The Consequences of Not Forbidding Wrongdoing: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah describes those among the Jews who disbelieved and received Allah’s curse in surah al-Maa’idah by saying:

كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَن مُّنكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ ۚ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

They used not to forbid one another from wrongdoing that they did. How wretched was that which they were doing. [5:79]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di mentioned the following points of benefit related to this ayah in the midst of his tafsir of the surrounding passage:

ـ { كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ } أي: كانوا يفعلون المنكر، ولا ينهى بعضهم بعضا، فيشترك بذلك المباشر، وغيره الذي سكت عن النهي عن المنكر مع قدرته على ذلك. ـ

كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ

They used not to forbid one another from wrongdoing that they did

meaning: They used to commit wrongdoing but they did not forbid one another from doing that, and thus they were partnered in doing that – both the one who actually did the wrongdoing and the others who remained silent and withheld from forbidding the wrongdoing despite having the ability to do so.

وذلك يدل على تهاونهم بأمر الله، وأن معصيته خفيفة عليهم، فلو كان لديهم تعظيم لربهم لغاروا لمحارمه، ولغضبوا لغضبه، وإنما كان السكوت عن المنكر -مع القدرة- موجبا للعقوبة، لما فيه من المفاسد العظيمة: ـ

This indicates their indifference towards Allah’s commandments and that disobeying Allah was something that they took lightly. For if they had a sense of the greatness of their Lord, they would have been protective of His forbidden limits and they would have been angered by what angers Him. But remaining silent about wrongdoing – despite having the ability – necessitates punishment due to what it entails of serious negative consequences: Continue reading

Advertisements

Why Speaking about Allah without Knowledge is more serious than Shrik: Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

Allah says in surah al-A’raaf:

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّـهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّـهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Say, “My Lord has only forbidden immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed -, and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know.” [7:33]

Sheikh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen mentioned the following point of benefit during part of his discussion of this ayah in his primer on the sciences of tafsir:

مسألة : وهل هذه الآية من باب الترقي ، أو من باب ذكر الأعلى فالأعلى ؟ ـ

An issue: Is this ayah one of those whose ordering ascends from least to greatest in its listing, or is it one of those that starts with the highest matter and then moves down to the next highest?

الجواب : الأول ، يعني : أن أشد شيء أن يقول على الله ما لا يعلم . ـ

Answer: It is the first category, meaning that the most grave thing is to speak about Allah without knowledge.

فإن قال قائل : كيف يكون هذه أشد من الشرك ؟ ـ

But then someone might ask: How is that a worse offense than al-shirk? Continue reading

Transgressing the Limits of Allah: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In the beginning of surah al-Nisaa’, Allah discusses the rules of inheritance at length. Immediately following this, He says:

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّـهِ ۚ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّـهَ وَرَ‌سُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِ‌ي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ‌ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ * وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّـهَ وَرَ‌سُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارً‌ا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

These are the limits of Allah, and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow, to abide therein, and that will be the great success. * And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment. [4:13-14]

Commenting on this in his famous book of tafsir, Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following:

أي: تلك التفاصيل التي ذكرها في المواريث حدود الله التي يجب الوقوف معها وعدم مجاوزتها، ولا القصور عنها، وفي ذلك دليل على أن الوصية للوارث منسوخة بتقديره تعالى أنصباء الوارثين. ـ

Meaning: These details of the inheritance which He mentioned are the limits of Allah, at which He has obligated halting, the absence of transgressing them and not falling short of them. And in this there is a proof that making a bequest to an inheritor [i.e. writing a will in which one of your legally-designated inheritors would receive more than their amount according to the sharee’ah] is abrogated due to Allah’s designation of the shares due to the various inheritors.

ثم قوله تعالى: { تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ } فالوصية للوارث بزيادة على حقه يدخل في هذا التعدي، مع قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “لا وصية لوارث” ثم ذكر طاعة الله ورسوله ومعصيتهما عموما ليدخل في العموم لزوم حدوده في الفرائض أو ترك ذلك فقال: { وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ } بامتثال أمرهما الذي أعظمه طاعتهما في التوحيد، ثم الأوامر على اختلاف درجاتها واجتناب نهيهما الذي أعظمُه الشرك بالله، ثم المعاصي على اختلاف طبقاتها { يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا } . ـ

Then Allah said, Continue reading

The Importance of Tafsir and its Sources: Sheikh al-Fawzan

In an addendum to one of his many books, sheikh Saalih al-Fawzan briefly outlined the importance of the science of tafsir and the proper sources for making tafsir. He wrote:

تنبيه مهم
An Important Issue

إن التفسير القرآن مهمة عظيمة ومسئولية كبيرة لا يجوز أن يتحملها إلا من تتوفر فيه الأهلية الكافية ، قال ﷺ : { من قال في القرآن برأيه وبما لا يعلم فليتبوأ مقعده من النار وأخطأه ولو أصاب } ذلك لأن القرآن كلام الله والذي يفسره يبين عن الله مراده فإذا كان غير أهل لذلك كان من الذين يقولون على الله بلا علم ، وقد قال الله تعالى : [ قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ ] إلى قوله تعالى : [ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّـهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ] . فجعل قول عليه أعظيم المحرمات وفوق الشرك .

