Every one of you is a shepherd – Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim records the hadeeth of the Prophet in his Saheeh:

أَلاَ كُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ فَالأَمِيرُ الَّذِي عَلَى النَّاسِ رَاعٍ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْهُمْ وَالْمَرْأَةُ رَاعِيَةٌ عَلَى بَيْتِ بَعْلِهَا وَوَلَدِهِ وَهِيَ مَسْئُولَةٌ عَنْهُمْ وَالْعَبْدُ رَاعٍ عَلَى مَالِ سَيِّدِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْهُ أَلاَ فَكُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ

Beware – every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable in regards to his flock. The leader is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned concerning his subjects . A man is a shepherd over the members of his family and shall be questioned concerning them. A woman is a shepherd over the household of her husband and his children and shall be questioned concerning them. A slave is a shepherd over the property of his master and shall be questioned concerning it. Beware, every one of you is a shepherd and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust.

[Muslim #1829]

Imam al-Nawawi writes in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim:
قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( كلكم راع وكلكم مسئول عن رعيته ) قال العلماء : الراعي هو الحافظ المؤتمن الملتزم صلاح ما قام عليه ، وما هو تحت نظره ، ففيه أن كل من كان تحت نظره شيء فهو مطالب بالعدل فيه ، والقيام بمصالحه في دينه ودنياه ومتعلقاته . ـ
“The Prophet’s statement, ‘All of you are shepherds and all of you are responsible for your flocks’ – the scholars say: The shepherd is the entrusted guardian who is committed to the rectitude of whatever he is in charge of and whatever is under his watch. So therefore whoever is under his watch at all, then it deserves justice from him and the establishment of benefits in terms of its deen and dunya and what is related to that.”
[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim #1829]

See also: Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 5/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Abu Bakr’s and Umar’s visit to Umm Ayman: Sharh al-Nawawi

In his chapter on the virtues on the sahaabah, imam Muslim mentions the following narration concerning the virtues of Umm Ayman:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رضى الله عنه بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِعُمَرَ انْطَلِقْ بِنَا إِلَى أُمِّ أَيْمَنَ نَزُورُهَا كَمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَزُورُهَا ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا انْتَهَيْنَا إِلَيْهَا بَكَتْ فَقَالاَ لَهَا مَا يُبْكِيكِ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ مَا أَبْكِي أَنْ لاَ أَكُونَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلَكِنْ أَبْكِي أَنَّ الْوَحْىَ قَدِ انْقَطَعَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ ‏.‏ فَهَيَّجَتْهُمَا عَلَى الْبُكَاءِ فَجَعَلاَ يَبْكِيَانِ مَعَهَا

Anas reported that after the death of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar, “Let us visit Umm Aiman as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to visit her.” When we came to her, she was weeping. They (Abu Bakr and Umar) said to her, “What makes you weep? What is with Allah is better for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).” She said, “I weep not because I do not know of the fact that what is with Allah is better for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), but I weep because the revelation which came from the Heaven has ceased to come. This moved both of them to tears and they began to weep along with her.

[Saheeh Muslim #2454]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim mentions the following points of benefit concerning the permissible and recommended activities which are derived from this hadeeth:

قوله : ( قال أبو بكر بعد وفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعمر رضي الله عنه : انطلق بنا إلى أم أيمن نزورها ، كما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يزورها ) فيه زيارة الصالحين وفضلها ، وزيارة الصالح لمن هو دونه ، وزيارة الإنسان لمن كان صديقه يزوره ، ولأهل ود صديقه ، وزيارة جماعة من الرجال للمرأة الصالحة ، وسماع كلامها ، واستصحاب العالم والكبير صاحبا له في الزيارة ، والعيادة ، ونحوهما . والبكاء حزنا على فراق الصالحين والأصحاب ، وإن كانوا قد انتقلوا إلى أفضل مما كانوا عليه . والله أعلم .

