‘Ibad al-Rahman – Conclusion: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. He concluded the booklet with the following:

خاتمة
Conclusion

ثم ختم الله هذا السياق المبارك بذكر جزاء من اتصف بالصفات السابقة، وعظيم ثوابه، فقال عز وجل : [أُولَـٰئِكَ يُجْزَوْنَ الْغُرْفَةَ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيُلَقَّوْنَ فِيهَا تَحِيَّةً وَسَلَامًا ﴿٧٥﴾ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ حَسُنَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا] فكان الجزاء من جنس العمل؛ فلما كانت أوصافهم رفيعةً عاليةً كافأهم رب العالمين بالغرْفة العالية جزاءً لهم. ـ

Allah then concludes this blessed passage by mentioning the recompense of those who are characterized by these aforementioned qualities and the greatness of His reward for them. He says:

أُولَـٰئِكَ يُجْزَوْنَ الْغُرْفَةَ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيُلَقَّوْنَ فِيهَا تَحِيَّةً وَسَلَامًا * خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ حَسُنَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا

Those will be awarded with a dwelling for what they patiently endured, and they will be received therein with greetings and words of peace. * Abiding therein; excellent it is as an abode, and as a place to dwell. [25:75-76]

For the rewards of deeds are of the same nature as the deeds themselves. So since their qualities are so lofty and elevated then the Lord of all creation will compensate them with this elevated dwelling place as a reward. Continue reading

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The Jews Say the Christians Have Nothing to Stand on …: Tafsir ibn Kathir

al-Haafidh Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir wrote the following in his tafsir of surah al-Baqarah:

وقوله تعالى : ( وقالت اليهود ليست النصارى على شيء وقالت النصارى ليست اليهود على شيء وهم يتلون الكتاب ) يبين به تعالى تناقضهم وتباغضهم وتعاديهم وتعاندهم . كما قال محمد بن إسحاق : حدثني محمد بن أبي محمد ، عن عكرمة أو سعيد بن جبير ، عن ابن عباس ، قال : لما قدم أهل نجران من النصارى على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، أتتهم أحبار يهود ، فتنازعوا عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فقال رافع بن حريملة ما أنتم على شيء ، وكفر بعيسى وبالإنجيل . وقال رجل من أهل نجران من النصارى لليهود : ما أنتم على شيء . وجحد نبوة موسى وكفر بالتوراة . فأنزل الله في ذلك من قولهما ( وقالت اليهود ليست النصارى على شيء وقالت النصارى ليست اليهود على شيء وهم يتلون الكتاب ) قال : إن كلا يتلو في كتابه تصديق من كفر به ، أي : يكفر اليهود بعيسى وعندهم التوراة ، فيها ما أخذ الله عليهم على لسان موسى بالتصديق بعيسى ، وفي الإنجيل ما جاء به عيسى بتصديق موسى ، وما جاء من التوراة من عند الله ، وكل يكفر بما في يد صاحبه . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۚ فَاللَّـهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

The Jews say “The Christians have nothing to stand on,” and the Christians say, “The Jews have nothing to stand on,” although they both recite the Scripture. Likewise is what those who do not know said. So Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ. [2:113]

Allah is clearly putting their contradictions, their mutual enmity and hatred, and their opposition to one another on display. This is just as Muhammad ibn Ishaaq said: that Muhammad ibn Abi Muhammad told me on the authority of ‘Ikrimah or Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, that ibn ‘Abbas said:

When the Christians of Najran came to see Allah’s Messenger, the Jewish Rabbis [of al-Madinah] came to them and the two groups argued in front of Allah’s Messenger. Raafi’ ibn Huraymilah said, “You all have nothing to stand on!” and he expressed his disbelief in ‘Eesaa and the Injeel. A man from the Christians of Najran said to the Jews, “You all have nothing to stand on!” and rejected the Prophethood of Moosaa and expressed his disbelief in the Tawrah. So then Allah revealed the following about these statements of theirs:

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ

The Jews say “The Christians have nothing to stand on,” and the Christians say, “The Jews have nothing to stand on,” although they both recite the Scripture.

