Makki and Madani Series Part 3 – Characteristics: al-Suyooti

In his famous handbook of the Qur’anic Sciences, al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyooti dedicated his first main chapter to the subject of Makki and Madani revelation, which we have made into the this Makki and Madani Series of articles. What follows is the third of four sections of that chapter as abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool. This particular section focuses on how to identify whether a surah is makki or madani and some of the distinguishing characteristics of each:

[العمدة في معرفة المكي والمدني]

[The Main Source of Knowledge for Determining Makki and Madani]

قال القاضي أبو بكر في ” الانتصار ” : إنما يرجع في معرفة المكي والمدني إلى حفظ الصحابة والتابعين ، ولم يرد عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – في ذلك قول ، لأنه لم يؤمر به ، ولم يجعل الله علم ذلك من فرائض الأمة ، وإن وجب في بعضه على أهل العلم معرفة تاريخ الناسخ والمنسوخ ، فقد يعرف ذلك بغير نص الرسول . انتهى . ـ

In his book al-Intisar, al-Qadhi Abu Bakr wrote:

When it comes to knowing what is Makki and Madani, then our only point of reference is the recordings of the Sahabah and Tabi’oon as there is nothing on this subject transmitted directly from the Prophet. That is because he was not commanded to speak on that subject, and Allah did not make this field of knowledge something obligatory for every member of this ummah, although some knowledge of it is necessary for the scholars in order to know the timeline of abrogating and abrogated verses, as that is something that can be known without an explicit text from the Messenger.

وقد أخرج البخاري ، عن ابن مسعود أنه قال : والذي لا إله غيره ما نزلت آية من كتاب الله – تعالى – إلا وأنا أعلم فيمن نزلت ، وأين نزلت . وقال أيوب : سأل رجل عكرمة عن آية في القرآن ، فقال : نزلت في سفح ذلك الجبل ، وأشار إلى سلع . أخرجه أبو نعيم في الحلية . وقد ورد عن ابن عباس وغيره عد المكي والمدني . ـ

al-Bukhari reported that ibn Mas’ood said:

I swear by the One besides whom there is none worthy of worship, there is not a single ayah in Allah’s Book except that I know who is was revealed about and where it was revealed. Continue reading

Advertisements

Surah Yusuf and the People of al-Madinah

In part of his famous manual of the Qur’anic sciences, al-Burhan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Badr al-Deen al-Zarkashi wrote:

ما حمل من مكة إلى المدينة
Those Parts of the Qur’an which were Transmitted from Mecca to al-Madinah

أول سورة حملت من مكة إلى المدينة سورة ” يوسف ” ، انطلق بها عوف بن عفراء في [ ص: 291 ] الثمانية الذين قدموا على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مكة ، فعرض عليهم الإسلام فأسلموا ، وهو أول من أسلم من الأنصار ، قرأها على أهل المدينة في بني زريق ، فأسلم يومئذ بيوت من الأنصار ، روى ذلك يزيد بن رومان ، عن عطاء بن يسار ، عن ابن عباس ، ثم حمل بعدها : ( قل هو الله أحد ) ( سورة الإخلاص ) إلى آخرها ، ثم حمل بعدها الآية التي في ” الأعراف ” : ( قل ياأيها الناس إني رسول الله إليكم جميعا ) إلى قوله : ( تهتدون ) ( الآية : 158 ) ، فأسلم عليها طوائف من أهل المدينة ، وله قصة

The first surah to be taken from Mecca to al-Madinah was surah Yusuf. ‘Awf ibn ‘Afraa’ was the one who brought it there, and he was one of eighty men who came to Allah’s Messenger in Mecca where he presented Islam to them and they accepted and became Muslims, and he was the first one of the Ansaar to enter Islam. He recited this surah to the people of Banu Zurayq in al-Madinah and as a result a number of households of the Ansaar accepted Islam on that day.

This was narrated by Yazeed ibn Ruman, on the authority of ‘Ataa’ ibn Yasar, on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas.