His statement, “Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar, ‘Let us visit Umm Aiman as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to visit her.‘” This includes (the permission and/or recommendation of):

-visiting the righteous people and the virtue of that;
-the righteous person visiting those who are less (righteous) than him;
-people visiting those who their friends used to visit and (visiting) the dearly beloved people of their friend;
-a group of men visiting a righteous woman and listening to her speech;
-for the scholar or elder to bring along a companion with him in his visits, habitual activities, etc;
-weeping out of sadness over the loss of righteous people and companions [whether by death or separation], even if they have moved on to a better condition than that which they were previously in.

And Allah knows best.

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Saheeh Muslim #2454]

Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar narrates that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

اجعلوا من صلاتكم في بيوتكم ولا تتخذوها قبوراً

“Observe some of your prayers in your houses and do not make them (like) graves.”

[Muslim #777]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes:

باب استحباب صلاة النافلة في بيته وجوازها في المسجد

The chapter on the desirability of optional [nawaafil] prayer in one’s house and the permissibility of it in the masjid

 وسواء في هذا الراتبة وغيرها إلا الشعائر الظاهرة وهي العيد والكسوف والاستسقاء والتراويح وكذا ما لا يتأتى في غير المسجد كتحية المسجد ويندب كونه في المسجد هي ركعتا الطواف . ـ

[And just as this applies to optional (nawaafil) prayers] this also applies routine optional prayers (al-rawaatib) and others, except for those prayers which are the outward rituals, and they are the ‘eid prayer, and al-kusoof (eclipse prayer), and al-istisqaa’ (prayer for rain), and al-taraaweeh (night prayer during Ramadhaan), and others such as those which cannot be done except in the masjid such as tahiyyah al-masjid (prayer for greeting the masjid) and those whose performance is relegated to the masjid such as two raka’aat of Tawaaf. Continue reading

“There is no one who does not have a Qareen from the Jinn”: Sharḥ al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim recorded that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا وَإِيَّاكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ‏”‏ وَإِيَّاىَ إِلاَّ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ فَلاَ يَأْمُرُنِي إِلاَّ بِخَيْرٍ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “There is no one among you except that he has a qareen [companion] from the jinn.” They (the Companions) said, “And you too, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “And me as well, but Allah helped me against him and so I am safe, so he does not command me except with good.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2814]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following about this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( ما منكم من أحد إلا وقد وكل به قرينه من الجن ، قالوا : وإياك ؟ قال : وإياي إلا أن الله أعانني عليه فأسلم فلا يأمرني إلا بخير ) ( فأسلم ) برفع الميم وفتحها ، وهما روايتان مشهورتان فمن رفع قال : معناه : أسلمُ أنا من شره وفتنته ، ومن فتح قال : إن القرين أسلمَ ، من الإسلام وصار مؤمنا لا يأمرني إلا بخير ، واختلفوا في الأرجح منهما  .

His (ﷺ) statement, “‘There is no one among you except that he has a qareen [companion] from the jinn.’ They (the Companions) said, ‘And you too, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘And me as well, but Allah helped me against him and so I am safe, so he does not command me except with good.'” – “So I am safe” with a fatḥah on the letter meem. And there are two well-known narrations of this word, and those who place a dummah on the meem say, “It means: I am safe from his evil and trials.” And those who place a fatḥah on the meem say, “[it means] Verily the Qareen submitted himself in al-Islaam and he became a mu’min, so he does not command anything except for good.” And they differed on the correct meaning between these two. Continue reading

Two qualities which Allah loves: Sharh al-Nawawi

In Saheeh Muslim, Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet said to al-Ashajj ‘Abd al-Qais that:

إِنَّ فِيكَ خَصْلَتَيْنِ يُحِبُّهُمَا اللَّهُ الْحِلْمُ وَالأَنَاةُ

“Indeed there are two traits in you that Allah loves: Forbearance, and deliberateness.”
[Muslim #17]
Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on this hadeeth, writes:
وأما الحلم فهو العقل ، وأما الأناة فهي التثبيت [أو التثبت] وترك العجلة وهي مقصورة

As for ilm (forbearance), then it is ‘aql (intellect). And as for anaah (deliberateness), then it is proceeding with care and exactness and abandoning haste, and that is reigning oneself in. Continue reading

“Whoever stands Ramadan with eemaan and ihtisaab, his previous sins will be forgiven”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim records that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ

Whoever stands Ramadan [i.e. in optional night prayers] with eemaan and iḥtisaab, his previous sins will be forgiven.

