Zakah al-Fitr in the Qur’an: Tafsir al-Baghawi

In the midst of surah al-‘Aalaa, Allah informs us:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ * وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّىٰ

He has certainly succeeded – he who tazakkaa * and mentions the name of his Lord and prays [87:14-15]

The word tazakkaa refers to purification, either purification of one’s self (such as in the related term tazkiyyah al-nafs) or purification of one’s wealth (such as in the related term zakah). In his commentary on these ayaat, the famous mufassir Abu Muhammad al-Husayn al-Baghawi wrote:

ـ ( قد أفلح من تزكى ) تطهر من الشرك وقال : لا إله إلا الله . هذا قول عطاء وعكرمة ، ورواية الوالبي وسعيد بن جبير عن ابن عباس وقال الحسن : من كان عمله زاكيا . ـ

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ

He has certainly succeeded – he who tazakkaa

who purifies himself from al-shirk and says laa ilaaha illallaah – there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. This was the explanation of ‘Ataa’ and ‘Ikrimah, as well as being relayed from ibn ‘Abbaas by way of al-Waalibi and Sa’eed ibn Jubayr.

al-Hasan al-Basri explained it by saying, “Whoever’s actions are pure.”

وقال آخرون : هو صدقة الفطر ، روي عن أبي سعيد الخدري في قوله : ” قد أفلح من تزكى ” قال : أعطى صدقة الفطر . ـ

Meanwhile others say that this is referring to the zakah al-fitr. It is relayed from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri regarding this ayah that he explained it by saying, “[He has certainly succeeded – he who] gives the zakah al-fitr.” Continue reading

Ibn Kathir on Zakah and Tazkiyyah al-Nafs

Allah says in surah Fussilat:

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ * الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ

Woe to the mushrikoon * those who do not give the zakah and who are disbelievers in the hereafter [41:6-7]

In part of his commentary on these ayaat, al-haafidh ibn Kathir wrote the following words:

ـ (وويل للمشركين) أي: دمار لهم وهلاك عليهم، (الذين لا يؤتون الزكاة) قال علي بن أبي طلحة، عن ابن عباس: يعني: الذين لا يشهدون أن لا إله إلا الله. وكذا قال عكرمة. ـ

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ

Woe to the mushrikoon

meaning: ruin and destruction for them

الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ

those who do not give the zakah

‘Ali ibn Abi Talhah transmitted that ibn ‘Abbaas said, “meaning, those who do not bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah”. And ‘Ikrimah said something similar.

وهذا كقوله تعالى: (قد أفلح من زكاها وقد خاب من دساها) [الشمس: 9، 10]، وكقوله: (قد أفلح من تزكى وذكر اسم ربه فصلى) [الأعلى: 14، 15]، وقوله (فقل هل لك إلى أن تزكى ) [النازعات: 18] والمراد بالزكاة هاهنا: طهارة النفس من الأخلاق الرذيلة، ومن أهم ذلك طهارة النفس من الشرك. وزكاة المال إنما سميت زكاة لأنها تطهره من الحرام، وتكون سببا لزيادته وبركته وكثرة نفعه، وتوفيقا إلى استعماله في الطاعات. ـ

This is like Allah’s statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا * وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

He has succeeded who purifies himself * and he has failed who corrupts it [91:9-10]

and like His statement: Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 3/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing it as a series. For a guide to the different sections, click here. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee continued his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم للزكاة فاعلون ، في المراد بالزكاة هنا وجهان من التفسير معروفان عند أهل العلم : أحدهما : أن المراد بها زكاة الأموال ، وعزاه ابن كثير للأكثرين . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُونَ

and those who carry out the zakaah [23:4]

There are two well-known opinions among the People of Knowledge regarding the intended meaning of the word “al-zakaah” here.

The first of them is that what is intended here is the zakaah of one’s wealth, and ibn Kathir attributed this opinion to the majority.

