The Four Stages of Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

In his book detailing the different activities of the year, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali wrote the following discussion concerning the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ (the 10th day of the month of Muharram) and its fasting:

وكان للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في صيامه أربع حالات: ـ

The Prophet (ﷺ) went through four different stages regarding the fasting of ‘Aashooraa’:

الحالة الأولى: أنه كان يصومه بمكة ولا يأمر الناس بالصوم ففي الصحيحين عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: كان عاشوراء يوما تصومه قريش في الجاهلية وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يصومه فلما قدم المدينة صامه وأمر بصيامه فلما نزلت فريضة شهر رمضان كان رمضان هو الذي يصومه فترك يوم عاشوراء فمن شاء صامه ومن شاء أفطره وفي رواية للبخاري وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “من شاء فليصمه ومن شاء أفطر”. ـ

○The First Stage: That he used to fast it in Mecca but he did not command the people to fast. There is a narration in the Saheehayn on the authority of ‘Aa’ishah who said:

The Day of ‘Aashooraa’ was a day that the Quraish used to fast during the times of al-Jaahiliyyah and the Prophet (ﷺ) also used to fast it. Then when he came to al-Madinah he fasted it and he commanded its fasting. Then when the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan was revealed, it was Ramadan that he fasted and thus he left off the Day of ‘Aashooraa’, so whoever wished could fast it and whoever wished did not have to fast it.

And in the narration of al-Bukhari, “And the Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘Whoever wishes then let him fast and whoever wishes then do not fast.'”

الحالة الثانية: أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما قدم المدينة ورأى صيام أهل الكتاب له وتعظيمهم له وكان يحب موافقتهم فيما لم يؤمر به صامه وأمر الناس بصيامه وأكد الأمر بصيامه والحث عليه حتى كانوا يصومونه أطفالهم ففي الصحيحين عن ابن عباس قال: قدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة فوجد اليهود صياما يوم عاشوراء فقال لهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ما هذا اليوم الذي تصومونه؟ قالوا: هذا يوم عظيم أنجى الله فيه موسى وقومه وأغرق فرعون وقومه فصامه موسى شكرا فنحن نصومه فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “فنحن أحق وأولى بموسى منكم” فصامه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأمر بصيامه. ـ

○The Second Stage: That the Prophet (ﷺ) came to al-Madinah and he saw the Ahl al-Kitaab fasting it and holding it in high regard, and he was pleased with his having been in accord with them in in the fast which he had not previously ordered the people to do. So he then commanded the people to fast that day and emphasized the command to fast it. He encouraged the people to do so to the extent that even the children would fast it. So there is a report in the Saheehayn on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas who said: Continue reading

An Example of Added Meaning from the Different Qiraa’aat

The different qiraa’aat (recitations) of the Qur’an are an important part of tafsir and the sciences of the Qur’an, but a subject which does not receive much discussion in the English language. We have translated a brief introduction to this matter from sheikh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez bin Baaz, which we would recommending reading as a primer before proceeding with this article.

What follows is a simple and – inshaAllaah – easy-to-understand example of how the differences in the transmitted recitations can add to the meaning of an ayah, as illustrated in these excerpts from the tafsirs of sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee and imam Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Please note that some level of familiarity with Arabic will greatly facilitate understanding this example.

In part of his explanation of surah Maryam, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following:

قوله تعالى : واذكر في الكتاب موسى إنه كان مخلصا وكان رسولا نبيا ، اعلم أن في قوله ” مخلصا ” قراءتين سبعيتين : قرأه عاصم وحمزة والكسائي بفتح اللام بصيغة اسم المفعول ، والمعنى على هذه القراءة أن الله استخلصه واصطفاه : ويشهد لهذا المعنى قوله تعالى : قال ياموسى إني اصطفيتك على الناس برسالاتي وبكلامي الآية [ 7 \ 144 ] ، ومما يماثل هذه القراءة في القرآن قوله تعالى : إنا أخلصناهم بخالصة ذكرى الدار [ 38 \ 46 ] ، فالذين أخلصهم الله هم المخلصون بفتح اللام . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَاذْكُرْ‌ فِي الْكِتَابِ مُوسَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مُخْلَصًا وَكَانَ رَ‌سُولًا نَّبِيًّا

