Abu Bakr’s and Umar’s visit to Umm Ayman: Sharh al-Nawawi

In his chapter on the virtues on the sahaabah, imam Muslim mentions the following narration concerning the virtues of Umm Ayman:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رضى الله عنه بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِعُمَرَ انْطَلِقْ بِنَا إِلَى أُمِّ أَيْمَنَ نَزُورُهَا كَمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَزُورُهَا ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا انْتَهَيْنَا إِلَيْهَا بَكَتْ فَقَالاَ لَهَا مَا يُبْكِيكِ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ مَا أَبْكِي أَنْ لاَ أَكُونَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلَكِنْ أَبْكِي أَنَّ الْوَحْىَ قَدِ انْقَطَعَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ ‏.‏ فَهَيَّجَتْهُمَا عَلَى الْبُكَاءِ فَجَعَلاَ يَبْكِيَانِ مَعَهَا

Anas reported that after the death of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar, “Let us visit Umm Aiman as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to visit her.” When we came to her, she was weeping. They (Abu Bakr and Umar) said to her, “What makes you weep? What is with Allah is better for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).” She said, “I weep not because I do not know of the fact that what is with Allah is better for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), but I weep because the revelation which came from the Heaven has ceased to come. This moved both of them to tears and they began to weep along with her.

[Saheeh Muslim #2454]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim mentions the following points of benefit concerning the permissible and recommended activities which are derived from this hadeeth:

قوله : ( قال أبو بكر بعد وفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعمر رضي الله عنه : انطلق بنا إلى أم أيمن نزورها ، كما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يزورها ) فيه زيارة الصالحين وفضلها ، وزيارة الصالح لمن هو دونه ، وزيارة الإنسان لمن كان صديقه يزوره ، ولأهل ود صديقه ، وزيارة جماعة من الرجال للمرأة الصالحة ، وسماع كلامها ، واستصحاب العالم والكبير صاحبا له في الزيارة ، والعيادة ، ونحوهما . والبكاء حزنا على فراق الصالحين والأصحاب ، وإن كانوا قد انتقلوا إلى أفضل مما كانوا عليه . والله أعلم .

His statement, “Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar, ‘Let us visit Umm Aiman as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to visit her.‘” This includes (the permission and/or recommendation of):

-visiting the righteous people and the virtue of that;
-the righteous person visiting those who are less (righteous) than him;
-people visiting those who their friends used to visit and (visiting) the dearly beloved people of their friend;
-a group of men visiting a righteous woman and listening to her speech;
-for the scholar or elder to bring along a companion with him in his visits, habitual activities, etc;
-weeping out of sadness over the loss of righteous people and companions [whether by death or separation], even if they have moved on to a better condition than that which they were previously in.

And Allah knows best.

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Saheeh Muslim #2454]

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Two types of despairing of Allah’s Mercy: Imam al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Ankaboot:

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا بِآيَاتِ اللَّـهِ وَلِقَائِهِ أُولَـٰئِكَ يَئِسُوا مِن رَّ‌حْمَتِي وَأُولَـٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

“And the ones who disbelieve in the signs of Allah and the meeting with Him – those have despaired of My mercy, and they will have a painful punishment.”

[al-Qur’an 29:23]

Commenting on this ayah in his famous book of tafsir, Imam al-Sa’di wrote:

قال تعالى: { أُولَئِكَ يَئِسُوا مِنْ رَحْمَتِي } أي: فلذلك لم يعلموا سببا واحدا يحصلون به الرحمة، وإلا لو طمعوا في رحمته، لعملوا لذلك أعمالا، والإياس من رحمة اللّه من أعظم المحاذير، وهو نوعان: إياس الكفار منها، وتركهم جميع سبب يقربهم منها، وإياس العصاة، بسبب كثرة جناياتهم أوحشتهم، فملكت قلوبهم، فأحدث لها الإياس

Allah said, ‘those have despaired of My mercy‘ – meaning, because of that they did not work towards even one single thing which would bring about mercy. Otherwise, if they had hoped for His mercy then they would have done those actions. And despairing of the Mercy of Allah is one of the greatest prohibitions, and it is composed of two categories:

1) the despair of kufr, and leaving off all of the means by which one could seek nearness (to Allah), and,

2) the despair of disobedience, due to a great number of estranging offenses, so they take rule over their hearts and therefore cause despair.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 738]

