Supplicating upon Completion of the Qur’an: Sheikh ibn ‘Uthaymeen

Sheikh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen was asked the following question during the program Fataawaa Noor ‘alaa al-Darb:

السؤال : سؤال يشكل على كثير من الإخوة المستمعين الكرام، السؤال يا فضيلة الشيخ: هو عن دعاء الختمة في أخر ليلة من رمضان، هل هو وارد عن الرسول الكريم أو عن السلف الصالح رضوان الله عليهم؟

Question: This is a question which has confused many of our respected brothers who are listening. The question, honorable sheikh, is about du’aa [supplication] upon completing the Qur’an on the last night of Ramadan – is this something which is textually transmitted from the Messenger or from the Salaf, may Allah be pleased with them?

الجواب الشيخ : الختمة التي يدعى بها في آخر رمضان ليس لها أصل في سنة الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام، ولا عن خلفائه الراشدين، ولا عن أحد من الصحابة، فلا أعلم إلى ساعتي هذه أنه ورد عنهم أنهم كانوا يدعون مثل هذا  الدعاء في الصلاة. ـ

Response: The supplicating which people do at the end of Ramadan is not something which has any basis in the Sunnah of the Messenger (ﷺ), nor was it practiced by the Rightly-Guided Khulafaa’, nor by any of the Sahabah, and until now I don’t know of any textual evidence transmitted regarding them having practiced something like this supplication during the prayer.

نعم. ورد عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه أنه كان إذا ختم القرآن جمع أهله فدعا، وهذا في غير الصلاة وليس كل مشروع، وليس كل شيء مشروع خارج الصلاة يكون مشروعاً فيها؛ لأن الصلاة محددة في أفعالها محددة في أذكارها ـ

Yes, it has been transmitted from Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him) that he used to gather his family members together and make supplication upon having completed the Qur’an. But this was not in the prayer, and what is legislated outside of the prayer isn’t necessarily legislated inside the prayer. For the prayer is something with well-defined guidelines regarding its specific actions and utterances. Continue reading

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What to Recite in the Prayers: Sheikh bin Baaz

In part of a larger description of the various parts of the prayer, sheikh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz bin Baaz made the following remarks on the recitation of the Qur’an during the prayer:

صفة القراءة في الصلاة
Description of Reciting the Qur’an in Prayer

ثم يقول الرجل أو المرأة بعد دعاء الاستفتاح أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ثم يقرأ الفاتحة وهي: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2) الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (3) مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ (4) إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ (5) اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (6) صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ ، ثم يقول آمين، وآمين ليست من الفاتحة وهي مستحبة، كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقولها بعد الفاتحة في الجهرية والسرية يقول آمين ومعناها اللهم استجب. ـ

Following the opening supplication of the prayer, then a man or woman will say:

أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ * بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

a’oodhu billah min al-Shaytaan al-Rajeem * bismillah al-Rahmaan al-Raheem

I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Shayaan * I begin with the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Especially Merciful

And then he recites surah al-Fatihah, which is:

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ * إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ * اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Especially Merciful * All praise is due to Allah, Lord of all creation * the Most Merciful, the Especially Merciful * Master of the Day of Recompense * You alone we worship and You alone we ask for help * Guide us to the Straight Path * the path of those with whom You are pleased, not those deserving anger nor those who are misguided [1:1-7]

And then you say: Continue reading

Etiquette of Reciting and Listening to the Qur’an: ibn ‘Uthaymeen

On the radio program, Fataawaa Noor ‘alaa al-Darb, sheikh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen was asked the following question:

السؤال: بارك الله فيكم فضيلة الشيخ ونحن نتحدث عن عظم هذا القرآن العظيم لا شك أن لتلاوة القرآن الكريم آداب يجب أن يتحلى بها القارئ والمستمع حدثونا عن هذا مأجورين؟ ـ

Question: May Allah bless you, respected sheikh. We wanted to talk about the greatness of the marvelous Qur’an. There is no doubt that the the recitation of the noble Qur’an has certain etiquettes which must be observed by both the reciter and listener. Please, can you speak to us about this topic?

الجواب الشيخ: نعم من آداب قراءة القرآن أن يخلص الإنسان نيته لله تعالى بتلاوته، فينوي بذلك التقرب إلى الله سبحانه وتعالى، حتى لو أراد مع ذلك أن يثبت حفظه إذا كان حافظاً، فإن هذه نيةٌ صالحة لا سيما في الإخلاص لله عز وجل . ـ

Response: Yes, one of the etiquettes for reciting the Qur’an is for a person to make their intention purely for the sake of Allah in reciting, and to intend to become closer to Allah through that act. This applies even if, alongside that intention, he also desires to review what he has memorized if he has memorized the Qur’an, for this is a good intention, especially if it is done out of sincere devotion to Allah.

