The Story of Yunus: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di detailed a number of the stories of the Prophets along with mentioning various benefits derived from each of them. He would compile the details as they appeared in various places in the Qur’an to provide a straight-forward narrative of each story, and then list some extracted benefits from the story. What follows is his brief explanation of the story of the Prophet Yunus:

قصة يونس صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو من أنبياء بني إسرائيل العظام، بعثه الله إلى أهل نينوى – من أرض الموصل – فدعاهم إلى الله تعالى فأبوا عليه، ثم كرر عليهم الدعوة فأبوا، فوعدهم العذاب وخرج من بين أظهرهم، ولم يصبر الصبر الذي ينبغي، ولكنه أَبَقَ مغاضبا لهم، وهم لما ذهب نبيهم ألقي في قلوبهم التوبة إلى الله والإنابة بعدما شاهدوا مقدمات العذاب، فكشف الله عنهم العذاب. ـ

This is the story of Yunus (ﷺ), who was one of the great prophets of the Banu Israa’eel. Allah sent him to the people of Nineveh – in the area of Mosul [Iraq] – and he called them to Allah but they refused his call. He then repeated his call to them but they refused, so he promised them an impending punishment and left from their midst, and he did not exercise the steadfast patience which he ought to have exercised. On the contrary, he fled from them while in a state of anger. But after their prophet had left them, repentance and returning to Allah were placed in their hearts after witnessing an approaching punishment, and so Allah removed the punishment from them.

والظاهر أن يونس علم انكشاف العذاب عنهم، واستمر في ذهابه عنهم، ولهذا قال تعالى: {وَذَا النُّونِ إِذْ ذَهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا} [الأنبياء: 87] وقال تعالى: {إِذْ أَبَقَ إِلَى الْفُلْكِ الْمَشْحُونِ} [الصافات: 140] ـ

It appears that Yunus knew that the punishment would be lifted from them but still decided to leave them. This is according to Allah’s statement:

وَذَا النُّونِ إِذ ذَّهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا

And mention Dhu’l-noon, when he went off in anger… [21:87]

as well as His statement: Continue reading

Introduction to the Thematic Tafsir of Imam al-Sa’di

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di (1307-1376AH) was one of the great scholars of Saudi Arabia in the past century. He authored many valuable works in the fields of tafsir, fiqh, hadeeth, ‘aqeedah and usool which remain in wide circulation today due to their great benefit. He combined many of these knowledge areas in his works explaining the Qur’an, both his complete tafsir and later in another two other summarized works of tafsir. What follows is the sheikh’s introduction to his summarized work of thematic tafsir, entitled Taysir al-Lateef al-Mannaan:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ، الحمد لله، نحمده ونستعينه ونستغفره ونتوب إليه، ونعوذ بالله من شرور أنفسنا وسيئات أعمالنا، من يهد الله فلا مضل له، ومن يضلل فلا هادي له، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم تسليما كثيرا. ـ

In the Name of Allah, al-Rahman, al-Raheem.

All praise is due to Allah. We praise him, seek His assistance, ask for His forgiveness and repent to Him. And we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our own selves and the evil of our deeds. Whomever Allah guides, none can misguide him, and whomever Allah leads astray, none can guide him. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah alone with no partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, may Allah’s peace and abundant blessings be upon him.

أما بعد، فقد كنت كتبت كتابا في تفسير القرآن مبسوطا مطولا، يمنع القراء من الاستمرار بقراءته، ويفتر العزم عن نشره، فأشار علي بعض العارفين الناصحين أن أكتب كتابا غير مطول، يحتوي على خلاصة ذلك التفسير، ونقتصر فيه على الكلام على بعض الآيات التي نختارها وننتقيها من جميع مواضيع علوم القرآن ومقاصده، فاستعنت الله على العمل على هذا الرأي الميمون، لأمور كثيرة منها: أنه بذلك يكون متيسرا على المشتغلين، معينا للقارئين، ومنها: أن القرآن العظيم ليس كغيره من الكتب في الترتيب والتبويب، لأنه بلغ في البلاغة نهايتها، وفي الحسن غايته، وفي الأسلوب البديع، والتأثير العجيب ما هو أكبر الأدلة على أنه كلام الله، وتنزيل من حكيم حميد، فتجده في آية واحدة يجمع بين الوسائل والمقاصد، وبين الدليل والمدلول، وبين الترغيب والترهيب، وبين العلوم الأصولية والفروعية، وبين العلوم الدينية والدنيوية والأخروية، وبين الأغراض المتعددة والمقاصد النافعة، ويعيد المعاني النافعة على العباد، ليتم علمهم، وتكمل هدايتهم، ويستقيم سيرهم على الصراط المستقيم، علما وعملا. ـ