And mention in the Book, Moosaa. Indeed, he was mukhlasan, and he was a messenger and a prophet. [19:51]

You should know that there are two different readings of the word mukhlasan that are present in the seven well-known recitations. ‘Aasim, Hamzah, and al-Kasaa’ee recited it with a fathah on the letter laam, which makes it take the form of ism al-maf’ool (direct object). According to this recitation, the meaning is that Allah selected and chose him. And this meaning is attested to by Allah’s statement:

قَالَ يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي اصْطَفَيْتُكَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِرِ‌سَالَاتِي وَبِكَلَامِي

[Allah] said, “O Moosaa, I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My words…” [7:144]

And among the wordings in the Qur’an which resemble this reading is Allah’s statement:

إِنَّا أَخْلَصْنَاهُم بِخَالِصَةٍ ذِكْرَ‌ى الدَّارِ‌

Indeed, We chose them for an exclusive quality: remembrance of the home (of the Hereafter) [38:46]

For those whom Allah has chosen are the mukhlasoon, with a fathah on the letter laam. Continue reading

The Story of Qarun: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In his tafsir of surah al-Qasas, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following explanation regarding the story of Qarun (28:76-82):

ـ [‏76ـ82‏]‏ ‏{‏ إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى فَبَغَى عَلَيْهِمْ‏ }‏ إلى آخر القصة . يخبر تعالى عن حالة قارون وما ‏[‏فعل‏}‏ وفُعِلَ به ونُصِحَ ووُعِظَ، فقال‏:‏ ‏{‏إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى‏}‏ أي‏:‏ من بني إسرائيل، الذين فُضِّلوا على العالمين، وفاقوهم في زمانهم، وامتن اللّه عليهم بما امتن به، فكانت حالهم مناسبة للاستقامة، ولكن قارون هذا، بغى على قومه وطغى، بما أوتيه من الأموال العظيمة المطغية ‏{‏وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ كنوز الأموال شيئا كثيرا، ‏{‏مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ ‏[‏أُولِي الْقُوَّةِ‏}‏ والعصبة‏}‏، من العشرة إلى التسعة إلى السبعة، ونحو ذلك‏.‏ أي‏:‏ حتى أن مفاتح خزائن أمواله لتثقل الجماعة القوية عن حملها، هذه المفاتيح، فما ظنك بالخزائن‏؟‏ ‏{‏إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ قَوْمُهُ‏}‏ ناصحين له محذرين له عن الطغيان‏:‏ ‏{‏لَا تَفْرَحْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِينَ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ لا تفرح بهذه الدنيا العظيمة، وتفتخر بها، وتلهيك عن الآخرة، فإن اللّه لا يحب الفرحين بها، المنكبين على محبتها‏.‏ ـ

إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى فَبَغَى عَلَيْهِمْ‏

Indeed, Qarun was from the people of Moses, but he tyrannized them… (28:76)

until the end of the story [28:82]. Allah informs us of the condition of Qarun, what he did, what was done to him, and what he was advised and admonished with. So He said:

إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَى‏

Indeed, Qarun was from the people of Moses (28:76)

– meaning: from Banu Israa’eel, those who had been favored over all creation, and they surpassed others in their time, and Allah blessed with what He blessed them with. So it was befitting that their condition would be uprightness, however this Qarun tyrannized his people and wronged them with what he had been given of great tyrannical wealth.

وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ

And We gave him of treasures… (28:76)

– i.e.: treasures meaning a great amount of wealth

مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ أُولِي الْقُوَّةِ

…whose keys would burden a band of strong men (28:76)

and al-‘usbah (a band) is anywhere from ten to nine to seven [of something in number], or the likes of that. Meaning: It was to the extent that the keys to the treasures to the wealth weighed heavily on the group of strong men carrying them. These were (only) the keys, so then what do you think about the treasures?!