ومن الآداب أن يستحضر الثواب الذي رتب على تلاوة القرآن؛ ليكون محتسباً بذلك على ربه عز وجل، راجياً ثوابه، مؤملاً مرضاته . ـ

○ Another etiquette is to think of the reward which comes from reciting the Qur’an, so that one can expect that reward from his Lord, hoping for it and aiming for His pleasure.

ومن الآداب أيضاً أن يكون متطهراً؛ وذلك لأن القرآن من أشرف الذكر، وقد قال النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام في رجلٍ سلم عليه فلم يرد عليه السلام حتى توضأ قال: إني لست على وضوء أحببت ألا أذكر الله إلا على طهارة؛ ولكن إن كان الإنسان جنباً، فإنه لا يجوز أن يقرأ القرآن إلا إذا قرأ شيئاً يريد به الذكر، وهو من القرآن؛ فلا بأس أو يريد به الدعاء، وهو من القرآن؛ فلا بأس؛ فإذا قال: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم يريد بذلك البسملة والتبرك بذكر اسم الله لا يريد التلاوة؛ فلا بأس بهذا، ولو قال: ربنا لا تزغ قلوبنا بعد إذ هديتنا، وهب لنا من لدنك رحمةً إنك أنت الوهاب؛ يريد بذلك الدعاء لا القراءة؛ فلا بأس أما إذا كان يريد القراءة، فإن القرآن لا يحل أو لا تحل قراءته للجنب، وأما من بحدثٍ أصغر فيجوز أن يقرأ القرآن؛ لكن لا يمس المصحف؛ لأن المصحف لا يمسه إلا طاهر؛ لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الكتاب الذي كتبه إلى عمرو بن حزم ألا يمس القرآن إلا طاهر، والمراد بالطاهر الطاهر من الحدثين الأصغر والأكبر، ولقول الله تعالى حين ذكر الوضوء والغسل والتيمم قال: ﴿ما يريد الله ليجعل عليكم من حرج ولكن يريد ليطهركم﴾ فدل هذا على أن الإنسان قبل الوضوء والغسل والتيمم غير طاهر . ـ

○ Another etiquette is to be in a state of ritual purity. That is because the Qur’an is one of the most honorable forms of al-dhikr (remembrance). The Prophet (ﷺ) said about a man who greeted him with the salaam but then he did not respond to him until he had made wudhoo’, “I was not in a state of wudhoo’ and I don’t like to mention Allah unless I am in a state of ritual purity.” However, if a person is in a state of major ritual impurity, he is not allowed to recite the Qur’an. That is, unless he recites something which he intends as dhikr which in fact comes from the Qur’an – that is not problem if he is using it as a du’aa which happens to come from the Qur’an. That is not a problem So if he says: Continue reading

Those who neglect the prayers and pursue desires: Tafsir al-Shawkaani

In surah Maryam, Allah mentions a series of Prophets, and then describes some of their descendants by saying:

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا * إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا

But there came after them successors who neglected prayer and pursued desires; so they are going to meet evil * Except those who repent, believe and do righteousness; for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all. [19:59-60]

Sheikh Muhammad al-Shawkaani commented on this in his book of tafsir by writing:

ولما مدح هؤلاء الأنبياء بهذه الأوصاف ترغيبا لغيرهم في الاقتداء بهم وسلوك طريقتهم ذكر أضدادهم تنفيرا للناس عن طريقتهم فقال : فخلف من بعدهم خلف أي : عقب سوء . قال أهل اللغة : يقال لعقب الخير خلف بفتح اللام ، ولعقب الشر خلف بسكون اللام ، وقد قدمنا الكلام على هذا في آخر الأعراف أضاعوا الصلاة قال الأكثر : معنى ذلك أنهم أخروها عن وقتها ، وقيل : أضاعوا الوقت وقيل : كفروا بها وجحدوا وجوبها ، وقيل : لم يأتوا بها على الوجه المشروع . ـ

So after Allah had praised these prophets by mentioning these qualities as a means to encourage others to emulate them and follow in their footsteps, He then mentioned their opposites as a means to discourage people from their ways. So He said:

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ

But there came after them successors

meaning: evil ones came after them. And experts in the language say: If you want to say that good followed something, then you say khalafun with a fathah on the letter laam, while if you want to say evil followed something, then you say khalfun with a sukoon on the letter laam. And we have already spoken about this in the end of surah al-Aa’raaf.  Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 6/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing as a series. For a guide to the different sections, please click here. Sheikh al-Shinqitee continued with the sixth section of his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم على صلواتهم يحافظون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن من صفات المؤمنين المفلحين الوارثين الفردوس : أنهم يحافظون على صلواتهم والمحافظة عليها تشمل إتمام أركانها ، وشروطها ، وسننها ، وفعلها في أوقاتها في الجماعات في المساجد ، ولأجل أن ذلك من أسباب نيل الفردوس أمر تعالى بالمحافظة عليها في قوله تعالى : حافظوا على الصلوات والصلاة الوسطى الآية [ 2 \ 238 ] ، وقال تعالى في سورة المعارج والذين هم على صلاتهم يحافظون [ 70 \ 34 ] وقال فيها أيضا إلا المصلين الذين هم على صلاتهم دائمون [ 70 \ 22 – 23 ] . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ

And those who carefully maintain their prayers – [23:9]

In this noble ayah, Allah mentioned that one of the qualities of the successful believers who will inherit al-Firdaws is that they carefully maintain their prayers, and carefully maintaining the prayers includes perfecting their pillars, their conditions, their recommended acts, and performing them in their proper times along with the congregation in the masjid.

And since this is one of the causal factors for attaining al-Firdaws, Allah commanded them to be carefully maintained in His statement: Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 1/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and will publish as a series over the coming weeks. al-Shinqitee started his explanation of this passage by discussing the first two ayaat, as follows:

قوله تعالى : قد أفلح المؤمنون الذين هم في صلاتهم خاشعون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآيات التي ابتدأ بها أول هذه السورة علامات المؤمنين المفلحين فقال قد أفلح المؤمنون [ 23 \ 1 ] أي : فازوا وظفروا بخير الدنيا والآخرة . وفلاح المؤمنين مذكور ذكرا كثيرا في القرآن ; كقوله وبشر المؤمنين بأن لهم من الله فضلا كبيرا [ 33 \ 47 ]  ـ

Allah’s statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ * الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ

Indeed the believers have succeeded * Those who are characterized by khushoo’ in their salaah [23:1-2]

In these ayaat which begin this surah, Allah mentioned the signs of the successful believers, for He said:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Indeed the believers have succeeded

meaning: they have succeeded and achieved good in both this life and in the hereafter. And the success of the believers mentioned here is mentioned frequently throughout the Qur’an, such as Allah’s statement:

وَبَشِّرِ‌ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّـهِ فَضْلًا كَبِيرً‌ا

And give good tidings to the believers that they will have a great bounty from Allah. [33:47] Continue reading

Allah legislated the religion for His remembrance: Imam al-Sa’di

In his short compilation of miscellaneous tafsir benefits, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di brought the following point regarding remembrance (dhikr) of Allah:

شرع الله الدين والعبادات والأوامر والنواهي لإقامة ذكره ، ولهذا يذكر أن العبادات ناشئة عن ذكره ، كما قال تعالى : [ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ * وَذَكَرَ‌ اسْمَ رَ‌بِّهِ فَصَلَّىٰ ] فجعل الصلاة ناشئة عن الذكر ومسبَبَّة عنه ، كما جعل الصلاة لإقامة ذكره ، فقال : [وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِ‌ي] ، وقال في ترك الذنوب والاستغفار منها : [وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ ذَكَرُ‌وا اللَّـهَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُ‌وا لِذُنُوبِهِمْ] فجعل الاستغفار ناشئا عن الذكر ، فدل ذلك على أن الذكر لله هو الأصل الجامع الذي يتصف به المؤمن الكامل ، فيصير الذكر صفة لقلبه ، فيفعل لذلك المأمورات ويترك المنهيات ، ناشئا عن تعظيم الله تعالى وذكره ، وهو دليل على ذلك وهو أعظم المقصودات في العبادات . ـ

Allah legislated the religion, the acts of worship, the commands and the prohibitions for the purpose of the establishment of His remembrance (dhikr), and it is for this reason that He mentioned that the acts of worship arise out of His remembrance, for example as He said:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ * وَذَكَرَ‌ اسْمَ رَ‌بِّهِ فَصَلَّىٰ

He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself * And who remembers the name of his Lord and prays [87:14-15]

So He made the prayer to emanate from remembrance and to be a force that brings that about, just as He made the prayer for the purpose of establishing His remembrance, for He said:

وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِ‌ي

and establish prayer for My remembrance [20:14]

And in regards to abandoning sins and seeking forgiveness for them, He said: Continue reading