To proceed: I had previously authored a lengthy book on the explanations of the Qur’an, one whose length prevented readers from continuing with it and broke their resolve to finish it. Some sincere and insightful people encouraged me to author another book on a smaller scale which would contain a summary of that tafsir, and that I should limit the scope of this work to certain ayaat which I would select to cover the various topics and themes of the contents of the Qur’an. So I sought Allah’s aid to follow through on this valuable advice for a number of reasons, one being that it would make things easier for those who are busy with other pursuits and would facilitate its reading. Continue reading

Explanation of Ayah al-Kursi: Imam al-Sa’di

In addition to his famous complete tafsir of the entire Qur’an, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di also authored a more condensed and thematic work of tafsir entitled Taysir al-Lateed al-Mannaan. Rather than going through the Qur’an ayah by ayah, in this work he selected certain ayaat which could serve to discuss important topics. Although this work is much shorted than his complete tafsir, the ayaat that al-Sa’di does explain are often discussed in greater detail. What follows is the sheikh’s explanation of Ayah al-Kursi from this work:

ـ {اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ} [البقرة: 255] ـ

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

Allah – none has the right be worshiped except Him, al-Hayy al-Qayyoom. Neither tiredness nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is ahead of you and what is behind you, and they grasp nothing of His knowledge except what He wills. His foot-stool extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding them. And He is al-‘Alee al-‘Atheem. [2:255]

أخبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن هذه الآية أعظم آيات القرآن على الإطلاق، وأنها تحفظ قارئها من الشياطين والشرور كلها، لما احتوت عليه من معاني التوحيد والعظمة، وسعة صفات الكمال لله تعالى . ـ

The Prophet informed us that this ayah is absolutely the greatest ayah in the Qur’an and that it protects one who recites it from the shaytaans and all evils. That is due to the messages of al-tawheed, greatness and the great and perfect attributes of Allah that it contains.

فأخبر أنه الله الذي له جميع معاني الألوهية، وأنه لا يستحق الألوهية غيره، فألوهية غيره وعبادة غيره باطلة ضارة في الحال والمآل؛ وعبادته وحده لا شريك له هي الحق الموصلة إلى كل كمال؛ وأنه الحي كامل الحياة . ـ

Allah informs us that He is Allah, the One who possesses all the meanings of divinity and that there are no others who deserve to be deified besides Him. Any deification or worship of others is groundless and harmful both in the short term and in the long run. Worshiping Him alone without any partners is the truth which leads to every type of completeness, and He is al-Hayy – the One with the Utmost Complete Aliveness.

 فمن كمال حياته أنه السميع البصير القدير، المحيط علمه بكل شيء، الكامل من كل وجه ، ف {الْحَيُّ} [البقرة: 255] يتضمن جميع الصفات الذاتية، و {الْقَيُّومُ} [البقرة: 255] الذي قام بنفسه، واستغنى عن جميع المخلوقات، وقام بها فأوجدها وأبقاها، وأمدها بكل ما تحتاج إليه في بقائها . ـ

One part of His Utmost Aliveness is that He is the al-Samee’ – the One who hears -, al-Baseer – the One who sees -, al-Qadeer – the Omnipotent One. His knowledge encompasses everything and He is perfect in every way. So

الْحَيُّ

al-Hayy

encompasses all of the attributes of Allah’s being. Continue reading

Special Circumstances of Marriage and Divorce in the Qur’an: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage and divorce. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the tenth and final section, click the links the visit the other sections: 12345678 – 9 – 10

فصل في آيات في الإيلاء والظهار واللعان

Chapter regarding the ayaat of al-Eelaa’, al-Thihaar, and al-Li’aan

ـ {لِلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنْ فَاءُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ – وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ} [البقرة: 226 – 227] وقال: {قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا} [المجادلة: 1] الآيات. وقال في اللعان: {وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ أَزْوَاجَهُمْ} [النور: 6] الآيات . ـ

لِلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنْ فَاءُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ – وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

For those who swear not to have sexual relations with their wives is a waiting time of four months, but if they return [to normal relations] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. * And if they decide on divorce – then indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing. [2:226-227]

And He said:

قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا … ـ

Certainly has Allah heard the speech of the one who argues with you, [O Muhammad], concerning her husband … [58:1]

until the end of the relevant ayaat [58:1-4]. And regarding Li’aan He said:

وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ أَزْوَاجَهُمْ

And those who accuse their wives … [24:6]

until the end of the relevant ayaat [24:6-9]