[Saheeh Muslim #759]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on this hadeeth, wrote:

قوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – : ( من قام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا ) معنى ( إيمانا ) تصديقا بأنه حق مقتصد فضيلته ، ومعنى ( احتسابا ) أن يريد الله تعالى وحده لا يقصد رؤية الناس ، ولا غير ذلك مما يخالف الإخلاص . ) .

His (ﷺ) statement, “Whoever stands Ramadan with eemaan and iḥtisaab”. ‘With eemaan‘ means believing that it is true and intending its blessings, and ‘with iḥtisaab‘ means that one desires Allah the Exalted alone and does not intend being seen by the people nor anything else which contradicts ikhlaaṣ (sincerity). Continue reading

“Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim begins the chapter of his Saheeh entitled, “The Book of Paradise, its Description, its Bounties and its Inhabitants” with the following hadeeth reported from Anas ibn Maalik and Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

حُفَّتِ الْجَنَّةُ بِالْمَكَارِهِ وَحُفَّتِ النَّارُ بِالشَّهَوَاتِ

“Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires.”

[Muslim #2822, al-Tirmidhi #2559. Al-Bukhari also reported it with a different wording.]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following on this hadeeth:

 قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( حفت الجنة بالمكاره وحفت النار بالشهوات ) هكذا رواه مسلم ( حفت ) ووقع في البخاري ( حفت ) ووقع أيضا ( حجبت ) وكلاهما صحيح  .

His statement (ﷺ) “Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires” – this is the narration of Muslim (with the word) “surrounded“. And ‘surrounded‘ is replaced in the narration of al-Bukhari with ‘veiled‘, and both of these wordings are authentic (saheeh). Continue reading

The likeness of good company is a perfume merchant

Abu Moosaa narrates that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْجَلِيسِ الصَّالِحِ وَالْجَلِيسِ السَّوْءِ كَحَامِلِ الْمِسْكِ وَنَافِخِ الْكِيرِ فَحَامِلُ الْمِسْكِ إِمَّا أَنْ يُحْذِيَكَ وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَبْتَاعَ مِنْهُ وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَجِدَ مِنْهُ رِيحًا طَيِّبَةً وَنَافِخُ الْكِيرِ إِمَّا أَنْ يُحْرِقَ ثِيَابَكَ وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَجِدَ رِيحًا خَبِيثَةً

The likeness of good company and that of bad company is like the perfume merchant and of the (blacksmith with a) bellowing furnace. So the perfume merchant would either offer you free of charge or you would buy it from him or you would smell its pleasant odor. As for the bellowing furnace, he would either burn your clothes or you shall have to smell its repugnant smell.

[Muslim #2628]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following about this hadeeth:

فيه تمثيله صلى الله عليه وسلم الجليس الصالح بحامل المسك ، والجليس السوء بنافخ الكير ، وفيه فضيلة مجالسة الصالحين وأهل الخير والمروءة ومكارم الأخلاق والورع والعلم والأدب ، والنهي عن مجالسة أهل الشر وأهل البدع ، ومن يغتاب الناس ، أو يكثر فجره وبطالته . ونحو ذلك من الأنواع المذمومة

In his (ﷺ) allegory, the good companion is the perfume merchant, and the bad companion is the bellowing furnace. And therein is the virtue of good company and the people of good and chivalry and noble character and wara’ (abandoning what is doubtful in order to stay clear of the haraam matters), and ‘ilm and good manners, and the prohibition of the company of the people of evil and the people of bid’ah (innovated religious practices and beliefs), and those who backbite the people, or those who frequently commit trespasses or falsehood, and similar to that from the blameworthy categories.

