“Blessed is whoever is at the fire and whoever is around it” : Tafsir al-Baghawi

While recounting the story of Moosaa approaching the burning bush in surah al-Naml, Allah says:

إِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَهْلِهِ إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارً‌ا سَآتِيكُم مِّنْهَا بِخَبَرٍ‌ أَوْ آتِيكُم بِشِهَابٍ قَبَسٍ لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُونَ * فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِ‌كَ مَن فِي النَّارِ‌ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ رَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[Mention] when Moosaa said to his family, “Indeed, I have perceived a fire. I will bring you from there information or will bring you a burning torch that you may warm yourselves.” * But when he came to it, he was addressed, “Blessed is whoever is at (lit. “in”) the fire and whoever is around it. And exalted is Allah, Lord of the worlds. [27:7-8]

Commenting on the second ayah in his book of tafsir, Imam al-Baghawi wrote:

ـ ( فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَنْ بُورِكَ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ) أَيْ : بُورِكَ عَلَى مَنْ فِي النَّارِ أَوْ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ ، وَالْعَرَبُ تَقُولُ : بَارَكَهُ اللَّهُ وَبَارَكَ فِيهِ ، وَبَارَكَ عَلَيْهِ ، بِمَعْنًى وَاحِدٍ . ـ

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِ‌كَ مَن فِي النَّارِ‌ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

But when he came to it, he was addressed, ‘Blessed is whoever is at (lit. “in”) the fire and whoever is around it’ [27:8]

Meaning: Blessings upon those at (lit. “in”) the fire. And the Arabs say, “baarak Allaahu” (God bless), “baarak feehi” (blessings ‘in’ him) and “baarak ‘alaihi” (blessings on him) all with the same meaning.

وَقَالَ قَوْمٌ : الْبَرَكَةُ رَاجِعَةٌ إِلَى مُوسَى وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ ، مَعْنَاهُ : بُورِكَ فِي مَنْ طَلَبَ النَّارَ ، وَهُوَ مُوسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ ) ( وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ) وَهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ الَّذِينَ حَوْلَ النَّارِ ، وَمَعْنَاهُ : بُورِكَ فِيكَ يَا مُوسَى وَفِي الْمَلَائِكَةِ الَّذِينَ حَوْلَ النَّارِ ، وَهَذَا تَحِيَّةٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ – عَزَّ وَجَلَّ – لِمُوسَى بِالْبَرَكَةِ ، كَمَا حَيَّا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَى أَلْسِنَةِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ حِينَ دَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُوا : رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ . ـ

A people said, “the barakah (blessings) refers to Moosaa and the angels”, meaning blessings on the one who sought the fire, and that is Moosaa (‘alaihis salaam).

وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

Whoever is around it

and they are the angels who were around the fire, meaning ‘blessings on you, O Moosaa, and on the angels who were around the fire’, and this is a greeting of blessings from Allah to Moosaa, just as He greeted Ibrahim via the tongues of the angels when they entered upon him and said,

رَ‌حْمَتُ اللَّـهِ وَبَرَ‌كَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ

May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house [11:73] Continue reading

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A Point of Benefit regarding Truthfulness: Imam al-Sa’di

Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di mentioned the following point in his book of general thematic tafsir:

فائدة: أمر الله بالصدق وأثنى على الصادقين، وذكر جزاء الصادقين في آيات كثيرة، والمراد بالصدق أن يكون العبد صادقا في عقيدته، صادقا في خلقه، صادقا في قوله وعمله، فهو الذي يجيء بالصدق في ظاهره وباطنه، ويصدق بالصدق لمن جاء به، كما قال تعالى: { وَالَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ ۙ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ  } [الزمر: 33]. ولما كان من هذا وصفه هو أعلى الخلق في كل حالة، ذكر جزاءه أعلى الجزاء وأفضله فقال: {  لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ عِندَ رَ‌بِّهِمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ * لِيُكَفِّرَ‌ اللَّـهُ عَنْهُمْ أَسْوَأَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَهُمْ أَجْرَ‌هُم بِأَحْسَنِ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ } [الزمر: 34 و 35]. ـ

A point of benefit: Allah has commanded al-Sidq (truthfulness) and commended the truthful ones [al-saadiqoon], and He has mentioned the reward of the truthful ones in many ayaat. And the intended meaning of al-Sidq is that the slave is truthful in his ‘aqeedah (creed), truthful in his character, truthful in his speech and actions, so that he comes with truthfulness both outwardly and inwardly and he truthfully affirms whoever comes with it. This is as Allah said:

وَالَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ ۙ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ

And the one who has brought the truth and [they who] believed in it – those are the muttaqoon. [39:33]

And when he has this attribute, then he is the highest of creatures in every circumstance. Allah mentioned his reward – the highest of rewards and the best of them – so He said:

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ عِندَ رَ‌بِّهِمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ * لِيُكَفِّرَ‌ اللَّـهُ عَنْهُمْ أَسْوَأَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَهُمْ أَجْرَ‌هُم بِأَحْسَنِ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

They will have whatever they desire with their Lord. That is the reward of the doers of good – * That Allah may remove from them the worst of what they did and reward them their due for the best of what they used to do. [39:34-35]

وخواص أهل هذا الوصف هم الصدِّيقون الذين ليس بعد درجة النبوة أعلى منهم، قال تعالى: { وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَرُ‌سُلِهِ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الصِّدِّيقُونَ } [ الحديد: 19 ]. والمراد الإيمان الكامل، { كما قال النبي ﷺ لما ذكر لأصحابه الغرف العالية التي يتراآها أهل الجنة من علوها وارتفاعها ونورها كالكوكب الدري في الأفق الشرقي أو الغربي، فقالوا: يا رسول الله تلك منازل الأنبياء، لا يبلغها غيرهم ؟ فقال: بلى، والذي نفسي بيده، رجال آمنوا بالله وصدَّقوا المرسلين، وهؤلاء هم الهداة المهديون كما قال تعالى: { وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِ‌نَا لَمَّا صَبَرُ‌وا ۖ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ } [ السجدة: 24 ]. ـ

And the top-tier of the people with this characteristic are the siddeeqoon [the truthful ones] – those whom, after the level of prophethood, there is no higher level than them. Allah said: Continue reading

The Subtleties of the Supplications of Ayyub and Yusuf – ibn al-Qayyim

Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawzi wrote the following points of benefit in his famous work entitled al-Fawaa’id:

 من لطائف دعاء أيوب عليه السلام .ـ

From the subtleties of the supplication of Ayyub (‘alaihi al-salaam):

قوله تعالى (( وأيوب إذ نادى ربَّهُ أنِّي مَسِّنِيَ الضُّر و أنتَ أرحمُ الراحِمين )) الأنبياء 83 جمع في هذا الدعاء بين : حقيقة التوحيد ،وإظهار الفقر والفاقة إلى ربه ، ووجود طعم المحبة في التملق له ، والإقرار له بصفة الرحمة ، وأنه أرحم الراحمين ، والتوسل إليه بصفاته سبحانه ، وشدة حاجته هو وفقره . ـ

Allah said,

وَأَيُّوبَ إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَ‌بَّهُ أَنِّي مَسَّنِيَ الضُّرُّ‌ وَأَنتَ أَرْ‌حَمُ الرَّ‌احِمِينَ

And [mention] Ayyub, when he called to his Lord, ‘Indeed, adversity has touched me, and you are the Most Merciful of the merciful.’ [21:83].

He combined several things in this supplication:

-the reality of al-tawheed,
-and demonstrating his poverty and neediness of his Lord,
-and the presence of his deep-seated love in his adulation of Him,
-and his affirming Allah’s quality of al-Rahmah [Mercy] and that He is the Most Merciful of the merciful ones,
-and supplicating to Him by means of His attributes – Exalted is He – and by the severity of his personal need and poverty. Continue reading

A Mercy to All Creation: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his book of tafsir:

قوله تعالى : وما أرسلناك إلا رحمة للعالمين . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَمَا أَرْ‌سَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَ‌حْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to all creation [21:107]

ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة أنه ما أرسل هذا النبي الكريم – صلوات الله [ ص: 251 ] وسلامه عليه – إلى الخلائق إلا رحمة لهم ؛ لأنه جاءهم بما يسعدهم وينالون به كل خير من خير الدنيا والآخرة إن اتبعوه . ومن خالف ولم يتبع فهو الذي ضيع على نفسه نصيبه من تلك الرحمة العظمى . ـ

In this noble ayah Allah mentioned that He did not send this noble Prophet (ﷺ) to the created beings except as a mercy towards them. For he came to them with what would please them and with that by which they would achieve every good thing of the good of this life and the hereafter if they were to follow him. And whoever opposed him and did not follow, then he is one who has squandered his portion of this great mercy. Continue reading

The Blessings of al-Shaam as mentioned in the Qur’an: ibn Taymiyah

As it comes in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa ibn Taymiyah:

وقال شيخ الإسلام رحمه الله قد أخبر الله بأنه بارك في أرض الشام في آيات : منها قوله : { وأورثنا القوم الذين كانوا يستضعفون مشارق الأرض ومغاربها التي باركنا فيها } . ـ