من جملة الأحكام المنتشرة المتعلقة بالزوجة أنه قد يؤلي منها أو يظاهر منها، والفرق بين الإيلاء والظهار أن الإيلاء هو الحلف بالله على ترك وطء زوجته أبدا، أو مدة طويلة تزيد على أربعة أشهر إذا كان قادرا على الوطء، فإذا فعل ذلك وحلف هذا الحلف فلا يخلو: إما أن تطالبه الزوجة بحقها من الوطء أو لا تطالبه، فإن لم تطالبه ترك وشأنه، فإن وطئ في هذه المدة فقد حنث، وعليه كفارة يمين، وإلا فلا كفارة عليه . ـ

Among the various rulings related to the wife is what to do if one declares eelaa’ or thihaar in relation to her. And the difference between al-eelaa’ and al-thihaar is that al-eelaa’ is swearing by Allah to leave off intercourse with one’s wife forever or for a long period in excess of four months while one is still physically capable of having intercourse. So if one does that and swears to that, then one of two things will occur: either his wife seeks her right to intercourse from him, or she does not seek that from him. So if she does not seek that from him, then his affair is left alone. But if he does have intercourse with her during this time, then he has perjured his oath and he must perform an expiation for the oath. But if he does not break his own, then he does not need to perform any expiation. Continue reading

Divorce in the Qur’an – Part 2: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage and divorce. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the ninth section overall – and the second on divorce – : 12345678 – 9 – 10

وقال تعالى: {يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا} [الأحزاب: 49] ـ

And Allah said:

يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا

O you who believe! When you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them, then there is not any ‘iddah to count concerning them for you. Then provide for them, and release them in a handsome manner. [33:49]

ففي هذه الآية أن المفارقة في الحياة بطلاق ونحوه ليس لزوجها عليها عدة إذا لم يدخل أو يخل بها، بل بمجرد ما يطلقها لها التزوج في الحال. ـ

So this ayah contains the fact that separation while both are alive due to divorce and the likes of that does not require any ‘iddah (waiting period) for the wife if the husband has not had intercourse with her or been alone with her in seclusion. Rather, from the very moment of her being divorced she is able to marry (another person) in that scenario.

وفي هذا أن العدة تثبت بالدخول، وكذلك الخلوة، كما ثبت عن الخلفاء الراشدين، ومفهوم الآية أن الفراق بالموت تعتد له الزوجة المعقود عليها ولو قبل الدخول . ـ

And this ayah also contains the fact that the ‘iddah is confirmed in the case of intercourse, and likewise in the case of seclusion, as has been authenticated by the Rightly-Guided Khulafaa’. And the implication of this ayah is that in the case of separation by death, the wife who is engaged in a marriage contract must complete the ‘iddah for her husband even if the death took place prior to intercourse. Continue reading

Divorce in the Qur’an – Part 1: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage and divorce. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the eighth section overall – and the first on divorce – : 12345678 – 9 – 10

 قال الله تعالى في أحكام الطلاق والعدد: {الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّ‌تَانِ} إلى قوله : {وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ} [البقرة: ٢٢٩-٢٣١] ، وقال : {يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ} [الطلاق ١] الآيات . ـ

Regarding the rulings of divorce and ‘idad (plural of ‘iddah – waiting periods), Allah said:

الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّ‌تَانِ

The divorce is twice… [2:229]

Until His statement:

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

… and know that Allah is All-Aware of everything [2:231]

And He said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ

O Prophet, when you [Muslims] divorce women, divorce them at their ‘iddah … [65:1]

until the end of the relevant ayaat.

ذكر الله أحكام الفراق كما ذكر أحكام النكاح والدخول فيه، تقدم أنه تعالى حث الزوج على الصبر على زوجته ما دام متمكنا من الصبر، وفي هذا ذكر الله أنه إذا كان لا بد له من الطلاق، فعليه أن يطلق زوجته لعدتها، أي: لتستقبل عدتها، وذلك أن يطلقها مرة واحدة في طهر لم يجامعها فيه، أو يطلقها وهي حامل قد تبين حملها، أو وهي آيسة أو صغيرة؛ لأنها في هذه الأحوال كلها تبتدئ بالعدة البينة الواضحة، فمن طلقها أكثر من واحدة، أو وهي حائض أو نفساء، أو في طهر قد وطئ فيه ولم يتبين حملها فإنه آثم متعد لحدود الله، وإذا طلقها هذا الطلاق المشروع فله أن يراجعها ما دامت في العدة كما قال تعالى: {وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوا إِصْلَاحًا} [البقرة: 228] وسواء رضيت أو كرهت. ـ