The explanation of the Qur’an is certainly an extremely important issue and a great responsibility. It is not permissible for anyone to undertake it except for one who has devoted himself to its study and is fully qualified. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever speaks about the Qur’an with his opinion and about that which he does not know, then let him take his seat in the Hell-fire; and he has erred, even if what he said happened to be correct.” That is because the Qur’an is the Speech of Allah, and the one who makes tafsir of it is explaining its meanings on behalf of Allah. So if he is not qualified to do that, then he is one of those who speaks about Allah without knowledge. And Allah has said:

Continue reading

Inheriting al-Jannah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In his tafsir of surah Maryam, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

قوله تعالى : تلك الجنة التي نورث من عبادنا من كان تقيا ، الإشارة في قوله : تلك [ 19 \ 63 ] ، إلى ما تقدم من قوله : فأولئك يدخلون الجنة ولا يظلمون شيئا جنات عدن التي وعد الرحمن عباده بالغيب الآية ، وقد بين جل وعلا في هذه الآية الكريمة أنه يورث المتقين من عباده جنته ، وقد بين هذا المعنى أيضا في مواضع أخر ، كقوله تعالى : قد أفلح المؤمنون الذين هم في صلاتهم خاشعون – إلى قوله – أولئك هم الوارثون الذين يرثون الفردوس هم فيها خالدون [ 23 \ 1 – 11 ] ، وقوله : وسارعوا إلى مغفرة من ربكم وجنة عرضها السماوات والأرض أعدت للمتقين الآيات [ 3 \ 133 ] ، وقوله تعالى : وسيق الذين اتقوا ربهم إلى الجنة زمرا الآية [ 39 \ 71 ] ، وقوله : ونودوا أن تلكم الجنة أورثتموها بما كنتم تعملون [ 7 \ 43 ] ، إلى غير ذلك من الآيات . ـ

Allah’s statement:

تِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي نُورِ‌ثُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا مَن كَانَ تَقِيًّا

That is Paradise, which We give as inheritance to those of Our servants who exercised taqwa [19:63]

And the thing being indicated here by “That” refers to what came before this ayah, starting from Allah’s statement:

فَأُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا * جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدَ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ عِبَادَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ

for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all. * gardens of perpetual residence which the Most Merciful has promised His servants in the unseen. [19:60-61]

until the ayah.

In this noble ayah Allah clarified that those who exercise taqwa from among His slaves will be granted His Jannah as an inheritance, and He has also explained this meaning in a number of other places. For instance, His statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ * الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ

Indeed the believers have succeed * those who are characterized in the prayers with al-khushoo’ [23:1-2]

until His statement: Continue reading

Khutbah related to ‘Eid al-Adhaa: Imam al-Sa’di

Before his death in the middle of 1376AH (1956CE), sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di had already written drafts of the khutbahs he planned to deliver for each Friday for the remainder of the year. One of the final khutbahs included in these drafts was scheduled to be delivered on Friday the 15th of Dhu’l-Hijjah, the first Friday khutbah after the ‘Eid al-Adhaa. Sheikh al-Sa’di wrote:

خطبة ثالثة لذي الحجة
The Third Khutbah of the month of Dhu’l-Hijjah

الحمد لله الذي جعل مواسم الخيرات وأوقات النفل للأبرار نزلا ، ووفقهم للقيام بحقها واغتنام فرصها فلم يرتضى بسواها بدلا ، وجعل لهم حظا وافرا من الباقيات الصالحات التي هي خير ثوابا وخير أملا . ـ

All praise is due to Allah who made the seasons of goodness and times of striving a gift for the righteous ones, and who granted them the accord to give these seasons and times their due and to seize the opportunities they present for He would not be pleased with anything other than that, and who made an abundant bounty of the lasting good deeds – which hold the best of rewards and good hopes – for those righteous ones.

فسبحان من يختص بحكمته ورحمته ما شاء من أزمنة وأمكنة وأعمال ، وتبارك من له الأوصاف الكاملة وله الفضل على خلقه والأفضال . ـ

Exalted is He who – out of His wisdom and mercy – has singled out whatever times, places and actions He wished. Blessed is He who has the most perfect of attributes and grants the best of bounties to His creation.

ونشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ولا ند ولا مثال . ونشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله أوفى العالمين كلهم في خصال الخير والكمال . اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آله وصحبه خير صحب وأشرف آل ، وسلم تسليما . ـ

We bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except for Allah alone, without any equal or peer. And we bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, the most complete of all creation in good and perfect qualities.

O Allah, bestow peace and blessings upon Muhammad, upon his family and upon his family – the best of companions and the most noble of families.