See also: “I complain of my grief and sorrow only to Allah”: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

Praying the voluntary prayers in the home: Ibn Qudaamah

The famous Hanbali jusrist, Ibn Qadaamahwrote the following on the topic of offering the optional prayers in one’s house:

والتطوع في البيت أفضل لقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” عليكم بالصلاة في بيوتكم فإن خير صلاة المرء في بيته إلا الصلاة المكتوبة ” رواه مسلم، وعن زيد بن ثابت أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ” صلاة المرء في بيته أفضل من صلاته في مسجدي هذا إلا المكتوبة ” رواه أبو داود وقال ” إذا قضى أحدكم الصلاة في مسجده فليجعل لبيته نصيبا من صلاته فإن الله جاعل في بيته من صلاته خيرا ” رواه مسلم. ولان الصلاة في البيت أقرب إلى الاخلاص، وأبعد من الرياء وهو من عمل السر وفعله في المسجد علانية والسر أفضل.

And performing the voluntary prayers in the house is preferable according to the statement of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) “So perform prayer in your houses for verily the best prayer of a person is in his house, except for the obligatory prayers“, narrated by Muslim, and on the authority of Zaid ibn Thaabit that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “the prayer of a person in his house is better than his prayer in my masjid, except for the obligatory prayers“, narrated by Abu Dawood. And he said, “When any one of you observes prayer in the mosque he should reserve a part of his prayer for his house, for Allah would make the prayer as a means of betterment in his house“, narrated by Muslim. For (optional) prayer in the house is nearer to ikhlaas, and further removed from riyaa’, and it is a secret action, and performing (optional) prayer in the masjid is public, and the secret action is better.

[al-Mughni 1/775]

See also: Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

See also: Reserve a part of your prayer for the house

See also: Allah’s commendations for those who prayer during the night

See also: “Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.”: Imam al-Qurtubi’s tafsir of 7:55

See also: Du’a or dhikr after salaah?: Ibn Taymiyah

Dealing with the human shayaateen and the jinn shayaateen: Imam al-Shinqitee

Allah says towards the end of surah al-A’araaf:

خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ‌ بِالْعُرْ‌فِ وَأَعْرِ‌ضْ عَنِ الْجَاهِلِينَ * وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the ignorant. And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearer, All-Knower. [7:199-200]
Commenting on this ayah in his book of tafsir, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote:
بين في هذه الآية الكريمة ما ينبغي أن يعامل به الجهلة من شياطين الإنس والجن . فبين أن شيطان الإنس يعامل باللين ، وأخذ العفو ، والإعراض عن جهله وإساءته . وأن شيطان الجن لا منجى منه إلا بالاستعاذة بالله منه ، قال في الأول : خذ العفو وأمر بالعرف وأعرض عن الجاهلين [ 7 \ 199 ] ، وقال في الثاني : وإما ينزغنك من الشيطان نزغ فاستعذ بالله إنه سميع عليم [ 7 \ 200 ] ، وبين هذا الذي ذكرنا في موضعين آخرين . ـ
In this noble ayah, Allah clarified how one should act concerning the ignorance of the shayaateen of mankind and the jinn. So He clarified that the shaytaan of mankind should be treated with gentleness, pardoning and turning away from his ignorance and abuse. And as for the shaytaan of the jinn, there is no safety from him except in seeking refuge with Allah from him. Continue reading

Words for those in the midst of long-suffering: Ibn al-Jawzi

Imam ibn al-Jawzi wrote the following encouraging words for the one who finds themselves awaiting the response to their du’a:

إذا وقعت في محنة يصعب الخلاص منها ، فليس لك إلّا الدعاء واللجأ إلى الله بعد أن تقدم التوبة من الذنوب.

If a trials afflicts you from which it is difficult to be free, then there is nothing else for you to do except to supplicate and seek refuge with Allah after having preceded this with tawbah for your sins.

فإن الزلل يوجب العقوبة فإذا زال الزلل بالتوبة من الذنوب ارتفع السبب .

For verily sins require punishment, so if the sins disappear due to tawbah from the sins, then the reason (for the punishment) has been lifted.