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ قَوْمُهُ

thereupon his people said to him… (28:76)

offering him sincere advice and warning him of this transgression

لَا تَفْرَ‌حْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِ‌حِينَ

…”Do not exult. Indeed, Allah does not like the exultant.” (28:76)

– meaning: do not revel in this magnificent worldly life or boast over it or let it distract you from the hereafter, for indeed Allah does not love those who exult in it nor those who are devoted to its love. Continue reading

Describing specific events with general wordings: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah describes one of the responses of Fir’awn and his people to Moosaa in surah al-Ghaafir where He says:

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُم بِالْحَقِّ مِنْ عِندِنَا قَالُوا اقْتُلُوا أَبْنَاءَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ وَاسْتَحْيُوا نِسَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا كَيْدُ الْكَافِرِ‌ينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ

And when he brought them the truth from Us, they said, “Kill the sons of those who have believed with him and keep their women alive.” But the plan of the disbelievers is not but in error. [40:25]

In part of his commentary on this ayah, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di made the following remarks:

فما كيدهم إلا في ضلال، حيث لم يتم لهم ما قصدوا، بل أصابهم ضد ما قصدوا، أهلكهم الله وأبادهم عن آخرهم. ـ

So their plan was not but in error, such that they were not able to complete what they had intended. Rather, they were afflicted with the opposite of what they intended: Allah destroyed them and obliterated them even unto their last ones.

وتدبر هذه النكتة التي يكثر مرورها بكتاب الله تعالى: إذا كان السياق في قصة معينة أو على شيء معين، وأراد الله أن يحكم على ذلك المعين بحكم، لا يختص به ذكر الحكم . وعلقه على الوصف العام ليكون أعم، وتندرج فيه الصورة التي سيق الكلام لأجلها، وليندفع الإيهام باختصاص الحكم بذلك المعين. ـ

Reflect upon this subtle and wise wording which occurs frequently in the Book of Allah: when the context is dealing with a specific story or regarding a specific thing and Allah wishes to make a ruling on that specific thing, He does not make the mention of the ruling exclusive to only that thing. (Rather) He connects the ruling to the general characteristic in order that it would be more general. So this story which is the focus on the context is included therein (in the ruling), and this is also done in order to repel any false ideas of the ruling being limited only to that specific thing.

فلهذا لم يقل { وما كيدهم إلا في ضلال } بل قال: { وَمَا كَيْدُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ } ـ

So because of this He did not say, ‘and their plan is not but in error‘. Rather He said:

وَمَا كَيْدُ الْكَافِرِ‌ينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ

But the plan of the disbelievers is not but in error

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 866]

See also: The Proper Place of Asbaab al-Nuzool in Understanding the Qur’an: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: Technical wordings for Asbaab al-Nuzool: Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

See also: A Principle to Dispel Specious Arguments and Doubts: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Four Means of Attaining Allah’s Forgiveness: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: A Benefit of General Language in Surah al-Duhaa: Sheikh ibn ‘Uthaymeen

Benefits from the story of Moosaa and al-Khadr: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di devoted a section to briefly providing some context for the story of Moosaa and al-Khadr which occurs in surah al-Kahf and he then brought a full 32 unique points of benefit extracted from those ayaat

قصة الخضر مع موسى ومحلها في أثناء قصص موسى

The story of al-Khadr with Moosaa and its placement among the stories of Moosaa

وذلك أن موسى صلى الله عليه وسلم قام ذات يوم في بني إسرائيل مقاما عظيما، علَّمهم فيه علوما جَمَّة، وأعجب الناس بكمال علمه، فقال له قائل: يا نبي الله، هل يوجد، أو هل تعلم في الأرض أحدا أعلم منك؟ فقال: لا، بناء على ما يعرفه، وترغيبا لهم في الأخذ عنه، فأخبره الله أن له عبدا في مجمع البحرين عنده علوم ليست عند موسى، وإلهامات خارجة عن الطور المعهود، فاشتاق موسى إلى لقياه رغبة في الازدياد من العلم، فطلب من الله أن يأذن له في ذلك، وأخبره بموضعه وتزودا حوتا وقيل له: إذا فقدت الحوت فهو في ذلك المكان، فذهب فوجده، وكان ما قص الله من نبأهما في الكهف: {وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا} [الكهف: 60] إلى قوله : {ذَلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِعْ عَلَيْهِ صَبْرًا} [الكهف: 82] . ـ

