A Refutation of Blaming Sins on Qadr: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-An’aam:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا ۗ قُلْ هَلْ عِندَكُم مِّنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا ۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا تَخْرُصُونَ * قُلْ فَلِلَّهِ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ ۖ فَلَوْ شَاءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Those who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: “If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will).” Likewise belied those who were before them, till they tasted of Our Wrath. Say: “Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but assumption and you do nothing but lie.” * Say: “With Allah is the perfect proof and argument. Had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.” [6:148-149]

Commenting on this in his famous book of tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote:

هذا إخبار من الله أن المشركين سيحتجون على شركهم وتحريمهم ما أحل الله، بالقضاء والقدر، ويجعلون مشيئة الله الشاملة لكل شيء من الخير والشر حجة لهم في دفع اللوم عنهم. وقد قالوا ما أخبر الله أنهم سيقولونه، كما قال في الآية الأخرى: { وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ } الآية. ـ

This is Allah informing us that the mushrikoon will use al-Qadaa and al-Qadr [Allah’s Divine Decree and Pre-ordainment] to argue in support of their shirk and their declaring what Allah has made permissible impermissible, and that they will take Allah’s will – which encompasses everything, both good and evil – as an argument in their favor for repelling any blame against them. And they did in fact say what Allah informed us that they would say, just as He said in another ayah:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَيْءٍ نَّحْنُ وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّ‌مْنَا مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ فَهَلْ عَلَى الرُّ‌سُلِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ

And those who associate others with Allah say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have worshipped anything other than Him, neither we nor our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything through other than Him.” Thus did those do before them. So is there upon the messengers except [the duty of] clear notification? [16:35]

فأخبر تعالى أن هذة الحجة، لم تزل الأمم المكذبة تدفع بها عنهم دعوة الرسل، ويحتجون بها، فلم تجد فيهم شيئا ولم تنفعهم، فلم يزل هذا دأبهم حتى أهكلهم الله، وأذاقهم بأسه. ـ

So Allah informed us that the nations of falsehood still use this argument to repel the call of the messengers from them and they argue using this. But it does not do anything for them nor does it benefit them, so this perseverance of theirs will continue until Allah destroys them and makes them taste His punishment.

فلو كانت حجة صحيحة، لدفعت عنهم العقاب، ولما أحل الله بهم العذاب، لأنه لا يحل بأسه إلا بمن استحقه، فعلم أنها حجة فاسدة، وشبهة كاسدة، من عدة أوجه: ـ

For if this line of argument were true, then it would repel punishment from them and Allah would not allow punishment to happen to them because He does not allow punishment to happen except to those who deserve it. So it is known that this argumentation is false and that it is a doubt which falls flat for a number of reasons: Continue reading

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The examples and comparisons in the Qur’an: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee brought the following discussion regarding the examples and comparisons that Allah uses in the Qur’an during his tafsir of surah Ibrahim:

قوله تعالى : مثل الذين كفروا بربهم أعمالهم كرماد اشتدت به الريح في يوم عاصف الآية . ـ

Allah’s statement:

مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا بِرَ‌بِّهِمْ ۖ أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَرَ‌مَادٍ اشْتَدَّتْ بِهِ الرِّ‌يحُ فِي يَوْمٍ عَاصِفٍ ۖ لَّا يَقْدِرُ‌ونَ مِمَّا كَسَبُوا عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الضَّلَالُ الْبَعِيدُ

The example of those who disbelieve in their Lord: their deeds are like ashes which the wind blows forcefully on a stormy day; they have no power over that which they have earned. That is what is extreme error. [14:18]

ضرب الله تعالى لأعمال الكفار مثلا في هذه الآية الكريمة برماد اشتدت به الرياح في يوم عاصف ، أي شديد الريح ، فإن تلك الريح الشديدة العاصفة تطير ذلك الرماد ولم تبق له أثرا ، فكذلك أعمال الكفار كصلات الأرحام ، وقرى الضيف ، والتنفيس عن المكروب ، وبر الوالدين ، ونحو ذلك يبطلها الكفر ويذهبها ، كما تطير تلك الريح ذلك الرماد . ـ

In this noble ayah Allah strikes a comparison between the deeds of the disbelievers and ashes which the wind blows forcefully on a stormy day, i.e. a severe wind. For indeed that severe stormy wind causes those ashes to fly and does not leave any trace of them. So likewise and the deeds of the disbelievers, such as maintaining the ties of kinship, hospitality towards guests, aiding the one in distress, being dutiful to one’s parents, and the likes of that are all invalidated and done away with by kufr (disbelief), just as that wind causes those ashes to fly away.