After that, surah al-Ikhlaas was the next surah taken from Mecca to al-Madinah. Next after that was an ayah from surah al-A’raaf:

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّـهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّـهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Say: O mankind, I am certainly Allah’s messenger to all of you, the messenger of the One who possesses the dominion of the heavens and the earth. There is no deity worthy of worship except Him; He gives life and He causes death. So believe in Allah and His messenger, the illiterate prophet who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him so that you would be guided. [7:158]

And so a number of segments of the people of al-Madinah accepted Islam, and there is a larger story around this.

[al-Burhan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an 1/290-291]

In the beginning of his explanation of surah Yusuf, al-haafidh ibn Kathir – who was a teacher of al-Zarkashi – mentioned the following report: Continue reading

Makki and Madani Series Part 2 – Importance: al-Suyooti

In his famous handbook of the Qur’anic Sciences, al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyooti dedicated his first main chapter to the subject of Makki and Madani revelation, which we have made into the this Makki and Madani Series of articles. What follows is the second of four sections of that chapter as abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool. This particular section focuses on the value of this field, some of its benefits, and a listing of its sub-fields:

[شرف هذه النوع وأقسامه]

The Value of this Branch of Knowledge and its Sub-Fields

قال أبو القاسم الحسن بن محمد بن حبيب النيسابوري في كتاب ” التنبيه على فضل علوم القرآن ” : من أشرف علوم القرآن علم نزوله وجهاته ، وترتيب ما نزل بمكة والمدينة ، وما نزل بمكة وحكمه مدني ، وما نزل بالمدينة وحكمه مكي ، وما نزل بمكة في أهل المدينة ، وما نزل بالمدينة في أهل مكة ، وما يشبه نزول المكي في المدني ، وما يشبه نزول المدني في المكي ، وما نزل بالجحفة ، وما نزل ببيت المقدس ، وما نزل بالطائف . وما نزل بالحديبية ، وما نزل ليلا وما نزل نهارا ، وما نزل مشيعا وما نزل مفردا ، والآيات المدنيات في السور المكية ، والآيات المكيات في السور المدنية ، وما حمل من مكة إلى المدينة ، وما حمل من المدينة إلى مكة ، وما حمل من المدينة إلى أرض الحبشة ، وما نزل مجملا ، وما نزل مفسرا ، وما اختلفوا فيه ، فقال بعضهم مدني وبعضهم مكي . فهذه خمسة وعشرون وجها من لم يعرفها ويميز بينها لم يحل له أن يتكلم في كتاب الله – تعالى – . ـ

In his book al-Tanbeeh ‘alaa Fadhl ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Abu’l-Qasim al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Habeeb al-Naysaboori wrote:

One of the most valuable of the Qur’anic sciences is knowledge of

• (1-2) the Qur’an’s revelation and to whom is what addressed,
• (3) the order in which it was revealed in Mecca and al-Madinah
• (4-5) what was revealed in Mecca while functioning as if it were Madani, and what was revealed in al-Madinah while functioning as if it were Makki
• (6-7) what was revealed in Mecca regarding the people of al-Madinah and what was revealed in al-Madinah regarding the people of Mecca
• (8-9) what appears to be a Makki revelation among the Madani verses, and what appears to be a Madani revelation among the Makki verses Continue reading

Makki and Madani Series Part 1 – Definitions: al-Suyooti

In his famous handbook of the Qur’anic Sciences, al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyooti dedicated his first main chapter to the subject of Makki and Madani revelation, which we have made into the this Makki and Madani Series of articles. What follows is the first of four sections of that chapter as abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool. This particular section focuses on the defining the terms Makki and Madani and understanding the different terminologies used.

ـ [تعريف المكي والمدني] ـ

Defining Makki and Madani

وقال ابن النقيب في مقدمة تفسيره : المنزل من القرآن على أربعة أقسام : مكي ، ومدني ، وما بعضه مكي وبعضه مدني ، وما ليس بمكي ولا مدني . ـ

In the introduction to his tafsir, ibn al-Naqeeb said:

What has been revealed of the Qur’an can be divided into four categories: 1) Makki, 2) Madani, 3) part of which is Makki and part of which is Madani, and 4) what is neither Makki nor Madani.