أما بعد : أيها الناس ؛ اتقوا ربكم واشكروه على ما خصكم به من الفضل والإنعام ، ويسّر لكم كل طريق وسبب يوصلكم دار السلام . ـ

To proceed: O people! Exercise taqwa of your Lord and be grateful to Him for the blessings and bounties which He has provided for you all to the exclusion of others, and for the fact that He has facilitated every path and means for you to make your way to the abode of peace [i.e. Paradise].

Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 7/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and published as a series. For a guide to the different sections, please click here. Sheikh al-Shinqitee concluded his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon with this seventh and final section as follows:

قوله تعالى : أولئك هم الوارثون الذين يرثون الفردوس هم فيها خالدون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن المؤمنين المتصفين بالصفات ، التي قدمنا هم الوارثون ، وحذف مفعول اسم الفاعل الذي هو الوارثون ; لدلالة قوله : الذين يرثون الفردوس [ 23 \ 11 ] عليه . والفردوس : أعلى الجنة ، وأوسطها ، ومنه تفجر أنهار الجنة ، وفوقه عرش الرحمن – جل وعلا . ـ

Allah’s statement:

أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِ‌ثُونَ * الَّذِينَ يَرِ‌ثُونَ الْفِرْ‌دَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

These are indeed the inheritors * those who shall inherit the al-Firdaws. They shall dwell therein forever [23:10-11]

In this noble ayah, Allah mentioned that the believers who are characterized by the aforementioned qualities are the inheritors. And the object of the subject – which is “the inheritors” – is left unspecified [in the first of these two verses] due to the fact that it is indicated in His statement:

الَّذِينَ يَرِ‌ثُونَ الْفِرْ‌دَوْسَ

those who shall inherit the al-Firdaws

And al-Firdaws is the highest part of al-Jannah and its most central part. The rivers of al-Jannah spring from it, and the Throne of al-Rahman is above it. Continue reading

Which are More Virtuous, the First Ten of Dhu’l-Hijjah or the Last Ten of Ramadan?

A question was posed to Sheikh al-Islaam ibn Taymiyah: Which are more virtuous, the first ten of Dh’ul-Hijjah or the last ten of Ramadan? So he replied:

أيام عشر ذي الحجة أفضل من أيام العشر من رمضان، والليالي العشر الأواخر من رمضان أفضل من ليالي عشر ذي الحجة

The days of the first ten of Dhu’l-Hijjah are more virtuous than the days of the last ten of Ramadan while the nights of the last ten of Ramadan are more virtuous than the nights of the first ten of Dhu’l-Hijjah.

[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa 25/154]

Ibn Taymiyah’s student Ibn al-Qayyim commented and elaborated upon his teacher’s response in one of his own works by writing:

وإذا تأمل الفاضل اللبيب هذا الجواب وجده شافيا كافيا، فإنه ليس من أيام العمل فيها أحب إلى الله من أيام عشر ذي الحجة. وفيها يوم عرفة ويوم النحر ويوم التروية. وأما ليالي عشر رمضان فهي ليالي الأحياء التي كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يحييها كلها، وفيها ليلة خير من ألف شهر. فمن أجاب بغير هذا التفصيل، لم يمكنه أن يدلي بحجة صحيحة

If one were to consider the honor and sensibleness of this answer, he would find it to be comprehensive and sufficient. Indeed, there are no days in which deeds are more beloved to Allah than the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah – and they contain the Day of ‘Arafah, the Day of the Sacrifice, and the Day of Tarwiyah [the 9th, 10th, and 8th days, respectively]. Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 6/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing as a series. For a guide to the different sections, please click here. Sheikh al-Shinqitee continued with the sixth section of his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم على صلواتهم يحافظون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن من صفات المؤمنين المفلحين الوارثين الفردوس : أنهم يحافظون على صلواتهم والمحافظة عليها تشمل إتمام أركانها ، وشروطها ، وسننها ، وفعلها في أوقاتها في الجماعات في المساجد ، ولأجل أن ذلك من أسباب نيل الفردوس أمر تعالى بالمحافظة عليها في قوله تعالى : حافظوا على الصلوات والصلاة الوسطى الآية [ 2 \ 238 ] ، وقال تعالى في سورة المعارج والذين هم على صلاتهم يحافظون [ 70 \ 34 ] وقال فيها أيضا إلا المصلين الذين هم على صلاتهم دائمون [ 70 \ 22 – 23 ] . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ

And those who carefully maintain their prayers – [23:9]

In this noble ayah, Allah mentioned that one of the qualities of the successful believers who will inherit al-Firdaws is that they carefully maintain their prayers, and carefully maintaining the prayers includes perfecting their pillars, their conditions, their recommended acts, and performing them in their proper times along with the congregation in the masjid.

And since this is one of the causal factors for attaining al-Firdaws, Allah commanded them to be carefully maintained in His statement: Continue reading