Its placement is that one day Moosaa (ﷺ) stood among the Banu Israa’eel with a great standing, during which he taught them a great amount of knowledge and amazed the people with the completeness of his own knowledge. So one person said to him, “O prophet of Allah! Is there anyone – or do you know of anyone – on the earth who is more knowledgeable than you?” So he replied, “No,” based on what he was aware of, and out of wanting to encourage them to take knowledge from him. So Allah informed Moosaa that He had a slave at a place of the meeting of two oceans who had knowledge which Moosaa did not possess, as well as intuition beyond ordinary bounds. So Moosaa yearned to meet this person out of a desire to increase in knowledge, so he besought Allah to allow him to do so and Allah informed him of that person’s location and to take fish as provisions. So it was said to him, “when you cease to have the fish, then he is in that place.” So he went and he found him, and that event is that which Allah informed us of their news in surah al-Kahf:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا

And (remember) when Moosaa said to his boy-servant: “I will not give up (traveling) until I reach the junction of the two seas or (until) I spend years and years in traveling.” [18:60]

until His statement:

ذَلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِعْ عَلَيْهِ صَبْرًا

That is the interpretation of those (things) over which you could not hold patience [18:82]

وفي هذه القصة من الفوائد والأحكام والقواعد شيء كثير ننبه على بعضه بعون الله، ونذكر المهمّ منه

And in this story there is something amazing in terms of benefits, legal rulings, foundational principles – some of which have been brought to our awareness by the aid of Allah, and we will mention the most important of them

فمنها: ما اشتملت عليه القصة من فضيلة العلم وشرفه، ومشروعية الرحلة في طلبه، وأنه أهم الأمور؛ فإن موسى رحل في طلبه مسافة طويلة، ولقي في ذلك النصب، وترك الإقامة عند بني إسرائيل لتعليمهم وإرشادهم، واختار السفر لزيادة العلم على ذلك. ـ

So from the benefits are: What the story contains regarding the excellence and honor of knowledge, as well as the lawfulness of traveling in search of it, and that it is the most important of issues. For Moosaa traveled a far distance in search of knowledge and he encountered exhaustion and fatigue in doing so; he left his position of teaching and guiding the Banu Israa’eel and chose to travel in order to increase in knowledge for the purpose of teaching and guiding them. Continue reading

“Those messengers, We have given precedence to some over others”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In the latter part of surah al-Baqarah, Allah informs us:

تِلْكَ الرُّ‌سُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَرَ‌فَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَ‌جَاتٍ

Those Messengers! We have given precedence to some over others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree [2:253]

Commenting on this ayah and its contents in his book of tafsir, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee first covered the issues of those to whom Allah spoke and then those whom He raised in degree, before proceeding to discuss the issue of some messenger being favored by Allah over others:

تنبيه . في هذه الآية الكريمة ، أعني قوله تعالى : تلك الرسل فضلنا بعضهم على بعض الآية ، إشكال قوي معروف . ووجهه : أنه ثبت في حديث أبي هريرة المتفق عليه أنه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال : ” لا تخيروني على موسى ; فإن الناس يصعقون يوم القيامة فأكون أول من يفيق ، فإذا موسى باطش بجانب العرش ، فلا أدري أفاق قبلي أم كان ممن استثنى الله ” ، وثبت أيضا في حديث أبي سعيد المتفق عليه : ” لا تخيروا بين الأنبياء ; فإن الناس يصعقون يوم القيامة ” الحديث ، وفي رواية : ” لا تفضلوا بين أنبياء الله ” ، وفي رواية : ” لا تخيروني من بين الأنبياء ” . ـ