اعلم أن للناس في المكي والمدني اصطلاحات ثلاثة : ـ

Be aware that when it comes to Makki and Madani, people have three different sets of terminology:

أشهرها : أن المكي ما نزل قبل الهجرة ، والمدني ما نزل بعدها ، سواء نزل بمكة أم بالمدينة ، عام الفتح أو عام حجة الوداع ، أم بسفر من الأسفار . ـ

The most common one is this: that Makki is what was revealed prior to the Hijrah, and Madani is what was revealed afterwards, regardless of whether it was revealed in Mecca of al-Madinah, during the year of the Conquest of Mecca or during the Farewell Pilgrimage, or during any one of the Prophet’s travels.

أخرج عثمان بن سعيد الدارمي بسنده إلى يحيى بن سلام ، قال : ما نزل بمكة وما نزل في طريق المدينة قبل أن يبلغ النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – المدينة فهو من المكي . وما نزل على النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – في أسفاره بعد ما قدم المدينة فهو من المدني . ـ

وهذا أثر لطيف ، يؤخذ منه : أن ما نزل في سفر الهجرة مكي اصطلاحا . ـ

‘Uthman ibn Sa’eed al-Daarimi brought a chain of narration going back to Yahyah ibn Salam who said: Continue reading

Is the Qur’an Sufficient on its Own?: Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool

Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool, a professor at Umm al-Qura University in Mecca, wrote:

قال : اﻻ يكفي القرآن فقط..ام انه (يحتاج) الي سنة؟؟ ـ

A person asks, “Is the Qur’an sufficient on its own, or is it in need of the Sunnah?”

الجواب : القرآن العظيم يحتاج إلى السنة لتبينه، وهي قاضية عليه . قال الله تعالى : ﴿…وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ٤٤﴾ [النحل: 44]. وقال تعالى: ﴿وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ٦٤﴾ [النحل: 64]. ـ

Response: The Qur’an needs the Sunnah to clarify it, and the Sunnah is a definitive word regarding the Qur’an. Allah said:

وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

And We sent down the dhikr to you in order to make clear to the people what has been sent down to them and in order that they would reflect. [16:44]

and He said:

وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And We did not reveal the Book to you for any other reason than to clarify for them what they have been differing about and as a guidance and a mercy for the believing people. [16:64]

فالسنة تبين القرآن وتفسره، فلا يكفي القرآن العظيم بدون السنة؛ والسنة وحي أوحاه الله إلى نبيه محمد – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال تبارك وتعالى: {مَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى. إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى} (النجم:3 – 4). والرسول – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أوتي القرآن ومثله معه. ـ

The Sunnah acts as a clarification and explanation of the Qur’an, therefore the Qur’an is not sufficient without the Sunnah. The Sunnah is divine revelation which Allah gave to His prophet Muhammad. Allah said:

مَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى * إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى

The Prophet does not speak of his own desires * It is only a divine revelation that has been sent. [53:3-4]

and the Messenger was given both the Qur’an and something like it along with it. Continue reading

What about the Qiraa’ah of ibn Mas’ood?: Makki ibn Abi Taalib

Makki ibn Abi Taalib, one of the great scholars of the Qur’anic sciences among the earlier generations, posed and responded to the following question in part of a larger work addressing a number of questions surrounding the multiple recitations of the Qur’an, or qiraa’aat:

فإن قيل: قد روي عن النبي “صلى الله عليه وسلم”، أنه قال: “من أراد أن يقرأ القرآن غضا، فليقرأه بقراءة ابن أم عبد”، يعني ابن مسعود. وعنه أنه قال: “من أراد أن يسمع كلام الله غضا، كما أنزل فليسمعه من في ابن أم عبد”. وقد تركت قراءة ابن مسعود اليوم، ومنع مالك وغيره أن يقرأ بالقراءة، التي تنسب إلى ابن مسعود. ـ

If one were to ask: It has been transmitted that the Prophet said:

Whoever wants to recite the Qur’an fresh, then let him recite with the recitation of ibn Umm ‘Abd

– meaning ibn Mas’ood. And he also said:

Whoever wants to hear Allah’s speech fresh just as it was sent down, then let him listen to ibn Umm ‘Abd.

But the qiraa’ah of ibn Mas’ood has been abandoned today, and imam Maalik and others forbade reciting with the qiraa’ah that has been attributed to ibn Mas’ood.