Performing the Prayers in their Proper Times: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Baqarah:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّـهِ قَانِتِينَ * فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِ‌جَالًا أَوْ رُ‌كْبَانًا ۖ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَاذْكُرُ‌وا اللَّـهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

Maintain with care the [obligatory] prayers and [in particular] the middle prayer and stand before Allah, devoutly obedient. * And if you fear [an enemy, then pray] on foot or riding. But when you are secure, then remember Allah, as He has taught you that which you did not [previously] know. [2:238-239]

Commenting on this in his book of tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di wrote:

يأمر بالمحافظة على الصلوات عمومًا وعلى الصلاة الوسطى، وهي العصر خصوصًا، والمحافظة عليها أداؤها بوقتها وشروطها وأركانها وخشوعها وجميع ما لها من واجب ومستحب، وبالمحافظة على الصلوات تحصل المحافظة على سائر العبادات، وتفيد النهي عن الفحشاء والمنكر خصوصًا إذا أكملها كما أمر بقوله { وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ } أي: ذليلين خاشعين، ففيه الأمر بالقيام والقنوت والنهي عن الكلام، والأمر بالخشوع، هذا مع الأمن والطمأنينة. ـ

Allah commanded the careful maintaining of the prayers in general, and of the middle prayer – which is ‘Asr – specifically. And carefully maintaining them is performing them in their proper times and with their conditions and pillars, and with khushoo’, and with all that which is obligatory and recommended for them. And carefully maintaining the prayers carried the meaning of carefully maintaining all the rest of the acts of worship. And it benefits one by preventing against indecency and immorality, especially when the prayers are done in a complete way as Allah commanded with His statement, “and stand before Allah, devoutly obedient” – meaning, humble and submitting. So in that there is the command to stand and to be devoutly obedient and the prohibition of speaking, and the command to have khushoo’, and this is in the condition of safety and tranquility. Continue reading

O you who believe, when you wish to privately consult with the Messenger… : Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah commands the believers in surah al-Mujaadilah by saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَاجَيْتُمُ الرَّ‌سُولَ فَقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَةً ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ‌ لَّكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ‌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ تَجِدُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ * أَأَشْفَقْتُمْ أَن تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَاتٍ ۚ فَإِذْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَتَابَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّـهَ وَرَ‌سُولَهُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ خَبِيرٌ‌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ

O you who have believed, when you [wish to] privately consult the Messenger, present before your consultation a charity. That is better for you and purer. But if you find not [the means] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. * Have you feared to present before your consultation charities? Then when you did not and Allah has forgiven you, then [at least] establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do. [58:12-13]

Commenting on this in his book of tafsir, imam al-Sa’di wrote:

يأمر تعالى المؤمنين بالصدقة، أمام مناجاة رسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم تأديبا لهم وتعليما، وتعظيما للرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإن هذا التعظيم، خير للمؤمنين وأطهر أي: بذلك يكثر خيركم وأجركم، وتحصل لكم الطهارة من الأدناس، التي من جملتها ترك احترام الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم والأدب معه بكثرة المناجاة التي لا ثمرة تحتها، فإنه إذا أمر بالصدقة بين يدي مناجاته صار هذا ميزانا لمن كان حريصا على الخير والعلم، فلا يبالي بالصدقة، ـ

Allah commanded the believers to give sadaqah (charity) before privately consulting His messenger (ﷺ) as an admonition to them and as an instruction. And it is a magnification of the prophet (ﷺ), for verily this magnification is better for the believers and more pure – meaning that through this they would accumulate a great deal of good and reward and achieve purity from the blemishes which ensue from leaving off revering the Messenger (ﷺ) and [leaving off] having good manners with him by engaging in excessive private consultations which bear no benefit. So when He commanded the giving of saqadah prior to privately consulting him, this became a measuring scale of whoever was eager for good and for ‘ilm, for the sadaqah would not bother him.

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Which is more virtuous: reading a small amount of the Qur’an with tarteel and contemplation, or a large amount quickly? – Ibn al-Qayyim

In his famous work of seerah, Imam ibn al-Qayyim addressed the issue of the relative merits of slow recitation with contemplation and a large amount of reading with quick recitation without contemplation. He wrote:

وقد اختلف الناس في الأفضل من الترتيل وقلة القراءة ، أو السرعة مع كثرة القراءة : أيهما أفضل؟ على قولين . ـ

The people have differed concerning which is better; reading a small amount with tarteel (slow, measured and deliberate recitation), or reciting a large amount quickly – which of the two is more virtuous? On this subject there are two opinions: Continue reading