I will mislead them all, except Your chosen servants: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah informs us in surah al-Hijr of the story of Iblees, and that after Allah had granted his request for a period of respite, Iblees said:

قَالَ رَ‌بِّ بِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأُزَيِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ وَلَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ * إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ

[Iblees] said, “My Lord, because You have put me in error, I will surely make [disobedience] attractive to them on earth, and I will mislead them all * Except, among them, Your chosen servants.” [15:39-40]

Commenting on the latter ayah in his book of tafsir, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

ذكر تعالى في هذه الآية الكريمة أن الشيطان لما أوعد بأنه سيضل أكثر بني آدم ، استثنى من ذلك عباد الله المخلصين ، معترفا بأنه لا قدرة له على إضلالهم ، ونظيره قوله في ص أيضا قال فبعزتك لأغوينهم أجمعين إلا عبادك منهم المخلصين [ 38 \ 82 – 83 ] وعباد الله المخلصون هم المرادون بالاستثناء في قوله في بني إسرائيل لأحتنكن ذريته إلا قليلا [ 17 \ 62 ] وقوله في سبأ ولقد صدق عليهم إبليس ظنه فاتبعوه إلا فريقا من المؤمنين [ 34 \ 20 ] وهم الذين احترز منهم بقوله ولا تجد أكثرهم شاكرين [ 7 \ 17 ] . ـ

In this noble ayah Allah mentioned that when the shaytaan threatened that he would misguide most of the children of Adam he made an exception therein for the chosen servants of Allah, recognizing that he had no ability to misguide them. And the counterpart of that is his statement in surah Saad; he also said:

فَبِعِزَّتِكَ لَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ * إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ

By Your might, I will surely mislead them all * Except, among them, Your chosen servants [38:82-83]

And the chosen servants of Allah are the ones intended by the exception which comes in his statement in surah Banu Israa’eel: Continue reading

“Work, O family of Dawood, in gratitude”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In surah Saba’, Allaah سبحانه وتعالى recounts some of the great blessings and favors which he conferred upon His prophet Dawood (عليه السلام) and his family. After describing the amazing blessings upon this family, Allaah then commands:

اعْمَلُوا آلَ دَاوُودَ شُكْرً‌ا ۚ وَقَلِيلٌ مِّنْ عِبَادِيَ الشَّكُورُ‌

“Work, O family of Dawood, in gratitude.” And few of My servants are grateful.

[Surah Saba’ 34:13]

Imam ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Naasir al-Sa’di, in his book of tafsir writes the following in exegesis on this statement, saying:

فلما ذكر منته عليهم‏,‏ أمرهم بشكرها فقال‏:‏ ‏{‏اعْمَلُوا آلَ دَاوُدَ‏}‏ وهم داود‏,‏ وأولاده‏,‏ وأهله‏,‏ لأن المنة على الجميع‏,‏ وكثير من هذه المصالح عائد لكلهم‏.‏ ‏{‏شُكْرًا‏}‏ للّه على ما أعطاهم‏,‏ ومقابلة لما أولاهم‏.‏ ‏{‏وَقَلِيلٌ مِنْ عِبَادِيَ الشَّكُورُ‏}‏ فأكثرهم‏,‏ لم يشكروا اللّه تعالى على ما أولاهم من نعمه‏,‏ ودفع عنهم من النقم‏.‏

So when Allaah mentioned the blessings upon them, He commanded them with shukr (gratitude) for them, saying, “Work, O family of Dawood” – and they are Dawood and his children and his women, because the blessings were upon all of them, and many of these benefits had their effects on all of them. “In gratitude” to Allaah the Exalted who granted them, and as a return for His protective care over them. “And few of My servants are grateful” so most of them are not grateful to Allah the Exalted for His conferring of His blessings upon them, or for His protecting them from harms.

