Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 284-286: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the thirty-fourth and final installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 284-286. This section concludes the surah with an affirmation of core beliefs and du’a to Allah. See the series guide here for more information about this series and other installments.

لِّلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth belongs to Allah. Whether you show what is in yourselves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it. He will then forgive those whom He wishes and punish those whom He wishes. And Allah is able to do all things. [2:284]

لله ملك السموات والأرض وما فيهما ملكًا وتدبيرًا وإحاطة، لا يخفى عليه شيء. وما تظهروه مما في أنفسكم أو تخفوه فإن الله يعلمه، وسيحاسبكم به، فيعفو عمن يشاء، ويؤاخذ من يشاء. والله قادر على كل شيء، وقد أكرم الله المسلمين بعد ذلك فعفا عن حديث النفس وخطرات القلب ما لم يتبعها كلام أو عمل، كما ثبت ذلك عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. ـ

284. Ownership of the heavens and the earth and all that is in them belongs to Allah; He owns them, manages them, and knows them completely – nothing is hidden from Him. Whatever you have inside you, whether you openly show it or hide it, Allah certainly knows it and He will call you to account for it. He will then pardon those whom He wishes, and punish those whom He wishes. And Allah is able to do anything.

After this was revealed, Allah blessed the Muslims by pardoning them for their internal thinking and passing thoughts so long as those things are not followed up with words or actions. This has been authentically transmitted from Allah’s Messenger.

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The Story and Context of the So-Called Satanic Verses: Tafsir al-Baghawi

A source of great interest and speculation among non-Muslims and Muslims alike is Qissah al-Gharaaneeq or “Event of the Cranes”. In English, this is popularly referred to as the so-called “satanic verses” though that title is a recently coined term with no equivalent in Islamic sources. In the books of Qur’anic commentary, this incident and its validity or lack or validity is typically discussed in part of surah al-Hajj. We have translated Imam al-Husayn ibn Mas’ood al-Baghawi‘s discussion of this from his famous book of tafsir below:

ـ ( قل يا أيها الناس إنما أنا لكم نذير مبين ) . ( فالذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات لهم مغفرة ورزق كريم ) الرزق الكريم الذي لا ينقطع أبدا . وقيل : هو الجنة . ( والذين سعوا في آياتنا ) أي عملوا في إبطال آياتنا ، ( معاجزين ) قرأ ابن كثير وأبو عمرو : ” معجزين ” بالتشديد هاهنا وفي سورة سبإ أي : مثبطين الناس عن الإيمان ، وقرأ الآخرون : ” معاجزين ” بالألف أي : معاندين مشاقين . وقال قتادة : معناه ظانين ومقدرين أنهم يعجزوننا بزعمهم أن لا بعث ولا نشور ولا جنة ولا نار ، ومعنى يعجزوننا ، أي : يفوتوننا فلا نقدر عليهم . وهذا كقوله تعالى : ( أم حسب الذين يعملون السيئات أن يسبقونا ) ( العنكبوت : 4 ) ، ( أولئك أصحاب الجحيم ) وقيل : ” معاجزين ” مغالبين ، يريد كل واحد أن يظهر عجز صاحبه . ـ

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا أَنَا لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ * فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ

Say: O mankind, I am only a clear warner to you. * So those who believe and do good deeds will have forgiveness and a generous provision. [22:49-50]

This “generous provision” is one that will never be cut off, and some said that it is referring to Jannah.

وَالَّذِينَ سَعَوْا فِي آيَاتِنَا

But those who strive against our ayaat

i.e. those who work to discredit our ayaat


mu’aajizeen …

Ibn Kathir and Abu ‘Amr recited this as



with a shaddah both where the word occurs here and where it occurs in surah Saba [see 34:5 and 34:38], the meaning being: seeking to deter people from believing.

The other reciters recited it as:


mu’aajizeen …

with an alif, the meaning being: out of obstinance and at great effort.

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The Contents of Surah Hud: Ibn Taymiyah

In one of his many writings, ibn Taymiyah briefly addressed the contents and themes of surah Hud by writing:

قد افتتح السورة فقال كتاب أحكمت آياته ثم فصلت من لدن حكيم خبير ألا تعبدوا إلا الله إنني لكم منه نذير وبشير فذكر أنه نذير وبشير نذير ينذر بالعذاب لأهل النار وبشير يبشر بالسعادة لأهل الحق

Allah began the surah by saying:

كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ * أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّنِي لَكُم مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ

A Book whose verses are perfected and then presented in detail from one who is Wise and All-Knowing. ‎‏* Do not worship any besides Allah. Indeed, I am a warner to you from Him and a bringer of good tidings [11:1-2]

So Allah mentions that the Prophet is a warner and a bringer of good tidings: a warner who warns of the punishment that the people of the Hellfire will receive and a bringer of good tidings who gives good tidings of ultimate joy for the people of the truth.

