بملك اليمين ، والمراد به التمتع بالسراري ، وبين أن من لم يحفظ فرجه عن زوجه أو سريته لا لوم عليه ، وأن من ابتغى تمتعا بفرجه ، وراء ذلك غير الأزواج والمملوكات فهو من العادين أي : المعتدين المتعدين حدود الله ، المجاوزين ما أحله الله إلى ما حرمه . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُ‌وجِهِمْ حَافِظُونَ * إِلَّا عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ‌ مَلُومِينَ * فَمَنِ ابْتَغَىٰ وَرَ‌اءَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ

And those who guard their private parts * Except from their wives or those their right hands possess, for indeed, they will not be blamed – * But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors. [23:5-7]

In these noble ayaat, Allah mentioned that one of the qualities of the successful believers who will inherit al-Firdaws and remain in it forever is that they guard their private parts – meaning from homosexual intercourse, from adultery/fornication, and so on.

And He clarified that their guarding their of private parts does not entail them avoiding their women whom they have right to enjoy, either through the bonds of marriage or by what their right hand possesses – the intended meaning of which is enjoyment of the female slaves. Continue reading

Beware of Opposing the Prophet’s Command: Tafsir ibn Kathir

Near the end of surah al-Nur, Allah says:

لَّا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّ‌سُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُم بَعْضًا ۚ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ يَتَسَلَّلُونَ مِنكُمْ لِوَاذًا ۚ فَلْيَحْذَرِ‌ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِ‌هِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Do not make the calling of the Messenger among yourselves like the call of one of you to another. Already Allah knows those of you who slip away, concealed by others. So let those who oppose the Prophet’s command beware, lest fitnah strike them or a painful punishment. [24:63]

In his famous book of tafsir, Abu’l-Fidaa’ Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir wrote the following regarding this ayah:

قال الضحاك ، عن ابن عباس : كانوا يقولون : يا محمد ، يا أبا القاسم ، فنهاهم الله عز وجل ، عن ذلك ، إعظاما لنبيه ، صلوات الله وسلامه عليه قال : فقالوا : يا رسول الله ، يا نبي الله . وهكذا قال مجاهد ، وسعيد بن جبير . ـ

al-Dhahhaak reported from ibn ‘Abbas: People used to say, “O Muhammad! O Abu’l-Qaasim!”, so Allah forbade them from doing that out of reverence for His prophet (ﷺ). He told them to instead say, “O Messenger of Allah! O Prophet of Allah!”.

Mujaahid and Sa’eed ibn Jubayr reported something similar.

وقال قتادة : أمر الله أن يهاب نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وأن يبجل وأن يعظم وأن يسود . [ ص: 89 ] ـ

Qataadah said: Allah commanded the people to have respect for His prophet (ﷺ), and that they should honor, revere and hold him as a leader.

وقال مقاتل [ بن حيان ] في قوله : ( لا تجعلوا دعاء الرسول بينكم كدعاء بعضكم بعضا ) يقول : لا تسموه إذا دعوتموه : يا محمد ، ولا تقولوا : يا بن عبد الله ، ولكن شرفوه فقولوا : يا نبي الله ، يا رسول الله . ـ

Regarding Allah’s statement:

لَّا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّ‌سُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُم بَعْضًا

Do not make the calling of the Messenger among yourselves like the call of one of you to another

Muqaatil ibn Hayyaan said: Do not address him by name when you call him, such as saying, “O Muhammad!”, and do not say, “O ibn ‘Abdullah!”; rather, hold him in high regard and say, “O Prophet of Allah! O Messenger of Allah!” Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 3/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing it as a series. For a guide to the different sections, click here. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee continued his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم للزكاة فاعلون ، في المراد بالزكاة هنا وجهان من التفسير معروفان عند أهل العلم : أحدهما : أن المراد بها زكاة الأموال ، وعزاه ابن كثير للأكثرين . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُونَ

and those who carry out the zakaah [23:4]

There are two well-known opinions among the People of Knowledge regarding the intended meaning of the word “al-zakaah” here.

The first of them is that what is intended here is the zakaah of one’s wealth, and ibn Kathir attributed this opinion to the majority.

الثاني : أن المراد بالزكاة هنا : زكاة النفس أي : تطهيرها من الشرك ، والمعاصي بالإيمان بالله ، وطاعته وطاعة رسله عليهم الصلاة والسلام ، وعلى هذا فالمراد بالزكاة كالمراد بها في قوله قد أفلح من زكاها وقد خاب من دساها [ 91 \ 9 – 10 ] وقوله قد أفلح من تزكى الآية [ 87 \ 14 ] ، وقوله ولولا فضل الله عليكم ورحمته ما زكا منكم من أحد أبدا [ 24 \ 21 ] وقوله خيرا منه زكاة الآية [ 18 \ 81 ] وقوله وويل للمشركين الذين لا يؤتون الزكاة [ 41 \ 6 – 7 ] على أحد التفسيرين ، وقد يستدل لهذا القول الأخير بثلاث قرائن : ـ

The second is that the intended meaning of zakaah in this instance is the zakaah of one’s self – i.e. purifying one’s self from al-shirk and disobedience by having eemaan in Allah, obeying Him, and obeying His Messenger (ﷺ). So according to this position, the intended meaning of zakaah is like it’s intended meaning in Allah’s statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا * وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

He has succeeded who purifies it * And indeed he fails who corrupts his own self [91:9-10]

And His statement: Continue reading

The Story of Ayyub: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di devoted a sizable portion to compiling the various ayaat around different prophets into summarized narratives, as well as mentioning select benefits derived from these ayaat. What follows in his brief treatment of the story of the prophet Ayyub (Job):