والشكر‏:‏ اعتراف القلب بمنة اللّه تعالى‏,‏ وتلقيها افتقارا إليها‏,‏ وصرفها في طاعة اللّه تعالى‏,‏ وصونها عن صرفها في المعصية‏.‏

And al-Shukr (gratitude) is: the heart’s recognition of the blessings of Allaah, realizing one’s desperate need of them, and using them in the obedience of Allaah, and restraining one’s self from using them in disobedience. Continue reading

Surely either we or you are upon right guidance, or in clear error

Allah سبحانه وتعالى instructs His messenger (ﷺ) to address the disbelievers when He says in surah Saba’:

قُلْ مَن يَرْ‌زُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْ‌ضِ ۖ قُلِ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَإِنَّا أَوْ إِيَّاكُمْ لَعَلَىٰ هُدًى أَوْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

Say, “Who provides for you from the heavens and the earth?” Say, “Allah. And surely, either we or you are upon right guidance, or in clear error.” [34:24]

Imam al-Sa’di writes about this ayah in his book of tafsir, saying:

يأمر تعالى‏,‏ نبيه محمدا ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ أن يقول لمن أشرك باللّه ويسأله عن حجة شركه‏:‏ ‏{‏مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ‏}‏ فإنهم لا بد أن يقروا أنه اللّه، ولئن لم يقروا فـ ‏{‏قُلِ اللَّهُ‏}‏ فإنك لا تجد من يدفع هذا القول، فإذا تبين أن اللّه وحده الذي يرزقكم من السماوات والأرض‏,‏ وينزل ‏لكم‏‏ المطر‏,‏ وينبت لكم النبات‏,‏ ويفجر لكم الأنهار‏,‏ ويطلع لكم من ثمار الأشجار‏,‏ وجعل لكم الحيوانات جميعها‏,‏ لنفعكم ورزقكم‏,‏ فلم تعبدون معه من لا يرزقكم شيئا‏,‏ ولا يفيدكم نفعا‏؟‏‏.‏

He commands His prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) to say to those who commit shirk of Allah and to ask them for a proof of their skirk: “Say, ‘Who provides for you from the heavens and the earth?’” for they should surely admit that it is definitely Allah, and if they do not admit it, then “Say, ‘Allah’” for certainly you will not find anyone who can refute this statement. So when you clarify that Allah alone provides for you from the heavens and the earth, and sends rain down for you, and grows your plants for you, and causes you rivers to burst forth for you, and brings fruits from the trees for you, and made all of the animals for you, in order to benefit you and provide for you, and then you worship others alongside him who neither provide anything for you, nor benefit you in any way?

وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَإِنَّا أَوْ إِيَّاكُمْ لَعَلَى هُدًى أَوْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ إحدى الطائفتين منا ومنكم‏,‏ على الهدى‏,‏ مستعلية عليه‏,‏ أو في ضلال مبين، منغمرة فيه، وهذا الكلام يقوله من تبين له الحق‏,‏ واتضح له الصواب‏,‏ وجزم بالحق الذي هو عليه‏,‏ وبطلان ما عليه خصمه‏.‏

And His statement, “Surely, either we or you are upon right guidance, or in clear error” – meaning: one of the two parties, either us or you, is upon guidance, possessing it, of in clear error, completely engulfed in it, and this speech that you say to them is a clarification of the truth, and explanation of the right way, and an assertion of the truth which you are upon and the falsehood of your disputant.