الثاني : أن المراد بالزكاة هنا : زكاة النفس أي : تطهيرها من الشرك ، والمعاصي بالإيمان بالله ، وطاعته وطاعة رسله عليهم الصلاة والسلام ، وعلى هذا فالمراد بالزكاة كالمراد بها في قوله قد أفلح من زكاها وقد خاب من دساها [ 91 \ 9 – 10 ] وقوله قد أفلح من تزكى الآية [ 87 \ 14 ] ، وقوله ولولا فضل الله عليكم ورحمته ما زكا منكم من أحد أبدا [ 24 \ 21 ] وقوله خيرا منه زكاة الآية [ 18 \ 81 ] وقوله وويل للمشركين الذين لا يؤتون الزكاة [ 41 \ 6 – 7 ] على أحد التفسيرين ، وقد يستدل لهذا القول الأخير بثلاث قرائن : ـ

The second is that the intended meaning of zakaah in this instance is the zakaah of one’s self – i.e. purifying one’s self from al-shirk and disobedience by having eemaan in Allah, obeying Him, and obeying His Messenger (ﷺ). So according to this position, the intended meaning of zakaah is like it’s intended meaning in Allah’s statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا * وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

He has succeeded who purifies it * And indeed he fails who corrupts his own self [91:9-10]

And His statement: Continue reading

Those who wish to hasten to affairs before their proper times: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Nisaa’:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوا أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً ۚ وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ۗ قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

Have you not seen those who were told, “Restrain your hands [from fighting] and establish prayer and give zakah”? But then when fighting was ordained for them, at once a party of them feared men as they fear Allah or with [even] greater fear. They said, “Our Lord, why have You decreed upon us fighting? If only You had postponed [it for] us for a short time.” Say, The enjoyment of this world is little, and the Hereafter is better for he who exercises taqwa. And injustice will not be done to you, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed].” [4:77]

In part of his commentary on this ayah in his well-known book of tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote:

كان المسلمون -إذ كانوا بمكة- مأمورين بالصلاة والزكاة أي: مواساة الفقراء، لا الزكاة المعروفة ذات النصب والشروط، فإنها لم تفرض إلا بالمدينة، ولم يؤمروا بجهاد الأعداء لعدة فوائد:ـ

When the Muslims were still in Mecca, they were commanded to perform the salaah and the zakah – meaning charity to the poor, not the commonly understand meaning of zakah with its specific allocations and conditions, for that was not obligated until they were in al-Madinah – and they were not commanded to perform jihaad against enemies for a number of beneficial reasons:

 منها: أن من حكمة الباري تعالى أن يشرع لعباده الشرائع على وجه لا يشق عليهم؛ ويبدأ بالأهم فالأهم، والأسهل فالأسهل. ـ

Among these reasons was the it was from the wisdom of the Originator that He legislated the divinely legislated laws for His slaves in a manner that would not cause undue harm to them, and He began with the most important thing and then the next most important thing, and with the easiest thing and then the next easiest. Continue reading

O you who believe, when you wish to privately consult with the Messenger… : Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah commands the believers in surah al-Mujaadilah by saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَاجَيْتُمُ الرَّ‌سُولَ فَقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَةً ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ‌ لَّكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ‌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ تَجِدُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ * أَأَشْفَقْتُمْ أَن تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَاتٍ ۚ فَإِذْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَتَابَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّـهَ وَرَ‌سُولَهُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ خَبِيرٌ‌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ

O you who have believed, when you [wish to] privately consult the Messenger, present before your consultation a charity. That is better for you and purer. But if you find not [the means] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. * Have you feared to present before your consultation charities? Then when you did not and Allah has forgiven you, then [at least] establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do. [58:12-13]

Commenting on this in his book of tafsir, imam al-Sa’di wrote:

يأمر تعالى المؤمنين بالصدقة، أمام مناجاة رسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم تأديبا لهم وتعليما، وتعظيما للرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإن هذا التعظيم، خير للمؤمنين وأطهر أي: بذلك يكثر خيركم وأجركم، وتحصل لكم الطهارة من الأدناس، التي من جملتها ترك احترام الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم والأدب معه بكثرة المناجاة التي لا ثمرة تحتها، فإنه إذا أمر بالصدقة بين يدي مناجاته صار هذا ميزانا لمن كان حريصا على الخير والعلم، فلا يبالي بالصدقة، ـ

Allah commanded the believers to give sadaqah (charity) before privately consulting His messenger (ﷺ) as an admonition to them and as an instruction. And it is a magnification of the prophet (ﷺ), for verily this magnification is better for the believers and more pure – meaning that through this they would accumulate a great deal of good and reward and achieve purity from the blemishes which ensue from leaving off revering the Messenger (ﷺ) and [leaving off] having good manners with him by engaging in excessive private consultations which bear no benefit. So when He commanded the giving of saqadah prior to privately consulting him, this became a measuring scale of whoever was eager for good and for ‘ilm, for the sadaqah would not bother him.

Continue reading

“And remember when We took a convenant from the Children of Israa’eel”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah mentions in surah al-Baqarah:

‏وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ‏‏

And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israa’eel, [enjoining upon them], “Do not worship except Allah, and behave well towards parents, and to relatives, orphans, and the needy. And speak good to mankind and establish the salaah and give zakah.” Then you turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing. [2:83]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di, in his well-known book of tafsir, wrote the following commentary on this ayah:

وهذه الشرائع من أصول الدين‏,‏ التي أمر الله بها في كل شريعة‏,‏ لاشتمالها على المصالح العامة‏,‏ في كل زمان ومكان‏,‏ فلا يدخلها نسخ‏,‏ كأصل الدين، ولهذا أمرنا بها في قوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شيئًا‏}‏ إلى آخر الآية‏.‏

And these are the Divine Laws from the foundation of the deen which Allah has ordained in every Divine Legislation (i.e. these commandments were unwaveringly present in the teachings of all of Allah’s prophets and messengers), due to their encompassing of widespread benefits in every time and place. So like the fundamentals of the religion, none of them are subject to abrogation, and so we have also been commanded with them in His statement:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا

Worship Allah and associate nothing with Him, and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbor, the neighbor farther away, the companion at your side, the traveler, and those whom your right hands possess. Indeed, Allah does not like those who are self-deluding and boastful. [4:36] Continue reading

The great blessing of being a guiding leader: Tafsir al-Sa’di

After mentioning the story of Ibrahim being thrown into the fire by his people, and his subsequent migration with Loot, Allah says in surah al-Anbiyaa’:

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نَافِلَةً ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا صَالِحِينَ * وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِ‌نَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَ‌اتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ

And We gave him Ishaaq and Ya’qoob in addition, and all [of them] We made righteous. And We made them leaders guiding by Our command. And We inspired to them the doing of good deeds, establishment of prayer, and giving of zakah; and they were worshippers of Us. [al-Qur’an 21:72-73]

Imam al-Sa’di, in his great book of tafsir, writes about these ayaat by saying:

{‏وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ‏}‏ حين اعتزل قومه ‏{‏إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ‏}‏ ابن إسحاق ‏{‏نَافِلَةً‏}‏ بعدما كبر، وكانت زوجته عاقرا، فبشرته الملائكة بإسحاق، ‏{‏وَمِنْ وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوبَ‏}‏ ويعقوب، هو إسرائيل، الذي كانت منه الأمة العظيمة، وإسماعيل بن إبراهيم، الذي كانت منه الأمة الفاضلة العربية، ومن ذريته، سيد الأولين والآخرين‏.‏ ‏{‏وَكُلَا‏}‏ من إبراهيم وإسحاق ويعقوب ‏{‏جَعَلْنَا صَالِحِينَ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ قائمين بحقوقه، وحقوق عباده، ومن صلاحهم، أنه جعلهم أئمة يهدون بأمره، وهذا من أكبر نعم الله على عبده أن يكون إماما يهتدي به المهتدون، ويمشي خلفه السالكون، وذلك لما صبروا، وكانوا بآيات الله يوقنون‏.‏

And We gave Him” when withdrew from his people “Ishaaq and Ya’qoob” the son of Ishaaq. “In addition” – i.e. after he had become old and his wife was barren, then the angels gave him glad tidings of Ishaaq “and after Ishaaq, Ya’qoob” [11:71]. And Ya’qoob is Israa’eel, from whom there was a great ummah. And there was also Ismaa’eel ibn Ibrahim, from whom there was a blessed Arab ummah, and from whose offspring was the sayyid of the first and the last.