An issue: In this noble ayah, i.e. Allah’s statement:

تِلْكَ الرُّ‌سُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم

Those Messengers! We have given precedence to some over others… [2:253]

until the end of the ayah. This is a difficult and well-known issues, which is that it is confirmed in the authentic hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

Don’t assign me superiority over Moosaa, for the people will fall unconscious on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the first to gain consciousness, and behold! Moosaa will be there holding the side of Allah’s Throne. I will not know whether Moosaa has been among those people who have become unconscious and then has regained consciousness before me, or has been among those exempted by Allah from falling unconscious.

And it is also confirmed in the authentic hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed, “Do not give one prophet superiority over another, for on the Day of Resurrection all the people will fall unconscious” until the end of the hadeeth. And in another narration, “Do not give preference to one of the prophets of Allah over the others,” and in another narration, “Do not give me superiority over the prophets.”

وقال القرطبي في تفسير هذه الآية ما نصه : وهذه الآية مشكلة ، والأحاديث ثابتة بأن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال : ” لا تخيروا بين الأنبياء ولا تفضلوا بين أنبياء الله ” ، رواها الأئمة الثقات ، أي : لا تقولوا فلان خير من فلان ، ولا فلان أفضل من فلان ، اهـ . ـ

And al-Qurtubi said under the tafsir of this ayah what is mentioned: Continue reading

Moosaa, Muhammad & Adam – the Messengers to whom Allah spoke: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In the latter part of surah al-Baqarah, Allah informs us:

تِلْكَ الرُّ‌سُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَرَ‌فَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَ‌جَاتٍ

Those Messengers! We preferred some to others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree [2:253]

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee commented at length on the contents of this ayah in his book of tafsir. What follows is the first of three sections in which he discussed the messengers to whom He spoke:

قوله تعالى : تلك الرسل فضلنا بعضهم على بعض منهم من كلم الله ورفع بعضهم درجات ، لم يبين هنا هذا الذي كلمه الله منهم وقد بين أن منهم موسى عليه وعلى نبينا الصلاة والسلام بقوله : وكلم الله موسى تكليما [ 4 \ 164 ] ، وقوله : إني اصطفيتك على الناس برسالاتي وبكلامي [ 7 \ 144 ] . ـ

Allah’s statement:

تِلْكَ الرُّ‌سُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَرَ‌فَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَ‌جَاتٍ

Those Messengers! We preferred some to others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree [2:253]

Allah does not clarify here those of them to whom He spoke, but He did explain that among them was Moosaa (peace and blessings upon him and upon our prophet) by means of His statement:

وَكَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا

And Allah spoke to Moses with [direct] speech. [4:164]

And His statement [to Moosaa]:

إِنِّي اصْطَفَيْتُكَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِرِ‌سَالَاتِي وَبِكَلَامِي

I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My words [to you]. [7:144]

قال ابن كثير : منهم من كلم الله ، يعني موسى ومحمدا صلى الله عليهما وسلم ، وكذلك آدم كما ورد في الحديث المروي في ” صحيح ابن حبان ” عن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه . ـ

Ibn Kathir said: Continue reading

Khutbah regarding ‘Aashooraa’: Imam al-Sa’di

In a collection of more than 400 sermons of sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di, the following khutbah was one of several related to the month of Muharram:

خطبة ثانية لشهر الله المحرم

The second Khutbah regarding the month of Allah, al-Muharram

الحمد لله القاهر فوق عباده عزا وسلطانا ، القادر على مراده فما اتّخذ في خلق السماوات والارض أعوانا ، الناصر من نصر دينه فحاشاه أن يرهقه خذلانا ، العظيم الشان وناهيك بشأن الربوبية شانا ، خضعت لعزته رقاب الجبابرة إذعانا ، ودلت على وحدانيته شواهد الاعتبار عيانا ، قسم الخلق كما شاء شمائل وأيمانا ، فمنتحل إيمانا ومنتحل كفرانا ، قسمة كتبت فكتمت غير أنّ للسعادة والشقاوة عنوانا ، فطوبى للذين : < إِذَا ذُكِرَ‌ اللَّـهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا > [الانفال 2] ، وبعدا للذين إذا ذُكّروا بآيات ربهم خرّوا عليها صمّا وعميانا .  ـ

All praise belongs to Allah, the One who is irresistibly powerful over His slaves with might and authority; the One who is fully capable of enacting His will for He did not take any assistance in the creation of the heavens and the earth; the One who aids those who aid His deen so He saves these ones from being overcome by failure. How magnificent is His greatness, not to mention the greatness of His Lordship! The necks of the tyrants humble themselves to His might in submissiveness, and the testimony of witnessed examples proves His right to be singled out. He divided the creation as He willed into those of the right and those of the left; some of them ascribed to eemaan and some ascribed to disbelief. This division was ordained and then concealed except for the fact that ultimate happiness and sorrow have signs and indications, so glad tidings to those who:

إِذَا ذُكِرَ‌ اللَّـهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا

 when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith [8:2]

and ill tidings for those who, when the ayaat of their Lord are mentioned to them, they suddenly become deaf and blind.

أحمده سبحانه سرا وإعلانا . وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له شهادة أرجو بها يوم القيامة أمانا . وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله أكمل الخلق عقلا وأرجحهم ميزانا . ـ

I praise Him – exalted is He – privately and openly. And I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship in truth except Allah alone with no partners – a testimony through which I hope for safety on the Day of Judgement. And I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger – the most complete of the creation in terms of intellect and the most just in judgement.

اللهم صلّ على عبدك ورسولك محمد وعلى آله وأصحابه الذين أيّد الله بهم دينه فكانوا على ذلك أنصارا وأعوانا ، وسلّم تسليما . ـ

O Allah, bestow peace and blessings upon Your slave and Messenger Muhammad and upon his family and his companions – those through whom Allah aided His religion and as such they were helpers and aids.

أما بعد : ـ فيا أيها الناس ؛ اتّقوا الله تعالى تقية من خاف وحذر واستقام ، والتزموا ما وجب عليكم من حقوق الإيمان والإسلام ، وأحبوه تعالى لما غذاكم به من جزيل الفضل والإنعام . ـ

To proceed: O People! Exercise taqwa of Allah – the taqwa of one who fears Him, keeps his guard up and is upright -, and adhere to what is obligatory upon you of the duties of al-eemaan and al-islaam, and love Him due to that with which He has nurtured you of abundant favors and blessings.

واعلموا رحمكم الله أنكم استقبلتم عاما جديدا ، وشهرا محرّما أكيدا ، خصّ باليوم العاشر ، بالأجر الجزيل الوافر . ـ

And know – may Allah have mercy on you all – that you are facing a new year and an emphasized sacred month – especially its tenth day – of abundant and plentiful rewards.

فعن ابن عباس قال : ( قدم النبي ﷺ المدينة فوجد اليهود صياما يوم عاشوراء ، فقال ‏”‏ ما هذا اليوم الذي تصومونه ؟ ‏”‏‏.‏ قالوا ” هذا يوم نجى الله فيه موسى وقومه ، وأهلك فيه فرعون وقومه ، فصامه موسى‏ شكرا لله ، ونحن نصومه ” .‏ قال ﷺ ‏”‏ نحن أَحقُّ وأولى بموسى منكم ‏”‏‏.‏ فصامه وأمر بصيامه.‏ )  [أخرجه البخاري (3315) ومسلم (2714)] ـ

For Ibn ‘Abbas reported:

Continue reading

“Those of determination among the messengers”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his tafsir:

قوله – تعالى – : فاصبر كما صبر أولوا العزم من الرسل . اختلف العلماء في المراد بأولي العزم من الرسل في هذه الآية الكريمة اختلافا كثيرا . ـ

Allah said:

فَاصْبِرْ‌ كَمَا صَبَرَ‌ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّ‌سُلِ

So exercise sabr, (O Muhammad), as did those of determination among the messengers [46:35]

The scholars have differed greatly concerning the intended meaning of ‘those of determination’ [uloo al-‘azm] among the messengers in this noble ayah.