فالجواب: أن ما قاله الحسين بن علي الجعفي قال: إن معنى ذلك أن ابن مسعود كان يرتل القرآن، فحض النبي الناس على ترتيل القرآن بهذا القول. دليله قوله في الحديث الآخر: فليسمعه من في ابن مسعود، فحض على سماع ترتيل القرآن. وكذلك الجواب عن الحديث الذي روى عنه “صلى الله عليه وسلم”، أنه قال: “من أراد أن يقرا القرآن غضا كما أنزل، فليقرأه كما يقرأ ابن مسعود”. ـ

The response would be what al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali al-Ja’fi said: that the meaning of all that is that ibn Mas’ood used to recite the Qur’an at a slow and measured pace, so the Prophet was encouraging the people to also recite in a slow and measured pace with these statements.

The support for this comes in the latter of the two hadith, “…then let him listen to ibn Mas’ood.” So he was encouraging the people to listen to this slow and measured recitation of the Qur’an. And this would also be the response to another hadith that the Prophet said:

Whoever wants to recite the Qur’an fresh as it was sent down, then let him recite it as ibn Mas’ood recites it. Continue reading

Why Study the Sayings of the Salaf?: Muhammad Bazmool

Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool, a professor at Umm al-Qura University in Mecca, wrote the following beneficial note:

ما فائدة الآثار الواردة عن السلف وعندنا القرآن والسنة ؟ ـ
What is the Benefit of the Transmitted Saying of the Salaf when We Already Have the Qur’an and the Sunnah?

ـ ◇سؤال : ما فائدة الآثار الواردة عن السلف وعندنا القرآن والسنة ؟ ـ

Question: What is the benefit of the transmitted sayings of the salaf when we already have the Qur’an and the Sunnah?

ـ ◇الجواب : الآثار الواردة على السلف على أنواع؛ ـ

Response: There are a number of different types of the transmitted sayings of the salaf:

ـ #النوع_الأول : آثار موقوفة أو مقطوعة ولها حكم الرفع، يعني يأتي قول صحابي أو أثر عن تابعي له حكم الحديث المرفوع، فهذا حكمه حكم الحديث المروي. وجملة كثيرة من الأحاديث النبوية نقلت على هذه الصورة. فالاهتمام بالآثار فيه حفظ جملة كثيرة قد تكون ثلث أو ربع أو خمس الأحاديث فيها، والله اعلم. ـ

1) Mawqoof or Maqtoo’ narrations that take a Marfoo’ ruling – meaning that there is the saying of a Companion or the saying of a Tabi’ee which takes the ruling of a Marfoo’ hadith, so it is treated in the same way as a saying attributed to the Prophet. In fact, a large number of Prophetic hadith narrations have been conveyed in this manner. So by giving attention and importance to these sayings we preserve a large body of hadith narrations, maybe even as big as a third or a fourth or a fifth of them, and Allah knows best. Continue reading

Different Categories of Tafsir from the Companions: Sheikh Saalih Aal al-Sheikh

Sheikh Saalih Aal al-Sheikh mentioned the following points in one of his lectures on the fundamentals of Qur’anic explanation:

 ــ 9 – أنواع تفاسير الصحابة
Part 9: Different Categories of Tafsir from the Companions

الصحابة في تفاسيرهم على أنحاء : الناحية الأولى : أن يُجْمِعُوا على تفسير ، فإذا أجمعوا على تفسير لم يَحِلَّ لأحد ممن بعدهم أن يخالفهم في التفسير ، لِمَ ؟ ـ

The Qur’anic explanations of the Companions come in a few different ways.

The first way: that they were united in one explanation. So if they were unanimous in one explanation, then it is not permissible for anyone who came after them to put forth a different explanation that conflicts with or contradicts that one. Why is that?