أي‏:‏ قد شرحنا من الأدلة الواضحة عندنا وعندكم‏,‏ ما به يعلم علما يقينا لا شك فيه‏,‏ من المحق منا‏,‏ ومن المبطل‏,‏ ومن المهتدي ومن الضال‏؟‏ حتى إنه يصير التعيين بعد ذلك‏,‏ لا فائدة فيه، فإنك إذا وازنت بين من يدعو إلى عبادة الخالق‏,‏ لسائر المخلوقات المتصرف فيها‏,‏ بجميع أنواع التصرفات‏,‏ المسدي جميع النعم‏,‏ الذي رزقهم وأوصل إليهم كل نعمة‏,‏ ودفع عنهم كل نقمة‏,‏ الذي له الحمد كله‏,‏ والملك كله‏,‏ وكل أحد من الملائكة فما دونهم‏,‏ خاضعون لهيبته‏,‏ متذللون لعظمته‏,‏ وكل الشفعاء تخافه‏,‏ لا يشفع أحد منهم عنده إلا بإذنه العلي الكبير‏,‏ في ذاته‏,‏ وأوصافه‏,‏ وأفعاله‏,‏ الذي له كل كمال‏,‏ وكل جلال‏,‏ وكل جمال‏,‏ وكل حمد وثناء ومجد، يدعو إلى التقرب لمن هذا شأنه‏,‏ وإخلاص العمل له‏,‏ وينهى عن عبادة من سواه‏,‏ وبين من يتقرب إلى أوثان‏,‏ وأصنام‏,‏ وقبور‏,‏ لا تخلق‏,‏ ولا ترزق‏,‏ ولا تملك لأنفسها‏,‏ ولا لمن عبدها‏,‏ نفعا ولا ضرا‏,‏ ولا موتا ولا حياة‏,‏ ولا نشورا، بل هي جمادات‏,‏ لا تعقل‏,‏ ولا تسمع دعاء عابديها‏,‏ ولو سمعته ما استجابت لهم، ويوم القيامة يكفرون بشركهم‏,‏ ويتبرأون منهم‏,‏ ويتلاعنون بينهم، ليس لهم قسط من الملك‏,‏ ولا شركة فيه‏,‏ ولا إعانة فيه، ولا لهم شفاعة يستقلون بها دون اللّه، فهو يدعو مَنْ هذا وصفه‏,‏ ويتقرب إليه مهما أمكنه‏,‏ ويعادي من أخلص الدين للّه‏,‏ ويحاربه‏,‏ ويكذب رسل اللّه‏,‏ الذين جاءوا بالإخلاص للّه وحده، تبين لك أي الفريقين‏,‏ المهتدي من الضال‏,‏ والشقي من السعيد‏؟‏ ولم يحتج إلى أن يعين لك ذلك‏,‏ لأن وصف الحال‏,‏ أوضح من لسان المقال‏.‏

Meaning: We have explained the clear evidence of what we have and what you have, what it teaches of certain knowledge (‘ilm al-yaqeen) about which there is no doubt, which one of us is correct, and which one of us is false, and which one of us is guided and which one is misguided. (Arguing further) becomes mere quibbling after that, in which there is no benefit. For if you were to compare the one who calls to the worship of al-Khaaliq (The Creator) which the rest of the creation, in all of their created forms, the conferrer of all blessing, which He provides them and originates every blessing which they receive, and prevents every curse, to Him belongs all praise and all ownership. And every one of the angels and those below them are subject to His authority, and overcome by His greatness. And every intercessor is afraid of Him; none of them intercedes with Him without His will, the Most High, the Great, in terms of His essence and His attributes and His actions, all of which are perfect, all of which are magnificent and all of which are wonderful. And praise and exaltation and magnification belong to Him. He calls those whom He wishes to come close, and those who are sincere in their deeds towards Him. And He forbids the worship of other than Him, such as those who draw near to idols, and sacrificial altars, and graves, which neither create nor sustain, nor do they have any power over themselves of those who worship them, they can neither benefit nor harm, nor can they give life, death or resurrection. Rather they are inanimate objects; they neither think nor do they hear the supplications of their worshipers. And if they heard, they would not respond to them, and on the Day of Resurrection they will deny the the shirk of those who worshiped them and declare themselves innocent of them, and they will curse one another. They have no portion from al-Malik, nor any partnership with Him, or backing from Him, and there is no one who can intercede for them without impunity before Allah. So He addresses those with these characteristics, who seek closeness to him by whatever means they can find, and oppose those who have ikhlaas in the deen towards Allah, and they fight them, and deny the messengers who came with ikhlaas to Allah alone, clarifying to you the two groups: either guided or misguided, miserable or joyous. And He does not plead for you to call upon Him for help, because He has described the situation, and clarified it with this contention.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman p. 679-680]

See also: Whoever abandons good will be tested with evil: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: “A Good Word is like a Good Tree”: Tafsir al-Sa’di