Ibn ‘Abbaas went on to say: Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 8 – Attention to Supplication: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This is the eighth and final quality mentioned before the conclusion:

الصفة الثامنة : عنايتهم بالدعاء والتَّضرع لله
The Eighth Characteristic: Their Attention to Supplication and Humility Towards Allah

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا

And those who say, “Our Lord, grant us from among our wives and offspring comfort to our eyes and make us an example for the righteous.” [25:74]

فمنْ صفات عباد الرحمن الكمل: عنايتهم بالدعاء، فهم مفتقرون إلى الله ملْتجئون إليه، مقْبلون عليه، وجميع حاجاتهم ومصالحهم الدينية والدنيوية يرجونها منه وحده لا شريك له. ـ

One of the characteristics of the complete ‘Ibad al-Rahman – slaves of the Most Merciful – is their attention to supplication, for they are completely in need of Allah and seek refuge in Him and turn to Him. For every single need and benefit – whether in this life or the next – they place their hopes in Him alone, making no partner with Him.

ثم هم في دعائهم يحرصون على جوامع الدعاء وأنفعه، فقولهم: [وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا] هذا الدعاء من أجمع الدعاء وأنفعه، ففيه أولًا دعاء المرء بأنْ تقر عينه، ويسعد قلبه بصلاح أهله وأولاده؛ في تعبدهم، وأخلاقهم، وتعاملاتهم، وعيْشهم، وبرِّهم بوالديهم، وغير ذلك. ـ

But more than that, when it comes to their supplications they stick to those supplications which are comprehensive in meaning and especially beneficial. For example, their statement: Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 7 – Reverence of Allah’s Speech: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This is the seventh quality mentioned:

الصفة السابعة : تعظيمهم لكلام الله وعملهم بما فيه
The Seventh Characteristic: Their Reverence of Allah’s Speech and Acting in Accordance With It

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا

And those who, when reminded of the verses of their Lord, do not fall upon them deaf and blind. [25:73]

كلام الله شأنه عظيم، ومكانته جليلة في نفوس عباد الرحمن، فلا يقابلونه بالصدود والإعْراض، بل يعظِّمونه ويجلونه، ويحسنون اسْتماعه والانْتفاع به. ـ

Allah’s speech has tremendous standing and holds an important place in the hearts of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – the slaves of the Most Merciful. They do not respond to it with rejection or evasion. On the contrary, they revere and venerate it, making sure to listen to it carefully in order to benefit from it.

وقوله : [ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا] أي: إذا استمعوا لكلام الربِّ لم يكونوا كالأصمِّ الذي لا يسْمع فينتفع بالموعظة، وكالأعمى الذي لا يبصر، بل هم يحْسنون الاسْتماع، و ينتفعون بالمواعظ، ويعْملون بأحكامه وهداياته. ـ

Allah’s statement: Continue reading

The Qur’an is Free of Contradictions: Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah says in surah al-Nisaa’:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّـهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found many contradictions therein. [4:82]

al-Haafidh Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir began his tafsir of this ayah by writing:

يقول تعالى آمرا عباده بتدبر القرآن ، وناهيا لهم عن الإعراض عنه ، وعن تفهم معانيه المحكمة وألفاظه البليغة ، ومخبرا لهم أنه لا اختلاف فيه ولا اضطراب ، ولا تضاد ولا تعارض ; لأنه تنزيل من حكيم حميد ، فهو حق من حق ; ولهذا قال تعالى : ( أفلا يتدبرون القرآن [ أم على قلوب أقفالها ] ) [ محمد : 24 ] ثم قال : ( ولو كان من عند غير الله ) أي : لو كان مفتعلا مختلقا ، كما يقوله من يقوله من جهلة المشركين والمنافقين في بواطنهم ( لوجدوا فيه اختلافا كثيرا ) أي : اضطرابا وتضادا كثيرا . أي : وهذا سالم من الاختلاف ، فهو من عند الله . ـ