وضرب أمثالا أخر في آيات أخر لأعمال الكفار بهذا المعنى ، كقوله : والذين كفروا أعمالهم كسراب بقيعة يحسبه الظمآن ماء حتى إذا جاءه لم يجده شيئا [ 24 \ 39 ] ، وقوله : مثل ما ينفقون في هذه الحياة الدنيا كمثل ريح فيها صر أصابت حرث قوم ظلموا [ ص: 246 ] أنفسهم فأهلكته الآية [ 3 \ 117 ] ، وقوله : ياأيها الذين آمنوا لا تبطلوا صدقاتكم بالمن والأذى كالذي ينفق ماله رئاء الناس ولا يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر فمثله كمثل صفوان عليه تراب فأصابه وابل فتركه صلدا لا يقدرون على شيء مما كسبوا والله لا يهدي القوم الكافرين [ 2 \ 264 ] ، وقوله : وقدمنا إلى ما عملوا من عمل فجعلناه هباء منثورا [ 25 \ 23 ] ، إلى غير ذلك من الآيات . ـ

And Allah struck other comparisons of this meaning for the deeds of the disbelievers in other ayaat, such as His statement: Continue reading

The Appropriate Places for Gentleness and for Harshness: Imam al-Sa’di

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di made the following beneficial clarification in part of his thematic tafsir:

فائدة: من الحكمة استعمال اللين في معاشرة المؤمنين، وفي مقام الدعوة للكافرين، كما قال تعالى: { فَبِمَا رَ‌حْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّـهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ }  [ آل عمران: 159 ]. وقال: { فَقُولَا لَهُ قَوْلًا لَّيِّنًا لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ‌ أَوْ يَخْشَىٰ }  [ طه: 44 ]  . فأمر باللين في هذه المواضع، وذكر ما يترتب عليه من المصالح . ـ

A point of benefit: It is part of hikmah (wisdom) to employ gentleness in interactions with the believers and in situations of giving da’wah to the disbelievers, just as Allah said:

فَبِمَا رَ‌حْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّـهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ

And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you [3:159]

And He said:

فَقُولَا لَهُ قَوْلًا لَّيِّنًا لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ‌ أَوْ يَخْشَىٰ

And speak to him [i.e. Fir’awn] gently, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear Allah. [20:44]

So He commanded having gentleness in these places, and He mentioned some of the benefits that follow from that.

 كما أن من الحكمة استعمال الغلظة في موضعها. قال تعالى: { يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ‌ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ } [ التحريم: 9 ] ؛ لأن المقام هنا مقام لا تفيد فيه الدعوة، بل قد تعين فيه القتال ، فالغلظة فيه من تمام القتال . ـ

And likewise it is part of hikmah for employ harshness in its proper place. Allah said: Continue reading

Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

The book Al-Tafsir al-Muyassar was written by a group of scholars under the direction of sheikh Saalih Aal al-Sheikh, Minister of Islamic Affairs for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It was designed to be a simple and easy-to-understand tafsir according to the understanding of the salaf. What follows is its brief tafsir of surah al-Fatihah and translation:

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ الرَّ‌حِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, al-Rahman al-Raheem (1)

سورة الفاتحة سميت هذه السورة بالفاتحة؛ لأنه يفتتح بها القرآن العظيم، وتسمى المثاني؛ لأنها تقرأ في كل ركعة، ولها أسماء أخر. ـ

Surah al-Fatihah – This surah is called al-Fatihah [the Opening] because it is what the magnificent Qur’an opens with. And it is called al-Mathaani [the oft-repeated] because it is recited in every unit of prayer. And it also has other names.