فإذ تبت ودعوت ولم تر للإجابة أثراً فتفقد أمرك ، فربما كانت التوبة ما صحت فصححها ثم أدع ولا تمل من الدعاء

Then if you have repented and supplicate but you do not see any trace of response, then investigate your affair, for perhaps the tawbah was not sound, so correct it and then supplicate, and do not tire of supplication. Continue reading

“But whoever pardons anything from his brother…” : Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Baqarah:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى ۖ الْحُرُّ‌ بِالْحُرِّ‌ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنثَىٰ بِالْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُ‌وفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّ‌بِّكُمْ وَرَ‌حْمَةٌ ۗ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

“O you who have believed, prescribed for you is legal retribution for those murdered – the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But whoever pardons anything from his brother, then there should be a suitable follow-up and payment to him with good conduct. This is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy. But whoever transgresses after that will have a painful punishment. “

[al-Qur’an 2:178]

Commenting on this in his famous book of tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote:

وفي قوله: { فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ } ترقيق وحث على العفو إلى الدية، وأحسن من ذلك العفو مجانا. وفي قوله: { أَخِيهِ } دليل على أن القاتل لا يكفر, لأن المراد بالأخوة هنا أخوة الإيمان, فلم يخرج بالقتل منها، ومن باب أولى أن سائر المعاصي التي هي دون الكفر, لا يكفر بها فاعلها, وإنما ينقص بذلك إيمانه

In His statement, ‘But whoever pardons anything from his brother‘ there is a softening of the hearts and an encouragement towards pardoning and (accepting instead) blood money – and even better than that is pardoning him completely.

And in His statement, ‘his brother‘ is proof that the killer does not take the ruling of a kaafir (disbeliever), because the intended meaning of brotherhood here is ‘brother in faith’, so the killer is not excluded from this. And from this subject also is the fact that the rest of the sins which are less than al-kufr (disbelief) do not confer the status of kaafir to their perpetrator – they only decreases thereby from his eemaan.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 82]

Du’a or dhikr after the salaah?: Ibn Taymiyah

In the great collection of Ibn Taymiyah’s works, in the book of fiqh under the section of salaah, one question was posed as follows:

وسئل عن هذا الذي يفعله الناس بعد كل صلاة من الدعاء : هل هو مكروه ؟ وهل ورد عن أحد من السلف فعل ذلك ؟ ويتركون أيضا الذكر الذي صح أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقوله ويشتغلون بالدعاء ؟ فهل [ الأفضل ] الاشتغال بالذكر الوارد عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أو هذا الدعاء ؟ وهل صح أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يرفع يديه ويمسح وجهه أم لا ؟ .

And it was asked about what the people do of du’a (supplication) after every salaah – it is disliked? And has it been narrated that any of the salaf did that? And also, they leave of the dhikr which the Prophet (ﷺ) actually said while they busy themselves with supplication. So which is more virtuous – busying oneself with dhikr which has been narrated from the Prophet (ﷺ), or with du’a? And is it authentic that the Prophet (ﷺ) used to raise his hands and wipe over his face or not?

And ibn Taymiyah’s answer followed: Continue reading

You will surely be tested: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah says in the latter part of surah Aali ‘Imraan:

لَتُبْلَوُنَّ فِي أَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ وَلَتَسْمَعُنَّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا أَذًى كَثِيرً‌ا ۚ وَإِن تَصْبِرُ‌وا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ‌

You will surely be tested in your possessions and in yourselves. And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allah much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allah – indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination.
[Al-Qur’an 3:186]
 –
Commenting on this ayah, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote:
قوله تعالى : لتبلون في أموالكم وأنفسكم ولتسمعن من الذين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلكم ومن الذين أشركوا أذى كثيرا وإن تصبروا وتتقوا فإن ذلك من عزم الأمور ذكر في هذه الآية الكريمة أن المؤمنين سيبتلون في أموالهم وأنفسهم ، وسيسمعون الأذى الكثير من أهل الكتاب والمشركين ، وأنهم إن صبروا على ذلك البلاء والأذى واتقوا الله ، فإن صبرهم وتقاهم من عزم الأمور ، أي : من الأمور التي ينبغي العزم والتصميم عليها لوجوبها . ـ
He mentioned in this noble ayah that the believers will be tested in terms of their wealth and themselves, and that they will hear much abuse from the Ahl al-Kitaab and the mushrikoon, and that if they exercise al-sabr in the face of that test and harm and excercise al-taqwa of Allah, then verily their sabr and taqwa are from the ‘azm al-umoor – meaning: from the affairs which require determination and resolve due to their obligatory nature. Continue reading