Allah has mentioned the rulings of separation just as he mentioned the rulings of marriage and entering into marriage. And we have already mentioned how He encourages the husband to be patient with his wife for as long as he is able to do so. But on this note, Allah has mentioned that when he must resort to divorce, then he should divorce his wife at her ‘iddah – meaning: when she enters her ‘iddah – and that is that he divorces her one time while she is in a state of purity [i.e. not during her menses] during which they have not yet had intercourse, or that he divorces her while she is pregnant and her pregnancy has become clear, or while she is beyond the age of menses or being too young for menses because all of these circumstances are initiated by a clear and apparent ‘iddah. Continue reading

Marriage in the Qur’an pt.7 – Justice Between Wives: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the seventh section, click the links the visit the other sections: 12345678 – 9 – 10

{وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ وَإِنْ تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا} [النساء: 129] .ـ

وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ وَإِنْ تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا

And you will never be able to be equal [in feeling] between wives, even if you should strive [to do so]. So do not incline completely [toward one] thus leaving another hanging. And if you amend [your affairs] and fear Allah – then indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful. [4:129]

يخبر تعالى أنه ليس في قدرة الأزواج العدل التام بين زوجاتهم، فإن العدل التام يقتضي أن يكون الداعي والحب على السواء، والميل القلبي على السواء، ويقتضي مع ذلك الإيمان الصادق، والرغبة في مكارم الأخلاق للعمل بمقتضى ذلك، وهذا متعذر غير ممكن، فلذلك عذر الله الأزواج، وعفا عنهم عما لا يقدرون عليه، ولكنه أمرهم بالعدل الممكن فقال: {فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ} [النساء: 129] أي: لا تميلوا إلى إحداهن عن الأخرى ميلا كثيرا، بحيث لا تؤدون حقوقهن الواجبة، بل افعلوا مستطاعكم من العدل، فالنفقة والكسوة والقسم في المبيت والفراش ونحو ذلك مقدور، فعليكم العدل فيها بينهن، بخلاف الحب والوطء وتوابع ذلك، فالعبد لا يملك نفسه فعذره الله . ـ

Allah informs us that it is not within the power of a husband to be completely equal between his wives, for completely equal treatment would require his desire of and love towards each of his wives to be the same and that his heart’s inclination towards each is the same. And in addition to that, it would require true eemaan and an aspiration to have noble manners in order for him to behave with what completely equal treatment of his wives would entail. And that is something that is not feasible, nor is it possible. Therefore, Allah has excused and pardoned the husbands for what they are not able to do. However, He did command them with a type of equal treatment which is possible, for He said:

فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ

So do not incline completely [toward one] and leave another hanging [4:129]

meaning: do not incline towards one of them over another in a significant way, such that you would not give them their obligatory rights. Rather, you should be as just and equal as you are able. This applies to spending, clothing, housing, the division of one’s nights among them, and so on. This is something you can do. It is incumbent upon you to be fair and equal with each one of your wives regarding these things. This is in contrast to the issues of love, intercourse, and related matters, for the slave does not have complete control over his own self, and so Allah has excused him. Continue reading

Marriage in the Qur’an pt.6 – Settlement: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the sixth section, click the links the visit the other sections: 12345678 – 9 – 10

 ـ {وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِنْ بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَنْ يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنْفُسُ الشُّحَّ وَإِنْ تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا} [النساء: 128] .ـ

وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِنْ بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَنْ يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنْفُسُ الشُّحَّ وَإِنْ تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

And if a woman fears disinterest or desertion from her husband, there is no sin upon them if they make terms of settlement between them – and settlement is good. And stinginess is present in human souls. But if you do good and have taqwa of Allah – then indeed Allah is ever acquainted with what you do. [4:128]

هذه حالة من أحوال الزوجين غير الأحوال السابقة؛ لأن الحالتين السابقتين: حالة نشوز الزوجة، وحالة وقوع الخصام واستطارة الشر بينهما، وهذه إذا كان الزوج هو الراغب عن زوجته، إما عدم محبة وإما طمعا، فأرشد الله في هذه الحال إلى الطريق الذي تستقيم به الأمور، وهو طريق الصلح من المرأة أو وليها ليعود الزوج إلى الاستقامة، بأن تسمح المرأة عن بعض حقها اللازم لزوجها على شرط البقاء معه، وأن يعود إلى مقاصد النكاح أو بعضها، كأن ترضى ببعض النفقة أو الكسوة أو المسكن، أو تسقط حقها من القسم، أو تهب يومها وليلتها لزوجها أو لضرتها بإذنه، فمتى اتفقا على شيء من ذلك فلا حرج ولا بأس، وهو أحسن من المقاضاة في الحقوق المؤدية إلى الجفاء أو إلى الفراق، ولهذا قال: ـ

This circumstance that sometimes occurs between spouses is different from the previous situations, for the two previous situations were 1) the case of a wife’s rebelliousness, and 2) the case quarreling and growing ill-will between the spouses.