Continue reading

“When one of you sees a women who amazes him, let him go to his wife”: Sharh al-Nawawi

In Saheeh Muslim, Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported:

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَأَى امْرَأَةً فَأَتَى امْرَأَتَهُ زَيْنَبَ وَهْىَ تَمْعَسُ مَنِيئَةً لَهَا فَقَضَى حَاجَتَهُ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ إِلَى أَصْحَابِهِ فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ تُقْبِلُ فِي صُورَةِ شَيْطَانٍ وَتُدْبِرُ فِي صُورَةِ شَيْطَانٍ فَإِذَا أَبْصَرَ أَحَدُكُمُ امْرَأَةً فَلْيَأْتِ أَهْلَهُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يَرُدُّ مَا فِي نَفْسِهِ

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, while she was tanning a leather hide and had fulfilled his need. He then went to his Companions and told them:

The woman advances in the form of a shaytaan and retires in the form of a shaytaan, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in himself.
[Saheeh Muslim #1403]
Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following on this hadeeth:
قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن المرأة تقبل في صورة شيطان وتدبر في صورة شيطان فإذا أبصر أحدكم امرأة فليأت أهله فإن ذلك يرد ما في نفسه ) وفي الرواية الأخرى : إذا أحدكم أعجبته المرأة فوقعت في قلبه فليعمد إلى امرأته فليواقعها فإن ذلك يرد ما في نفسه . هذه الرواية الثانية مبينة للأولى .

His statement (ﷺ), “The woman advances in the form of a shaytaan and retires in the form of a shaytaan, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in himself,” and in another narration, “When one of you sees a woman that he is amazed with her, then let him go to his wife, for indeed with her (his wife) is the same as that which is with her.” This second narration is an explanation of the first one.

ومعنى الحديث : أنه يستحب لمن رأى امرأة فتحركت شهوته أن يأتي امرأته أو جاريته إن كانت له ، فليواقعها ليدفع شهوته ، وتسكن نفسه ، ويجمع قلبه على ما هو بصدده .

And the meaning of the hadeeth is: it is highly recommended (mustahabb) for the one who sees a woman and then his desire is stirred by her to go to his wife or his concubine if he has one, in order to have sexual relations with her so that he may stave off his desire and calm himself and to fulfill his heart’s present concern. Continue reading

The original Ash’aris

Abu Moosa al-Ash’ari reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,

إن الأشعريين إذا أرملوا في الغزو أو قل طعام عيالهم بالمدينة جمعوا ما كان عندهم في ثوب واحد ثم اقتسموه بينهم في إناء واحد بالسوية فهم مني وأنا منهم

“When the Ash’ariyoon [a tribe from Yemen] run short of food during an expedition or when they are at home in Al-Madinah, they gather all the provisions they have in a single sheet and then divide it equally among themselves. They are of me and I am of them.” [al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes about this hadith:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن الأشعريين إذا أرملوا في الغزو إلى آخره ) معنى ( أرملوا ) فني طعامهم . وفي هذا الحديث فضيلة الأشعريين ، وفضيلة الإيثار والمواساة ، وفضيلة خلط الأزواد في السفر ، وفضيلة جمعها في شيء عند قلتها في الحضر ، ثم يقسم ، وليس المراد بهذا القسمة المعروفة في كتب الفقه بشروطها ، ومنعها في الربويات ، واشتراط المواساة وغيرها ، وإنما المراد هنا إباحة بعضهم بعضا ومواساتهم بالموجود .

His statement, “When the Ash’ariyoon run short of food during an expedition…“; the meaning of “run short” is that their food supply dwindles. And this hadith includes the excellence of the Ash’ariyoon, and the excellence of the altruism and sympathetic charity, and the virtue of mixing the provision during travel, and the virtue of gathering them in something when they are small in number, then dividing them (equally). And the well-known division found in the books of fiqh involving contractual agreements is not the intended meaning here, and preventing it from becoming usurious, whether based on altruistic charity or otherwise. And the only meaning here is the permissibility of some (giving) to others in altruistic charity. Continue reading