ثم ذكر حال الفريقين في السراء والضراء فقال ولئن أذقنا الإنسان منا رحمة ثم نزعناها منه إنه ليؤوس كفور ولئن أذقناه نعماء بعد ضراء مسته ليقولن ذهب السيئات عني إنه لفرح فخور إلا الذين صبروا وعملوا الصالحات أولئك لهم مغفرة وأجر كبير

He then mentioned the condition of both groups of people in times of prosperity and in times of adversity by saying:

وَلَئِنْ أَذَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِنَّا رَحْمَةً ثُمَّ نَزَعْنَاهَا مِنْهُ إِنَّهُ لَيَئُوسٌ كَفُورٌ * وَلَئِنْ أَذَقْنَاهُ نَعْمَاءَ بَعْدَ ضَرَّاءَ مَسَّتْهُ لَيَقُولَنَّ ذَهَبَ السَّيِّئَاتُ عَنِّي ۚ إِنَّهُ لَفَرِحٌ فَخُورٌ * إِلَّا الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ

And if We give man a taste of mercy from Us and then We withdraw it from him, he is certainly despairing and ungrateful. * But if We give him a taste of favor after hardship has touched him, he will surely say, “Bad times have left me.” He is exultant and boastful – * Except for those who are patient and do righteous deeds; those ones will have forgiveness and great reward. [11:9-11]

ثم ذكر بعد هذا قصص الأنبياء وحال من اتبعهم ومن كذبهم كيف سعد هؤلاء في الدنيا والآخرة وشقي هؤلاء في الدنيا والآخرة فذكر ما جرى لهم إلى قوله ذلك من أنباء القرى نقصه عليك إلى قوله وذلك يوم مشهود

After that, He mentioned stories of the Prophets, the conditions of their followers and the conditions of their deniers, and then how their followers achieved joy in both this life and the next and how their deniers experienced sorrow in both this life and the next. So He mentioned what happened to them until His statement:

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“Whoever Allah Wants to Guide, He Opens his Chest to Islam”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah strikes the following parable in surah al-An’aam:

فَمَن يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَن يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ ۖ وَمَن يُرِدْ أَن يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

So whoever Allah wants to guide, He opens his chest to Islam. And whoever He wants to misguide, He makes his chest tight and constricted as though he were climbing up the sky. Thus does Allah place wrath upon those who do not believe. [6:125]

In his commentary on this parable, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di wrote the following beautiful words:

يقول تعالى -مبينا لعباده علامة سعادة العبد وهدايته، وعلامة شقاوته وضلاله-: إن من انشرح صدره للإسلام، أي: اتسع وانفسح، فاستنار بنور الإيمان، وحيي بضوء اليقين، فاطمأنت بذلك نفسه، وأحب الخير، وطوعت له نفسه فعله، متلذذا به غير مستثقل، فإن هذا علامة على أن الله قد هداه، ومن عليه بالتوفيق، وسلوك أقوم الطريق. ـ

Here, Allah is making it clear to His servants what are the signs of a slave’s ultimate joy and guidance and what are the signs of a slave’s ultimate misery and misguidance. So He says that whoever’s chest has been opened up to Islam – that is, it has been made wide and spacious – then it becomes enlightened with the light of faith and enlivened with the light of certainty. So his heart becomes at peace with that, loves good, and becomes compliant in doing it – taking enjoyment from it, nor at all feeling burdened. So this is a sign that Allah has guided such a person and blessed him to be rightly guided and traversing the most upright path.

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How the Believers Respond to the Qur’an: Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah says in surah al-Zumar:

اللَّـهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّـهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّـهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

Allah has sent down the best speech: a consistent and reiterating Book. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it, then their skins and hearts soften to the remembrance of Allah. That is Allah’s guidance, through which He guides whom He wills. And whomever Allah leads astray, then there is no one to guide him. [39:23]

In part of his commentary on this ayah, al-Haafidh Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir wrote:

وقوله : { تقشعر منه جلود الذين يخشون ربهم ثم تلين جلودهم وقلوبهم إلى ذكر الله } أي هذه صفة الأبرار ، عند سماع كلام الجبار ، المهيمن العزيز الغفار ، لما يفهمون منه من الوعد والوعيد . والتخويف والتهديد ، تقشعر منه جلودهم من الخشية والخوف ، { ثم تلين جلودهم وقلوبهم إلى ذكر الله } لما يرجون ويؤملون من رحمته ولطفه ، فهم مخالفون لغيرهم من الكفار من وجوه : ـ

Allah’s statement:

تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ

The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it, then their skins and hearts soften to the remembrance of Allah.

this is a characteristic of the righteous ones upon hearing the words of the Almighty, the Preserver, the All-Powerful, Oft-Forgiving. As a result of the promises, threats, and intimidation that they find in the Qur’an, their skins shiver over out reverence and fear.

ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ

then their skins and hearts soften to the remembrance of Allah

due to the mercy and kindness of Allah that they hope and wish for. So they are distinct from from the disbelievers in a number of ways:

أحدها : أن سماع هؤلاء هو تلاوة الآيات ، وسماع أولئك نغمات لأبيات ، من أصوات القينات . ـ

Firstly: The believers listen to the recitation of these ayaat, while those disbelievers listen to the tunes of poetry by female singers. Continue reading

A Living Heart and a Light to Walk by: Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah strikes the following parable in part of surah al-An’aam:

أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَاهُ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِي النَّاسِ كَمَن مَّثَلُهُ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ لَيْسَ بِخَارِجٍ مِّنْهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

And is one who was dead and We gave him life and made a light for him by which to walk among the people like one who is in darknesses, never to emerge from them? Thus what they have been doing has been made pleasing to the disbelievers. [6:122]

In part of his explanation of this ayah, al-haafidh ibn Kathir wrote:

هذا مثل ضربه الله تعالى للمؤمن الذي كان ميتا ، أي : في الضلالة ، هالكا حائرا ، فأحياه الله ، أي : أحيا قلبه بالإيمان ، وهداه له ووفقه لاتباع رسله . ( وجعلنا له نورا يمشي به في الناس ) أي : يهتدي به كيف يسلك ، وكيف يتصرف به . والنور هو : القرآن ، كما رواه العوفي وابن أبي طلحة ، عن ابن عباس . وقال السدي : الإسلام . والكل صحيح . ـ

This is a parable that Allah struck regarding a believer who had been dead – that is, in a state of misguidance, lost and confused – and then Allah gave him life – that is, gave life to his heart through eemaan and guided him and enabled him to follow His messengers.

وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِي النَّاسِ

… and made a light for him by which to walk among the people …

i.e. that he is guided by it in terms of how he should act and conduct himself.

The “light” here is the Qur’an, as has been transmitted from ibn ‘Abbaas by way of al-‘Awfi and ibn Abi Talhah, while al-Suddi says it refers to Islam. And both of these explanations are correct. Continue reading

How the Qur’an Addresses Potential Doubts: Tafsir al-Sa’di

After a long series of ayaat in surah al-Baqarah critical of Banu Israa’eel for their repeated betrayals of the covenant that Allah had taken from them, Allah then says:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Those who believe and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabi’oon who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteous good deeds – they will have their reward with Allah, and they will not have any fear nor will they grieve. [2:62]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following explanation and beneficial point of Qur’anic style in his commentary on this ayah:

ثم قال تعالى حاكما بين الفرق الكتابية: { إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَى وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ } وهذا الحكم على أهل الكتاب خاصة, لأن الصابئين, الصحيح أنهم من جملة فرق النصارى، فأخبر الله أن المؤمنين من هذه الأمة, واليهود والنصارى, والصابئين من آمن بالله واليوم الآخر, وصدقوا رسلهم, فإن لهم الأجر العظيم والأمن, ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون، وأما من كفر منهم بالله ورسله واليوم الآخر, فهو بضد هذه الحال, فعليه الخوف والحزن. ـ

This status is only applicable to the Ahl al-Kitab, for the correct opinion regarding the Sabi’oon is that they are one of the Christian sects.

In this ayah, Allah is informing the believers that the Jews, Christians, and Sabi’oon who believe in Allah and the Last Day and affirm His messengers will have a great reward as well as safety. They will not fear nor will they grieve.

But as for those of those of them that disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and the Last Day, then they will experience the opposite situation: they will fear and they will grieve. Continue reading

Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 130-141: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the fourteenth installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 130-141. This passage calls mankind to follow the religion of Ibrahim and to turn away from other paths. See the series guide here for more information about this series and other installments.

وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلَّا مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ ۚ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

And who would be averse to the religion of Ibrahim except one who makes a fool of himself? We have chosen him in the world, and in the hereafter he is one of the upright ones. [2:130]

ولا أحد يُعرض عن دين إبراهيم- وهو الإسلام- إلا سفيه جاهل، ولقد اخترنا إبراهيم في الدنيا نبيًّا ورسولا وإنه في الآخرة لمن الصالحين الذين لهم أعلى الدرجات.ـ

130. There is no one who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim, which is Islam, except for an ignorant fool. We have chosen Ibrahim as a prophet and messenger in this life, and in the hereafter he will be one of the upright ones who will be at the highest level.