Sheikh al-Islaam – may Allah have mercy on him – said: Allah has informed us that He has bestowed blessing on the land of al-Shaam* in multiple ayaat. Among them is His statement:

وَأَوْرَ‌ثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ مَشَارِ‌قَ الْأَرْ‌ضِ وَمَغَارِ‌بَهَا الَّتِي بَارَ‌كْنَا فِيهَا

And We caused the people who had been oppressed to inherit the eastern regions of the land and the western ones, which We had blessed. [7:137]

ومنها قوله : { ونجيناه ولوطا إلى الأرض التي باركنا فيها للعالمين } . ـ

And among them is His statement:

وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَلُوطًا إِلَى الْأَرْ‌ضِ الَّتِي بَارَ‌كْنَا فِيهَا لِلْعَالَمِينَ

And We delivered him and Loot to the land which We had blessed for the all creation. [21:71]

ومنها قوله : { تجري بأمره إلى الأرض التي باركنا فيها وكنا بكل شيء عالمين } . ـ

And among them is His statement: Continue reading

Remaining eternally in the Hell-fire and its causes: Imam al-Sa’di

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following point towards the end of his thematic tafsir:

فائدة: ورد في القرآن عدة آيات فيها ذكر الخلود في النار على ذنوب وكبائر ليست بكفر مثل قوله: { وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا } [ النساء: 93 ] ، { وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّـهَ وَرَ‌سُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارً‌ا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ } [ النساء: 14 ]. {  بَلَىٰ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيئَتُهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ‌ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ } [ البقرة: 81 ]. ـ

A point of benefit: In the Qur’an, there are a number of ayaat in which there is mention of eternal dwelling in the Hell-fire for sins and majors sins – and due to kufr such as His statement:

وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

But whoever kills a believer intentionally – his recompense is Hell, wherein he will abide eternally, and Allah has become angry with him and has cursed him and has prepared for him a great punishment. [4:93]

وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّـهَ وَرَ‌سُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارً‌ا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits – He will put him into the Fire to abide eternally therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment. [4:14]

بَلَىٰ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيئَتُهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ‌ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Yes, whoever earns evil and his sin has encompassed him – those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally. [2:81]

فما الجمع بينها وبين النصوص المتواترة من الكتاب والسنة أنه لا يخلد في النار إلا الكفار، وأن جميع المؤمنين مهما عملوا من المعاصي التي دون الكفر فإنهم لا بد أن يخرجوا منها . ـ

So what is the reconciliation between these and the mutawaatir texts from the Book and the Sunnah which state that no one remains eternally in the Hell-fire except for the kuffaar and that all of the believers – regardless of whatever they commit of disobedience less than al-kufr – will indeed be taken out of it? Continue reading

The Ruling on Fighting during the Sacred Months: Ibn Rajab

In his chapter concerning the sacred month of Rajab, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali brought forth the following discussion on the ruling of fighting during the sacred months (al-Ashhoor al-Hurum):

وقد اختلف العلماء في حكم القتال في الأشهر الحرم هل تحريمه باق أو نسخ ؟ فالجمهور على أنه نسخ تحريمه ونص على نسخه الإمام أحمد وغيره من الأئمة . وذهبت طائفة من السلف ، منهم عطاء ، إلى بقاء تحريمه ورجحه بعض المتأخرين واستدلوا بآية المائدة والمائدة من آخر ما نزل من القرآن وقد روي: “أحلوا حلالها وحرموا حرامها” ـ

The scholars have differed concerning the ruling of fighting during the Sacred Months – does its prohibition remain or was it abrogated? The majority are of the opinion that its prohibition was abrogated, and Imam Ahmad and others from the scholars specifically stated that. And a group of the salaf held the position – and among them was ‘Ataa’ – that its prohibition remained, and some of the latter-day scholars held that to be correct and they used the ayah of surah al-Maa’idah* as evidence since al-Maa’idah was one of the last parts of the Qur’an to be revealed. And it is narrated [concerning surah al-Maa’idah], “Consider halaal its halaal, and consider haraam its haraam.” Continue reading

Allah invites the disbelievers to repent: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah says in surah al-Maa’idah:

لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ‌ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَاثَةٍ ۘ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَـٰهٍ إِلَّا إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۚ وَإِن لَّمْ يَنتَهُوا عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ * أَفَلَا يَتُوبُونَ إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُ‌ونَهُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ

They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the third of three.” And there is no deity worthy of worship except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment. * So will they not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. [5:73-74]

Commenting briefly on the latter ayah, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote: Continue reading