أبتدئ قراءة القرآن باسم الله مستعينا به . ـ

One begins reciting the Qur’an with the name of Allah, seeking aid in Him.

ـ {اللهِ} علم على الرب- تبارك وتعالى- المعبود بحق دون سواه، وهو أخص أسماء الله تعالى، ولا يسمى به غيره سبحانه. ـ

“Allah” is a designation indicating the Rabb – blessed and exalted is He – , the rightful object of worship to the exclusion of any others. And this is the most exclusive of Allah’s names, and none other than Him are called by it.

ـ {الرَّحْمَنِ} ذي الرحمة العامة الذي وسعت رحمته جميع الخلق . ـ

al-Rahman” is the possessor of a general rahmah [mercy], the One whose rahmah extends to all of the creation.

ـ {الرَّحِيمِ} بالمؤمنين، وهما اسمان من أسمائه تعالى، يتضمنان إثبات صفة الرحمة لله تعالى كما يليق بجلاله. ـ

al-Raheem” [the especially merciful] to the believers. And these are two of His names, both of which include an affirmation of Allah’s attribute of al-Rahmah as is befitting of His majesty. Continue reading

Does the Qur’an use metaphorical language? – Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following discussion in part of his tafsir of surah al-Kahf:

قوله تعالى : فوجدا فيها جدارا يريد أن ينقض فأقامه

Allah’s statement:

فَوَجَدَا فِيهَا جِدَارً‌ا يُرِ‌يدُ أَن يَنقَضَّ فَأَقَامَهُ

Then they found therein a wall that wanted to collapse, so he (al-Khadr) set it up straight [18:77]

، هذه الآية الكريمة من أكبر الأدلة التي يستدل بها القائلون : بأن المجاز في القرآن زاعمين أن إرادة الجدار الانقضاض لا يمكن أن تكون حقيقة ، وإنما هي مجاز ، وقد دلت آيات من كتاب الله على أنه لا مانع من كون إرادة الجدار حقيقة ; لأن الله تعالى يعلم للجمادات إرادات وأفعالا وأقوالا لا يدركها الخلق كما صرح تعالى بأنه يعلم من ذلك ما لا يعلمه خلقه في قوله جل وعلا : وإن من شيء إلا يسبح بحمده ولكن لا تفقهون تسبيحهم [ 17 \ 44 ] ، فصرح بأننا لا نفقه تسبيحهم ، وتسبيحهم واقع عن إرادة لهم يعلمها هو جل وعلا ونحن لا نعلمها ، وأمثال ذلك كثيرة في القرآن والسنة . ـ

This noble ayah is one of the greatest evidences employed by those who say that there is metaphorical language in the Qur’an, asserting that is it not possible to take the will of the wall to collapse literally and that it is only figurative. But many ayaat from the Book of Allah have demonstrated that there is nothing preventing the wall’s will from being taken literally, for Allah knows the will, actions and statements of inanimate objects which created beings do not perceive, as He clarified the fact that He knows what His creation does not know, according to His statement:

وَإِن مِّن شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ

And there is not a thing except that it exalts [Allah] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting [17:44]

So He clarified that we do not understand their way of making exaltation, and that their exaltation is real according to a will of theirs which Allah knows but we do not know. And the likes of that are numerous in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Continue reading

The Story of Qarun: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In his tafsir of surah al-Qasas, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following explanation regarding the story of Qarun (28:76-82):

ـ [‏76ـ82‏]‏ ‏{‏ إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى فَبَغَى عَلَيْهِمْ‏ }‏ إلى آخر القصة . يخبر تعالى عن حالة قارون وما ‏[‏فعل‏}‏ وفُعِلَ به ونُصِحَ ووُعِظَ، فقال‏:‏ ‏{‏إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى‏}‏ أي‏:‏ من بني إسرائيل، الذين فُضِّلوا على العالمين، وفاقوهم في زمانهم، وامتن اللّه عليهم بما امتن به، فكانت حالهم مناسبة للاستقامة، ولكن قارون هذا، بغى على قومه وطغى، بما أوتيه من الأموال العظيمة المطغية ‏{‏وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ كنوز الأموال شيئا كثيرا، ‏{‏مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ ‏[‏أُولِي الْقُوَّةِ‏}‏ والعصبة‏}‏، من العشرة إلى التسعة إلى السبعة، ونحو ذلك‏.‏ أي‏:‏ حتى أن مفاتح خزائن أمواله لتثقل الجماعة القوية عن حملها، هذه المفاتيح، فما ظنك بالخزائن‏؟‏ ‏{‏إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ قَوْمُهُ‏}‏ ناصحين له محذرين له عن الطغيان‏:‏ ‏{‏لَا تَفْرَحْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِينَ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ لا تفرح بهذه الدنيا العظيمة، وتفتخر بها، وتلهيك عن الآخرة، فإن اللّه لا يحب الفرحين بها، المنكبين على محبتها‏.‏ ـ

إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى فَبَغَى عَلَيْهِمْ‏

Indeed, Qarun was from the people of Moses, but he tyrannized them… (28:76)

until the end of the story [28:82]. Allah informs us of the condition of Qarun, what he did, what was done to him, and what he was advised and admonished with. So He said:

إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى‏

Indeed, Qarun was from the people of Moses (28:76)

– meaning: from Banu Israa’eel, those who had been favored over all creation, and they surpassed others in their time, and Allah blessed with what He blessed them with. So it was befitting that their condition would be uprightness, however this Qarun tyrannized his people and wronged them with what he had been given of great tyrannical wealth.

وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ

And We gave him of treasures… (28:76)

– i.e.: treasures meaning a great amount of wealth

مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ أُولِي الْقُوَّةِ

…whose keys would burden a band of strong men (28:76)

and al-‘usbah (a band) is anywhere from ten to nine to seven [of something in number], or the likes of that. Meaning: It was to the extent that the keys to the treasures to the wealth weighed heavily on the group of strong men carrying them. These were (only) the keys, so then what do you think about the treasures?!

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ قَوْمُهُ

thereupon his people said to him… (28:76)

offering him sincere advice and warning him of this transgression

لَا تَفْرَ‌حْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِ‌حِينَ

…”Do not exult. Indeed, Allah does not like the exultant.” (28:76)

– meaning: do not revel in this magnificent worldly life or boast over it or let it distract you from the hereafter, for indeed Allah does not love those who exult in it nor those who are devoted to its love. Continue reading

The Universal Messenger: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote in his well-known book of tafsir:

قوله تعالى : وما أرسلنا من رسول إلا بلسان قومه ليبين لهم فيضل الله من يشاء . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَمَا أَرْ‌سَلْنَا مِن رَّ‌سُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ ۖ فَيُضِلُّ اللَّـهُ مَن يَشَاءُ

And We did not send any messenger except [speaking] in the language of his people to state clearly for them, and Allah sends astray [thereby] whom He wills [14:4]

بين الله تعالى في هذه الآية الكريمة أنه لم يرسل رسولا إلا بلغة قومه ; لأنه لم يرسل رسولا إلا إلى قومه دون غيرهم ، ولكنه بين في مواضع أخر أن نبينا صلى الله عليه وسلم أرسل إلى جميع الخلائق دون اختصاص بقومه ولا بغيرهم ، كقوله تعالى : قل ياأيها الناس إني رسول الله إليكم جميعا [ 7 \ 158 ] ، وقوله : تبارك الذي نزل الفرقان على عبده ليكون للعالمين نذيرا [ 25 \ 1 ] ، وقوله : وما أرسلناك إلا كافة للناس الآية [ 34 \ 28 ] إلى غير ذلك من الآيات الدالة على عموم رسالته لأهل كل لسان ، فهو صلى الله عليه وسلم يجب عليه إبلاغ أهل كل لسان ، ـ

In this noble ayah Allah clarified that He did not send any messenger except with the language of his people, for He did not send any messenger except to his own people to the exclusion of any others. However, He also clarified elsewhere that our Prophet (ﷺ) was sent to all of the created beings rather than being exclusively for his people and not to others. For instance, His statement:

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَ‌سُولُ اللَّـهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

Say, [O Muhammad], “O mankind, indeed I am the Messenger of Allah to you all” [7:158]