And all of them” – Ibrahim and Ishaaq and Ya’qoobWe made righteous” – meaning: establishing and fulfilling His rights and the rights of His slaves. And because of their righteousness, He made them leaders guiding by His command. This is one of the greatest blessings of Allah upon a slave of His, that he would be a leader by whom the guided ones are guided, and the traversers of the path would follow in his footsteps. And that is because they exercised sabr and had yaqeen in the ayaat of Allah. Continue reading

“And mention in the Book, Ismaa’eel”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Throughout surah Maryam, Allah presents a number of portraits of some of those whom He has honored with revelation. On Ismaa’eel, the son of Ibrahim, Allah says the following:

وَاذْكُرْ‌ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَ‌سُولًا نَّبِيًّا  وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ‌ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَ‌بِّهِ مَرْ‌ضِيًّا

And mention in the Book, Ismaa’eel. Indeed, he was true to his promise, and he was a messenger and a prophet. And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakaah, and he was pleasing to his Lord. [19:54-55]

Imam ‘Abdur-Rahman al-Sa’di, in his book of tafsir, wrote the following in explanation of these ayaat:

أي‏:‏ واذكر في القرآن الكريم، هذا النبي العظيم، الذي خرج منه الشعب العربي، أفضل الشعوب وأجلها، الذي منهم سيد ولد آدم‏.‏

Meaning: and mention this great messenger in the Noble Qur’an, out of whom came the Arab people, the best people and era, from amongst whom is the sayyid (master) of the offspring of Adam [i.e. the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)].

‏{‏إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ لا يعد وعدا إلا وفى به‏.‏ وهذا شامل للوعد الذي يعقده مع الله أو مع العباد، ولهذا لما وعد من نفسه الصبر على ذبح أبيه ‏[‏له‏}‏ وقال‏:‏ ‏{‏سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ‏}‏ وفى بذلك ومكن أباه من الذبح، الذي هو أكبر مصيبة تصيب الإنسان، ثم وصفه بالرسالة والنبوة، التي ‏[‏هي‏}‏ أكبر منن الله على عبده، وأهلها من الطبقة العليا من الخلق‏.‏

Indeed, he was true to his promise” – meaning: he did not make a promise except that he fulfilled it. And this is inclusive of the promises which he joined into with Allah, or with the slaves (of Allah), and hence when he made the promise of himself to have sabr (patience, steadfastness, moral fortitude) in the face of his father’s [intention of] slaughtering him, and he said, “You will find me, if Allah wills, among the steadfast” [37:102]. And in that and allowing his father to carry out [his intention for] the slaughter, is the greatest of calamitous tests which has tested man. Then He describes him with risaalah (messengership) and nubuwwah (prophethood), which are the greatest bounties of Allah upon his slaves, and those who possess it are among the highest rank of the creation.

‏{‏وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ كان مقيما لأمر الله على أهله، فيأمرهم بالصلاة المتضمنة للإخلاص للمعبود، وبالزكاة المتضمنة للإحسان إلى العبيد، فكمل نفسه، وكمل غيره، وخصوصا أخص الناس عنده وهم أهله، لأنهم أحق بدعوته من غيرهم‏.‏ ‏{‏وَكَانَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا‏}‏ وذلك بسبب امتثاله لمراضي ربه واجتهاده فيما يرضيه، ارتضاه الله وجعله من خواص عباده وأوليائه المقربين، فرضي الله عنه، ورضي ‏[‏هو‏}‏ عن ربه‏.‏

And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakaah” – meaning: he was established the command of Allah upon his people. So he commanded them with the salaah which includes ikhlaas (sincerity) to the One who is worshiped, and with zakaah which includes ihsaan (excellent behavior) to the slaves (of Allah), so it perfects oneself, and it perfects others. And the specifically those with him are specified, and they are his people, because they have more right to his da’wah than others.