وأشهر الأقوال في ذلك أنهم خمسة ، وهم الذين قدمنا ذكرهم في ” الأحزاب ” و ” الشورى ” ، وهم نوح وإبراهيم وموسى وعيسى ومحمد – عليهم الصلاة والسلام – . ـ

And the most well-known position in this matter is that they are five, and they are those who were previously mentioned in surah al-Ahzab [33:7] and surah al-Shooraa [42:13], who are Nuh, Ibrahim, Moosaa, ‘Eesaa and Muhammad (‘alaihim al-salaatu wa’l-salaam).

وعلى هذا القول فالرسل الذين أمر رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أن يصبر كما صبروا – أربعة ، فصار هو – صلى الله عليه وسلم – خامسهم . ـ

So according to this position, then the messengers which the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was commanded to exercise sabr as they has exercised sabr were four, so he (ﷺ) became their fifth. Continue reading

Banu Israa’eel’s abuse of Moosaa: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his tafsir of surah al-Saff:

قوله تعالى : وإذ قال موسى لقومه ياقوم لم تؤذونني وقد تعلمون أني رسول الله إليكم فلما زاغوا أزاغ الله قلوبهم والله لا يهدي القوم الفاسقين . ـ

Allah’s statement [in surah al-Saff]:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ لِمَ تُؤْذُونَنِي وَقَد تَّعْلَمُونَ أَنِّي رَ‌سُولُ اللَّـهِ إِلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا زَاغُوا أَزَاغَ اللَّـهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

And (remember) when Moosaa said to his people, “O my people, why do you abuse me while you certainly know that I am the messenger of Allah to you?” And when they deviated, Allah caused their hearts to deviate. And Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people. [61:5]

قول موسى عليه السلام : لم تؤذونني ؟ لم يبين نوع هذا الإيذاء وقد جاء مثل هذا الإجمال في قوله تعالى : ياأيها الذين آمنوا لا تكونوا كالذين آذوا موسى فبرأه الله مما قالوا [ 33 \ 69 ] . ـ

Regarding the statement of Moosaa (‘alaihi al-salaam), “why do you abuse me?” Allah does not explain what type of harm this is, and the likes of this general language have also come in His statement [in surah al-Ahzaab]:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ آذَوْا مُوسَىٰ فَبَرَّ‌أَهُ اللَّـهُ مِمَّا قَالُوا

O you who have believed, do not be like those who abused Moosaa; then Allah cleared him of what they said [33:69]

وأحال عليه ابن كثير في تفسيره ، وساق حديث البخاري أنه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال : ” إن موسى – عليه السلام – كان حييا ستيرا لا يرى من جلده شيئا استحياء منه فآذاه من آذاه من بني إسرائيل ، فقالوا : ما يتستر هذا التستر إلا من عيب في جلده ، إما برص وإما أدرة وإما آفة ، وأن الله – عز وجل – أراد أن يبرئه مما قالوا فخلا يوما وحده فخلع ثيابه على حجر ، ثم اغتسل فلما فرغ أقبل على ثيابه ؛ ليأخذها ، وأن الحجر عدا بثوبه ، فأخذ موسى عصاه وطلب الحجر ، فجعل يقول : ثوبي حجر حتى انتهى إلى ملأ من بني إسرائيل فرأوه عريانا أحسن ما خلق الله – عز وجل – وبرأه مما يقولون ” . . . . إلى آخر القصة . ـ

And regarding this, Ibn Kathir presented the following in his tafsir, transmitting the hadeeth of al-Bukhari that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: Continue reading