But this situation here is that the husband is disinterested in his wife – either due to a lack of love or a lack of desire. So in this circumstance Allah directs us to a path by which issues can be set aright, and that is the path of settlement – done either by the wife or her walee – in order that the husband might return to uprightness. This could be reached by means of the wife yielding some of her due rights to her husband on the condition that she remains with him and that he returns back to fulfilling the purposes of marriage or at least some of them. For instance, if she is content with only a portion of his spending on her, or a portion of the clothing or housing that he provides, or if she gives up her share of his time, or she gives her day and night to her husband or to one of her co-wives by his permission.

So when the two of them agree to one of these things, then there is no sin or problem with that, and that situation is better than a complete fulfillment of her rights which leads to disinterest or separation. And for this reason Allah said: Continue reading

Marriage in the Qur’an pt.5 – Marital Discord: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the fifth section, click the links the visit the other sections: 12345678 – 9 – 10

 ـ {وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا إِنْ يُرِيدَا إِصْلَاحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا} [النساء: 35] .ـ

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِ‌يدَا إِصْلَاحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللَّـهُ بَيْنَهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرً‌ا

And if you fear dissension between the two, then send an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from her people. If they both desire reconciliation, Allah will cause it between them. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Intimately-Acquainted [4:35]

هذه حالة أخرى غير الحالة السابقة التي يمكن للزوج معالجتها، وهذه إذا استطار الشر بين الزوجين، وبلغت الحال إلى الخصام وعدم الالتئام، ولم ينفع في ذلك وعظ ولا كلام {فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا} [النساء: 35] عدلين عاقلين يعرفان الجمع والتفريق، ويفهمان الأمور كما ينبغي، فإن الحكم لا بد أن يتصف بهذه الأوصاف، فيبحثان في الأسباب التي أدت بهما إلى هذه الحال، ويسألان كلا منهما ما ينقم على صاحبه، ويزيلان ما يقدران عليه من المعتبة بترغيب الناقم على الآخر بالإغضاء عن الهفوات واحتمال الزلات، وإرشاد الآخر إلى الوعد بالرجوع، وإرشاد كل منهما إلى الرضى والنزول عن بعض حقه، فكم حصل بهذا الطريق من المصالح شيء كثير، وإن أمكنهما إلزام المتعصب على الباطل منهما بالحق فَعَلَا . ـ

This situation is something distinct from the previous one which the husband was able to address and resolve himself. What is being discussed here is when ill-will between the spouses is rising at every turn and the situation has reached a state of quarreling and the lack any cooperation, a situation in which neither admonishment nor talking is bringing about any benefit.

فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا

then send an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from her people [4:35]

i.e. – two fair, just, and intelligent people who know what factors bring people together and what factors cause separation, and who understand things as they ought to be. For the ruling is that the arbitrators ought to be characterized by these features. Continue reading

Marriage in the Qur’an pt.4 – The Husband’s Roles and Responsibilities: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di dedicated a chapter of his book to the issues related to marriage. This series of articles will present the different sub-divisions of this chapter in order. This is the fourth section, click the links the visit the other sections: 12345678 – 9 – 10

وقوله: {الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا} [النساء: 34] .ـ

Allah’s statement:

الرِّ‌جَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّـهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُ‌وهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِ‌بُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرً‌ا

Men are the leaders and maintainers of women due to what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence, by the grace of Allah’s protection. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance – [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them. But if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted and Grand. [4:34]

هذا خبر وأمر، أي: الرجال قوامون على النساء في أمور الدين والدنيا، يلزمونهن بحقوق الله، والمحافظة على فرائضه، ويكفونهن عن جميع المعاصي والمفاسد، وبتقويمهن بالأخلاق الجميلة والآداب الطيبة، وقوامون أيضا عليهن بواجباتهن من النفقة والكسوة والمسكن وتوابع ذلك . ـ

This is both informational and a command – meaning: men are the leaders and maintainers of women in the matters of the deen and the dunya, enjoining rights of Allah upon them as well as safeguarding His obligations, and averting them from all forms of disobedience and corruption, and caring for them while having beautiful character and good manners. And they are also the leaders and maintainers of them by virtue of the obligation of spending on them and providing clothing, lodging and so on. Continue reading