لأنه لا يمكن أن يُحْجَبُ الصواب في التفسير عن الصحابة – رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين – ثم يدركه من بعدهم ، لأن العلم بالقرآن لابد أن يكون موجودًا في كل طبقة من طبقات الأمة ، فإذا أجمع الصحابة – رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين – على تفسير آية ، ثم حدث خلاف بعد ذلك في زمن التابعين أو بعد ذلك ، فنعلم أنه خلاف بعد انعقاد الإجماع ، ومعنى هذا الخلاف أن هذا القول إذا قلنا بصوابه فإنه يعني أن الصحابة – رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين – لم يعرفوا هذا القول ، ومعنى ذلك أن جملة الصحابة – رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين -لم يدركوا التفسير الصحيح لهذه الآية . ـ

That is because it is not possible that the correct explanation was hidden from the Companions but then someone who came after them was able to apprehend it, for knowledge of the Qur’an must be present in every generation of this Ummah. So if the Companions were in agreement about the explanation of an ayah, but then some differing as to the correct understanding of that ayah occurred later during the time of the Taabi’oon or after that, then know that this is a conflicting position after unanimous agreement had already been established. If we were to say that the more recently introduced position which conflicts with the earlier consensus was accurate, then that would mean that the Companions did not know this position. And that would mean that none of the Companions were able to grasp the correct explanation of this ayah. Continue reading

Fiqh-Themed Tafsir: Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool

Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool mentioned the following point of benefit regarding ibn al-Jawzi’s book of tafsirZaad al-Maseer – and fiqh-themed works of tafsir more generally:

أمر آخر في هذا الكتاب (زاد المسير): أن هذا الكتاب يعتبر من كتب التفسير التي مؤلفوها من علماء الحنابلة. ما الفائدة ؟ أقول لك: هذا الرجل حنبلي ، فلما جاء إلى تفسير آيات الأحكام في داخل التفسير اعتنى ببيان المذهب الحنبلي ، لا تجد في المكتبة التفسيرية كتاباً في أحكام القرآن مؤلفه حنبلي ، عندنا أحكام القرآن لابن العربي المالكي ، عندنا أحكام القرآن للكيا الهراسي شافعي ، وأحكام القرآن للجصاص حنفي، والجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي مالكي، عندنا التفسير الكبير للرازي وما تضمنه من آيات الأحكام شافعي ؛ وعليه فإن كتاب زاد المسير جدير بأن يعتنى به ، والله الموفق

Another point regarding the book Zaad al-Maseer [the tafsir of ibn al-Jawzi] is that it is considered to be one of the books of tafsir whose author was a Hanbali scholar. Why is that notable? Let me tell you:

This is a Hanbali man, so when he comes to explaining the ayaat of legal rulings in his tafsir, he takes care to explain the position of the Hanbali madhhab. In the whole of tafsir literature you do not find any book specifically focused on the legal rulings of the Qur’an written by a Hanbali.

What we do have is: Continue reading

The Different Frequencies of Completing the Qur’an

Sheikh Muhammad Moosaa Aal Nasr, one of the salafi scholars of recent times who specialized in the qiraa’aat and Qur’anic sciences, compiled the following beneficial discussion on how often one should complete a reading of the entire Qur’an. Sheikh Muhammad Moosaa was also a long-term student of sheikh al-Albani and limited himself to only using authentic hadith narrations throughout this chapter:

مراتب ختم القرآن
The Different Frequencies of Completing the Qur’an

قال الله تعالى : (فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ) [المزمل 20] .  ـ

Allah said:

فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ

So recite whatever of it is easy for you of the Qur’an [73:20]

عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال : قال رسول الله (إقرأ القرآن في أربعين) . ـ

Ibn ‘Umar said: Allah’s Messenger said, “Complete the Qur’an in 40 days.”

وعن سعد ابن المنذر أن رسول الله قال : (إقرأ القرآن في ثلاث إن استطعت) . ـ

Sa’d ibn al-Mundhir relayed that Allah’s Messenger said, “Complete the Qur’an in three days if you can.”

و عن عبد الله ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما : أن رسول الله قال : (لم يفقه من قرأ القرآن في أقل من ثلاث) .  ـ

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar relayed that Allah’s Messenger said, “Whoever completes the Qur’an in less than three days has not understood it.”

وله شاهد صحيح من حديث عبد الله ابن مسعود عند سعيد بن منصور: (اقرؤوا القرآن في السبع ، ولا تقرؤوه في أقل من ثلاث) . ـ

And in the hadith collection of Sa’eed ibn Mansoor there is an authentic support for this in the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood, “Complete the Qur’an in seven days, and do not complete it in less than three days.” Continue reading