Allah is commanding His slaves to contemplate the Qur’an and forbidding them from turning away from it or from turning away from understanding its clear meanings and eloquent wordings. He is also informing them that it does not contain any contradictions or disagreements within it; it neither opposes nor contradictions itself. That is because it is a revelation from the Wise and Praise-worthy One, so it is truth from the True One. That is why Allah said:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا

Do they not then think deeply in the Quran, or are their hearts locked up? [47:24]

So He said: Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 6 – Avoiding Bad Company: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This is the sixth quality mentioned:

الصفة السادسة : بعدهم عن مجالس الباطل والمنكرات
The Sixth Characteristic: Distancing Themselves from Gatherings of Falsehood and Evil-Doing

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا ] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا

And they are those who do not witness al-zoor, and if they pass by some ill talk, they pass by it with dignity [25:72]

ومنْ أخلاق عباد الرحمن، وجميل صفاتهم أنهم ينزِّهون أنفسهم عن حضور المجالس التي يعم فيها المنكر، ويغْمرها الباطل واللغو المحرم، فقوله عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ] أي : لا يحْضرون الزور والباطل، ولا يغْشون مجالسه ، ولا يشاركون أهْله . ـ

One aspect of the manners and beautiful qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – the slaves of the Most Merciful – is that they hold themselves above participating in gatherings in which wrongdoing is common and which are overrun with falsehood and foul speech. For Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ

And they are those who do not witness al-zoor

meaning: they are not present for al-zoor and falsehood, they do not attend gatherings which contain such things, and do not join in with the people who practice them.

فيدخل في الآية السابقة: ـ

There are several things which fall under this ayah: Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 5 – Avoiding Major Sins: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This section deals with the firth quality mentioned:

الصفة الخامسة : بعدهم عن كبائر الذنوب وعظائم الآثام
The Fifth Quality: Distancing Oneself from the Major Sins and Gross Misconduct

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّـهِ إِلَـٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُونَ] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّـهِ إِلَـٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُونَ

And those who do not invoke with Allah another deity or kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed], except by right, and do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse. [25:68]

فمنْ أبرز صفات عباد الرحمن المتقين: اجتنابهم كبائر الذنوب والآثام، وقد خص الله عز وجل في هذا السياق ثلاث كبائر بالذِّكر؛ لأنها أعظم الكبائر وأشدها على الإطلاق، وهي: الشرك بالله عالى ؛ وقتل النفس المعصومة ؛ والزنى . ـ

One of the most important traits of the pious ‘Ibad al-Rahman – the slaves of the Most Merciful – is their avoidance of major sins and misdeeds. In this passage, Allah has selected three major sins to mention because they are the gravest and worst of all the major sins. They are:

  • al-Shirk – Associating partners with Allah, the Most High
  • Killing a person undeservedly
  • Fornication

فأم ا الشِّرْك فهو متعلِّقٌ بحقِّ الله على عباده، وهو الذنب الذي لا يغفره الله لمن مات عليه ، كما قال تعالى: [إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّـهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا] . ـ

As for al-Shirk, it is connected to Allah’s rights over His slaves and it is the sin which Allah will not forgive for whoever dies in that state. This is as Allah said:

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّـهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

Indeed, Allah does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin. [4:48]

Continue reading

Leaving the Remembrance of Allah: Sheikh al-Fawzan

While describing the munafiqoon in part of surah al-Mujaadalah, Allah says:

اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّـهِ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

The Shaytaan has overcome them and made them forget the remembrance of Allah. Those ones are the party of the Shaytaan. Indeed, surely the band of Shaytaan are the losers. [58:19]

Commenting on this, sheikh Saalih al-Fawzan said:

بين السبب الذي حملهم على هذا الكذب ، وهذه الأيمان الفاجرة وهو أن الشيطان استحوذ عليهم ، أي : تسلط عليهم وتمكن منهم فصاروا من جنده . ـ

Allah is explaining the reason which caused them to come to this disbelief and to make this false oath [see 58:17-18] – it is that the shaytaan has overcome them. Meaning he has prevailed over them and is in a position of power over them so they have become part of his band.