And he was pleasing to his Lord”  and that is because of his adherence to the pleasure of his Lord and striving in what is pleasing to Him. Allah was pleased with him and made him among those of His distinguished slaves and His close awliyaa’, so Allah was pleased with him and he was pleased with his Lord.

  [Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman]

See also: Two Qur’anic proofs that Ismaa’eel is the sacrificed son: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: The Definition of Sabr: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: The Du’a of Ibrahim for Mecca and his Descendants: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: The great blessing of being a guiding leader: Tafsir al-Sa’di

‘Umar and valuing human resources over material resources

al-Haakim collects in his book of hadeeth, al-Mustadrak ‘alaa Saheehayn:

حدثنا أبو بكر بن إسحاق أنا بشر بن موسى ثنا عبد الله بن يزيد المقري ثنا حيوة بن شريح أخبرني أبو صخر أن زيد بن أسلم حدثه عن أبيه عن عمر رضي الله عنه أنه قال لأصحابه تمنوا فقال بعضهم أتمنى لو أن هذه الدار مملوءة ذهبا أنفقه في سبيل الله وأتصدق وقال رجل أتمنى لو أنها مملوءة زبرجدا وجوهرا فأنفقه في سبيل الله وأتصدق ثم قال عمر تمنوا فقالوا ما ندري يا أمير المؤمنين فقال عمر أتمنى لو أنها مملوءة رجالا مثل أبي عبيدة بن الجراح ومعاذ بن جبل وسالم مولى أبي حذيفة وحذيفة بن اليمان.

‘Umar said to his companions, “Make a wish”. So one of them said, “I wish that this house would be filled with gold so that I could spend it in the path of Allah and give in charity.” And another man said, “I wish that it would be filled with precious stones so that I could spend it in the path of Allah and give in charity.”

Then ‘Umar [again] said, “Make a wish”. So they said, “We don’t know, O Commander of the Believers.”

So ‘Umar said, “I wish that this (house) would be filled with men the likes of Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarraah, Mu’adh ibn Jabal, Saalim the mawla of Abu Hudhaifah, and Hudhaifah ibn al-Yamaan.”

[al-Mustadrak ‘alaa Saheehayn #5005, 3/252; Ismaa’eel al-Asbahaani also recorded the same wording through a different chain in his book, Siyaar al-Salaf al-Saaliheen 2/650; Ibn Sa’d (3/220), Abu Na’eem (Hilyah 1/102), and Ibn Abi al-Dunya (1/89) recorded similar incidents in which ‘Umar only mentioned Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarraah]