قصة أيوب عليه الصلاة السلام

The Story of Ayyub (peace and blessing be upon him)

قصة أيوب عليه الصلاة السلام كان أيوب من أنبياء بني إسرائيل، ومن الأصفياء الكرام، وقد ذكره الله في كتابه، وأثنى عليه بالخصال الحميدة عموما، وبالصبر على البلاء خصوصا؛ فإن الله تعالى ابتلاه بولده وأهله وماله، ثم بجسده، فأصابه من البلاء ما لم يصب أحدا من الخلق، فصبر لأمر الله ولم يزل منيبا لله. ـ

The Story of Ayyub (peace and blessing be upon him): Ayyub was one of the prophets of Banu Israa’eel, and he was one of their most exceptional and honorable ones. Allah mentioned him in His Book and commended him for his praiseworthy characteristics in general, and for his steadfast patience in the face of trials in particular. For Allah subjected him to trials dealing with his children and his family and his wealth, and then with his own body. So Allah afflicted him with trials the likes of which none amongst the creation had previously been afflicted with. But he exercised steadfast patience upon the command of Allah and he did not cease turning back to Allah.

ولما تطاول به المرض العظيم، ونسيه الصاحب والحميم نادى ربه: {أَنِّي مَسَّنِيَ الضُّرُّ وَأَنْتَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ} [الأنبياء: 83] فقيل له: {ارْكُضْ بِرِجْلِكَ} [ص: 42] فركض، فنبعت بركضته عين ماء بارد، فقيل له: اشرب منها واغتسل، ففعل ذلك، فأذهب الله ما في باطنه وظاهره من البلاء، ثم أعاد الله له أهله وماله، وأعطاه من النعم والخيرات شيئا كثيرا، وصار بهذا الصبر قدوة للصابرين، وسلوة للمبتلين، وعبرة للمعتبرين . ـ

And when his grave illness continued on at length and his companions and close friends forgot him, he called out to his Lord:

 أَنِّي مَسَّنِيَ الضُّرُّ‌ وَأَنتَ أَرْ‌حَمُ الرَّ‌احِمِينَ

Indeed, adversity has touched me, and you are the Most Merciful of the merciful ones! [21:83]

So it was said to him: Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 2/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and will publish as a series over the coming weeks. To read section one, click here. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee continued his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم عن اللغو معرضون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن من صفات المؤمنين المفلحين إعراضهم عن اللغو ، وأصل اللغو ما لا فائدة فيه من الأقوال والأفعال ، فيدخل فيه اللعب واللهو والهزل ، وما توجب المروءة تركه . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِ‌ضُونَ

And those who turn away from al-Laghw [23:3]

In this noble ayah, Allah mentioned that one of the characteristics of the successful believers is turning away from al-Laghw. And the root meaning of al-Laghw is that which contains no benefit – whether it be speech or actions. So this includes idle play, distractions, and idle joking, and whatever chivalry requires one to do without.

وقال ابن كثير عن اللغو معرضون [ 23 \ 3 ] أي : عن الباطل ، وهو يشمل [ ص: 307 ] الشرك كما قال بعضهم ، والمعاصي كما قاله آخرون ، وما لا فائدة فيه من الأقوال والأفعال اهـ منه . ـ

And ibn Kathir said: Continue reading

A Benefit of General Language in Surah al-Duhaa: Sheikh ibn ‘Uthaymeen

In part of his explanation of his own book of Usool al-Tafsir, sheikh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen mentioned the following point of benefit:

وقد يقال : إنه حذف المفعول من أجل العموم ؛ لأنه أحياناً يُحذف المفعول لإفادة التعميم ، واقرؤوا قول الله تعالى : { أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيمًا فَآوَىٰ * وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا فَهَدَىٰ * وَوَجَدَكَ عَائِلًا فَأَغْنَىٰ } [الضحى 6-8] ، يقول بعض المفسرين في هذه الآيات الثلاث : إنه حذف المفعول من أجل تناسب الآيات ، أي : رؤوسها ، وأن الأصل : <ألم يجدك يتيما فآواك ، ووجدك ضالاً فهدك ، ووجدك عائلاً فأغناك> ، ولكم الصواب أنه حذف المفعول لإفادة العموم ، فالرسول – عليه الصلاة والسلام – آواه اللع وآىى به ، فكان (ﷺ) ملجا لأمته يلجؤون إليه ، هاجروا من بلادهم إلى المدينة ؛ ليكونوا حول رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم – ، {وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا} فهداك وهدى بك أيضاً / كما قرر ذلك النبي – صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم – للأنصار حين قال لهم : كنتم ضلالا فهداكم الله بي . {وَوَجَدَكَ عَائِلًا فَأَغْنَىٰ} أي : أغناك وأغنى بك ، كما قال الرسول (ﷺ) للأنصار حين قال لهم : كنتم عالة فأغناكم الله بي . ـ

One might say that omitting the ism al-maf’ool [direct object] from a sentence is done because the meaning is general [i.e. the action is not limited in its effects to a single direct object], because sometimes the ism al-maf’ool is not mentioned in a sentence to convey a meaning of generality. Consider Allah’s statement:

أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيمًا فَآوَىٰ * وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا فَهَدَىٰ * وَوَجَدَكَ عَائِلًا فَأَغْنَىٰ

Did He not find you an orphan and granted refuge? * And He found you lost and guided * And He found you poor and made self-sufficient [93:6-8]

Some of the mufassiroon say that the omission of the ism al-maf’ool in these three ayaat is done so that the ayaat will match – i.e. match the first ayah [in terms of parallel structure]. According to this, the base meaning would be: Continue reading