ـ [فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّـهِ] و إذا نسوا ذكر الله قلّ الإيمان في قلوبهم وقلت خشية الله في قلوبهم ، فلا يمتنعون من الكذب ومن الأعمال الرديئة ؛ لأنهم لا يذكرون الله إلا قليلاً ، فذكر الله يعصم الإنسان من الشيطان . ـ

فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّـهِ

So he caused them to forget Allah Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 4 – Moderation in Spending: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This section discusses the fourth quality listed:

الصفة الرابعة : توسطهم في النفقة بين الإسراف والتَّقتير
The Fourth Quality: Moderation in Spending Between Wastefulness and Stinginess

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ قَوَامًا] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ قَوَامًا

And those who, when they spend, do so neither excessively nor sparingly but are ever, between that, moderate [25:67]

ومن أوصاف عباد الرحمن توسطهم في باب النفقة بين الإسراف والتقتير لأنهم علموا أن الله سيسْألهم يوم القيامة عن هذه النِّعمة التي أعطاهم إياها، كما صح عن الرسول الله أنه قال : لا تزول قدما عبد يوم القيامة حتى يسأل عن عمره فيما أفناه ، وعن علمه فيما فعل فيه، وعن ماله من أين اكتسبه، وفيما أنفقه، وعن جسمه فيم أبلاه . ـ

One of the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – the slaves of the Most Merciful – is their moderation when it comes to spending, falling between wasteful extravagance on the one hand and miserliness on the other. That is because they know that on the Day of Judgement Allah will ask them ask the blessings He has given them, as has been authentically transmitted from Allah’s Messenger that he said: Continue reading

Guidance for Interpreting the Qur’an in Surah Aal ‘Imran: Tafsir ibn Kathir

In the beginning of surah Aal ‘Imran, Allah says:

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّـهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ * رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ * رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ جَامِعُ النَّاسِ لِيَوْمٍ لَّا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ

It is He who revealed the Scripture to you. In it there are muhkam verses which are the Umm al-Kitab and others which are ambiguous. As for those in whose hearts is deviation, they follow the ambiguous parts of it, seeking fitnah and seeking distortion. But none knows its interpretation except Allah and those whose are firmly-grounded in knowledge. They say, “We believe in it. All of it is from our Lord.” And none will be reminded except for those of understanding.

“O our Lord, do not let our hearts deviate after You have guided us! And grant us from Yourself mercy. Indeed, You are the Bestower.

Our Lord, surely You will gather the people for a Day about which there is no doubt. Indeed, Allah does not fail in His promise.” [3:7-9]

In his famous book of tafsir, al-haafidh Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir dedicated considerable space to explaining these ayaat. For the sake of clarity and brevity, we have used sheikh Muhammad Moosaa Nasr’s abridgement of Tafsir ibn Kathir in order to present a more streamlined explanation:

يخبر تعالى أن في القرآن آيات محكمات هن أم الكتاب ، أي : بينات واضحات الدلالة ، لا التباس فيها على أحد من الناس ، ومنه آيات أخر فيها اشتباه في الدلالة على كثير من الناس أو بعضهم ، فمن رد ما اشتبه عليه إلى الواضح منه ، وحكم محكمه على متشابهه عنده ، فقد اهتدى . ومن عكس انعكس ، ولهذا قال تعالى : ( هو الذي أنزل عليك الكتاب منه آيات محكمات هن أم الكتاب ) أي : أصله [ ص: 7 ] الذي يرجع إليه عند الاشتباه ( وأخر متشابهات ) أي : تحتمل دلالتها موافقة المحكم ، وقد تحتمل شيئا آخر من حيث اللفظ والتركيب ، لا من حيث المراد . ـ

Allah is informing us that in this Qur’an there are:

  1. Muhkam verses which are the heart of the Book – i.e. verses whose message is plain and clear, such that no one would have any confusion about them
  2. Other verses whose message is somewhat ambiguous to some or many of the people

So whoever refers those confusing passages back to the clear ones and makes the clear parts a judge over the those he finds to be ambiguous will be rightly guided. And whoever does the opposite will have the opposite result. That is why Allah said: Continue reading