Imam al-Bukhari records a similar hadeeth in his book of history, al-Taareekh al-Awsat, with the following addition:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْمَدِينِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ الْمَخْزُومِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، حَدَّثَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، وَزَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، يَوْمًا، ” تَمَنَّوْا ! ” فَجَعَلُوا يَتَمَنَّوْنُ، فقَالُوا: تَمَنَّ أَنْتَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، قَالَ: ” أَتَمَنَّى أَنْ يَكُونَ مِثْلُ هَذِهِ الدَّارِ رِجَالا مِثْلَ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ بْنِ الْجَرَّاحِ ”
فَقَالَ: مَا تَمَنَّيْنَا بَعْدَ هَذَا قَالَ عُمَرُ: لَكِنِّي أَتَمَنَّى أَنْ يَكُونَ مِلْءُ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ رِجَالا، مِثْلَ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ بْنِ الْجَرَّاحِ، وَمُعَاذِ بْنِ جَبَلٍ، وَحُذَيْفَةَ بْنِ الْيَمَانِ، فَأَسْتَعْمِلَهُمْ فِي طَاعَةِ اللَّهِ.
قَالَ: ثُمَّ بَعَثَ بِمَالٍ إِلَى حُذَيْفَةَ قَالَ: انْظُرْ مَا يَصْنَعُ قَالَ: فَلَمَّا أَتَاهُ قَسَمَهُ ثُمَّ بَعَثَ بِمَالٍ إِلَى مُعَاذِ بْنِ جَبَلٍ فَقَسَمَهُ، ثُمَّ بَعَثَ بِمَالٍ يَعْنِي إِلَى أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ قَالَ: انْظُرْ مَا يَصْنَعُ، فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: قَدْ قُلْتُ لَكُمْ أَوْ كَمَا قَالَ.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab said on day, “Make a wish,” so they made wishes. Then they said, “Now you make a wish, O Commander of the Believers.” He said, “I wish to have a house like this (full) of men the likes of Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarraah.”

So they said, “That is what we would have wished for after this [i.e. after wishing to gold and fine stones to spend in the cause of Allah].”

‘Umar replied, “No, rather I wish that the wealth of this house would be men, the likes of Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarraah, Mu’adh ibn Jabal, and Hudhaifah ibn al-Yamaan, so that I could employ them in obedient service to Allah.”

So ‘Umar sent some money to Hudhaifah and said [to his messenger], “Look to see what he does with it.” So when it reached him, he distributed it [in charity]. Then he sent some money to Mu’adh bin Jabal, and he also distributed it [in charity]. Then he sent some money to Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarraah and said [to his messenger], “Look to see what he does with it.” [And he also distributed it in charity]. So ‘Umar said to his companions, “Is it as I told you, or as you said?”

[al-Taareekh al-Awsat 173]

Each one of the five pillars expiates sins: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

Abu’l-Faraj ibn Rajab al-Hanbali began writing about the occasion of the hujjaaj (pilgrims) returning from Hajj by bringing forth the following point:

في الصحيحين عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه ، عن النبي ﷺ ، قال : مَنْ حَجَّ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ، فَلَمْ يَرْفُثْ وَلَمْ يَفْسُقْ، رَجَعَ كَمَا وَلَدَتْهُ أُمُّهُ. مباني الإسلام الخمس ؛ كل واحدٍ منها يُكفِّرُ الذنوب والخطايا ويَهدِمُها، ولا إله إلّا الله لا تُبقي ذنباً ولا يسبِقُها عَمَلٌ ؛ والصلوات الخمس ؛ والجمعة إلى الجمعة ، ورمضان إلى رمضان مُكفِّرات لما بينهن ما اجتنبت الكبائر ؛ والصدقة تطفئ الجطيئة كما يطفئ الماء النار ؛ والحج الذي لا رفث فيه ولا فسوق ، يرجع صاحبه من ذنوبه كيوم ولدته أمه

In the Saheehayn (al-Bukhari and Muslim) from Abu Hurayrah (radiAllaahu ‘anhu) that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Whoever performs Hajj to this House, and does not have sexual relations nor commit any disobedience, will return like the day his mother bore him“.

The pillars of Islam are five; each one of them expiates the sins and bad deeds and and abolishes them. And La ilaaha illallaah (There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah) does not leave any sins remains nor the actions which preceded it. And the five (daily) prayers, and from one jumu’ah to the next, and from one Ramadan to the next are expiators of what occurs between them for the one who avoids the major sins. And charity extinguishes bad deeds just as water extinguishes fire. And the Hajj in which one does not have sexual relations nor commit disobedience, then its doer will return free of sin like the day on which his mother bore him.

[Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif pg. 124]

See also: Avoid the sins which prevent forgiveness and the acceptance of du’a: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: The relationship between al-Tawheed and al-istighfaar: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: “Whoever stands Ramadan with eemaan and ihtisaab, his previous sins will be forgiven”: Sharh al-Nawawi