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And when his Lord told him, “Submit,” he said, “I have submitted to the Lord of all creation.” [2:131]

وسبب هذا الاختيار مسارعته للإسلام دون تردد، حين قال له ربه: أخلص نفسك لله منقادًا له. فاستجاب إبراهيم وقال: أسلمت لرب العالمين إخلاصًا وتوحيدًا ومحبة وإنابة.ـ

131. The reason that Allah chose him is because of his eagerness to submit without any hesitation when Allah told him, “Make yourself purely for Allah, completely obedient to Him.” So Ibrahim responded by saying, “I have submitted myself entirely to the Lord of all creation, singling Him out for worship, love, and always turning back to Him.

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Treating Doubts in One’s Faith: Imam al-Sa’di

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di included the following hadith and explanation in his book of comprehensive hadith narrations:

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «يَأْتِي الشَّيْطَانُ أَحَدَكُمْ فَيَقُولُ: مَنْ خَلَقَ كَذَا؟ مَنْ خَلَقَ كَذَا؟ حَتَّى يَقُولَ: مَنْ خَلَقَ الله؟ فإذا بلغه فليستعذ بالله، ولينته» . وفي لفظ «فليقل: آمنت بالله ورسله» متفق عليه. وَفِي لَفْظٍ «لَا يَزَالُ النَّاسُ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ حَتَّى يقولوا: من خلق الله؟» . ـ

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, who said that Allah’s Messenger said:

The Shaytaan comes to one of you and says, “who created that?” and “who created that?” until he says, “who created Allah?” When it comes to that, then the person should seek refuge in Allah and give up such thoughts.

and in another narration:

The person should say, “I believe in Allah and His Messenger.”

This was reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim. And in another narration:

People will continue asking one another until they say, “Who created Allah?”

احتوى هذا الحديث على أنه لا بد أن يلقي الشيطان هذا الإيراد الباطل: إما وسوسة محضة، أو على لسان شياطين الإنس وملاحدتهم. وقد وقع كما أخبر، فإن الأمرين وقعا، لا يزال الشيطان يدفع إلى قلوب من ليست لهم بصيرة هذا السؤال الباطل، ولا يزال أهل الإلحاد يلقون هذه الشبهة التي هي أبطل الشبه، ويتكلمون عن العلل وعن مواد العالم بكلام سخيف معروف. ـ

This hadith indicates that the shaytaan will certainly employ this wicked scheme: either simply through whisperings, or through the speech of some of the human shayaateen and heretics. And it has happened exactly as he said it would, for both of these things do occur. The shaytaan continuously prods and pushes the hearts of those without clear vision with such futile questions, and the heretics continuously introduce these doubts, which are the most vile form of doubts, always talking about the causes of things and the make-up of the universe with patently absurd speech.

وقد أرشد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في هذا الحديث العظيم إلى دفع هذا السؤال بأمور ثلاثة: بالانتهاء، والعوذ من الشيطان، وبالإيمان. ـ

In this wonderful hadith, the Prophet guides us to repel such question with three steps:

  1. Halting such questions
  2. Seeking refuge from the shaytaan
  3. Having eemaan Continue reading

Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 58-66: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the sixth installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 58-66. In this passage, Allah reminds the Children of Israa’eel of His many blessing on them and of their responses to these blessings. See the series guide here for more information about this series.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُوا هَـٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُوا حِطَّةٌ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَايَاكُمْ ۚ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

And when We said, “Enter this city and eat whatever you want of it in abundance. And enter the gate in prostration, saying, ‘relieve us.’ We will forgive you of your sins and We will increase the good doers.” [2:58]

واذكروا نعمتنا عليكم حين قلنا: ادخلوا مدينة بيت المقدس فكلوا من طيباتها في أي مكان منها أكلا هنيئًا، وكونوا في دخولكم خاضعين لله، ذليلين له، وقولوا: ربَّنا ضَعْ عنَّا ذنوبنا، نستجب لكم ونعف ونسترها عليكم، وسنزيد المحسنين بأعمالهم خيرًا وثوابًا. ـ

58. And remember our blessing upon you when We said, “Enter the city of Jerusalem and eat its wholesome food from any part of the city in enjoyment. And when you enter, be humble and submissive towards Allah, saying, ‘O our Lord, remove our sins from us!’ We will respond to you, pardon you, and cover your faults. And We will increase the good doers in goodness and rewards due to their good deeds.”

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ

But those who were unjust replaced that statement with something other than what had been said to them. So We then sent down a punishment from the sky on those who were unjust because of they crimes they used to commit. [2:59] Continue reading