And His statement: Continue reading

“Taking the Qur’an according to its apparent meanings”: Ibn Taymiyah

In the introduction to the the section on tafsir in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa ibn Taymiyah, Ibn Taymiyah spoke about an issue concerning the correct interpretation of the Names and Attributes of Allah by writing:

قال شيخ الإسلام قدس الله روحه فصل وأما سؤاله عن : ” إجراء القرآن على ظاهره ” فإنه إذا آمن بما وصف الله به نفسه ووصفه به رسوله من غير تحريف ولا تكييف فقد اتبع سبيل المؤمنين . ـ

Sheikh al-Islaam – may Allah sanctify his soul – spoke regarding a question concerning ‘taking the Qur’an according to its apparent meanings [in regards to Allah’s Names and Attributes]’: So verily if one believes in that with which Allah described Himself and that with which His messenger described Him, without any distortion or asking ‘how?’, then he has followed the way of the believers.

ولفظ ” الظاهر ” في عرف المتأخرين قد صار فيه اشتراك فإن أراد بإجرائه على الظاهر الذي هو من خصائص المخلوقين حتى يشبه الله بخلقه فهذا ضال ; بل يجب القطع بأن الله ليس كمثله شيء لا في ذاته ولا في صفاته ولا في أفعاله . فقد قال ابن عباس : ليس في الدنيا مما في الجنة إلا الأسماء . يعني أن موعود الله في الجنة من الذهب والحرير والخمر واللبن تخالف حقائقه حقائق هذه الأمور الموجودة في الدنيا ; فالله تعالى أبعد عن مشابهة مخلوقاته بما لا يدركه العباد [ ص: 380 ] ليست حقيقته كحقيقة شيء منها . ـ

And the phrase ‘what is apparent’ according to the understanding of the latter-day people has come to imply commonality [regarding Names and Attributes]. For by ‘taking it at its apparent meanings’, they intend that which is from the specific traits of the created beings, to the extent that they liken Allah to His creation – and this is misguidance. On the contrary, there must be a clear distinction because there is nothing like Allah – not regarding His Being nor regarding His Attributes nor regarding His actions. Ibn ‘Abbaas has said, “Nothing of the dunya is the likes of what is in al-Jannah except in regards to their names” – meaning that the realities of what Allah has promised in al-Jannah of gold, silk, wine and milk differ from the realities of these things as they are in this dunya. So Allah is further removed from resembling His created beings by a distance which his servants cannot even grasp – His true reality is not like the reality of anything of this dunya. Continue reading

Benefits from the opening of Surah al-Layl: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di mentions the following point of benefit in his book of thematic tafsir:

فائدة: قوله تعالى: {  فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَىٰ وَاتَّقَىٰ * وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَىٰ * فَسَنُيَسِّرُ‌هُ لِلْيُسْرَ‌ىٰ } [ الليل: الآيات 5 – 7 ]. جمعت السعادة وجميع الأسباب التي تنال بها السعادة، وهي ثلاثة أشياء: فعل المأمور، واجتناب المحظور، وتصديق خبر الله ورسوله، فهذه الثلاثة يدخل فيها الدين كله، وذلك أن قوله: ( أَعْطَى ) أي: جميع ما أمر به من قول وعمل ونية، ( وَاتَّقَى ): جميع ما نهي عنه من كفر وفسوق وعصيان. ـ

A point of benefit: Allah’s statement:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَىٰ وَاتَّقَىٰ * وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَىٰ * فَسَنُيَسِّرُ‌هُ لِلْيُسْرَ‌ىٰ

As for he who gives and exercises taqwa * And believes in the best [reward], * We will ease him toward ease. [92:5-7]

This statement gathers ultimate joy and all of the causes which lead to ultimate joy, and these are three things: 1) performing the commands, 2) avoiding the unlawful things, and 3) affirming the information of Allah and His messenger. So the entire deen is included in these three things, and that is His statement:

أَعْطَىٰ

he who gives…” – meaning all of what you have been commanded of speech, actions and intentions,

وَاتَّقَىٰ

… and exercises taqwa” regarding all of what you have been prohibited for you of kufr, sin and disobedience. Continue reading