Generosity and Studying the Qur’an during Ramadan – Ibn Hajr

In Saheeh al-Bukhari, in the Book of Wahyi (Revelation), Ibn ‘Abbaas is recorded as saying:

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَجْوَدَ النَّاسِ، وَكَانَ أَجْوَدُ مَا يَكُونُ فِي رَمَضَانَ حِينَ يَلْقَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ، وَكَانَ يَلْقَاهُ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ فَيُدَارِسُهُ الْقُرْآنَ، فَلَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَجْوَدُ بِالْخَيْرِ مِنَ الرِّيحِ الْمُرْسَلَةِ

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was the most generous of people, and he was even more generous in Ramadan when Jibreel used to meet him. Every night of Ramadan Jibreel used to come to him and the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) would study the Qur’an with him. So the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was more generous in giving good than the blowing wind.

[Saheeh al-Bukhari #6]

In part of his commentary on this hadeeth, Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalaani wrote:

قوله : ( فيدارسه القرآن ) ـ

His statement, “So he would study the Qur’an with him“.

قيل الحكمة فيه أن مدارسة القرآن تجدد له العهد بمزيد غنى النفس ، والغنى سبب الجود . والجود في الشرع إعطاء ما ينبغي لمن ينبغي ، وهو أعم من الصدقة . ـ

It is said that the wisdom in this is that studying the Qur’an refreshed his knowledge by increasing in a feeling of self-contentedness, and contentedness is a cause of generosity. And al-Jood (generosity) according to the religious terminology is: giving what is appropriate to whom it is appropriate, and this is more general than al-sadaqah.

وأيضا فرمضان موسم الخيرات ; لأن نعم الله على عباده فيه زائدة على غيره ، فكان النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – يؤثر متابعة سنة الله في عباده . ـ

And also, Ramadan is a season of goodnesses, for Allah has blessed His slaves with an increase (of good) therein compared to other times, so the Prophet (ﷺ) imitated following Allah’s sunnah with His slaves.

And ibn Hajr also wrote: Continue reading

Every one of you is a shepherd – Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim records the hadeeth of the Prophet in his Saheeh:

أَلاَ كُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ فَالأَمِيرُ الَّذِي عَلَى النَّاسِ رَاعٍ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْهُمْ وَالْمَرْأَةُ رَاعِيَةٌ عَلَى بَيْتِ بَعْلِهَا وَوَلَدِهِ وَهِيَ مَسْئُولَةٌ عَنْهُمْ وَالْعَبْدُ رَاعٍ عَلَى مَالِ سَيِّدِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْهُ أَلاَ فَكُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ

Beware – every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable in regards to his flock. The leader is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned concerning his subjects . A man is a shepherd over the members of his family and shall be questioned concerning them. A woman is a shepherd over the household of her husband and his children and shall be questioned concerning them. A slave is a shepherd over the property of his master and shall be questioned concerning it. Beware, every one of you is a shepherd and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust.

[Muslim #1829]

Imam al-Nawawi writes in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim:
قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( كلكم راع وكلكم مسئول عن رعيته ) قال العلماء : الراعي هو الحافظ المؤتمن الملتزم صلاح ما قام عليه ، وما هو تحت نظره ، ففيه أن كل من كان تحت نظره شيء فهو مطالب بالعدل فيه ، والقيام بمصالحه في دينه ودنياه ومتعلقاته . ـ
“The Prophet’s statement, ‘All of you are shepherds and all of you are responsible for your flocks’ – the scholars say: The shepherd is the entrusted guardian who is committed to the rectitude of whatever he is in charge of and whatever is under his watch. So therefore whoever is under his watch at all, then it deserves justice from him and the establishment of benefits in terms of its deen and dunya and what is related to that.”
[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim #1829]

See also: Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 5/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Abu Bakr’s and Umar’s visit to Umm Ayman: Sharh al-Nawawi

In his chapter on the virtues on the sahaabah, imam Muslim mentions the following narration concerning the virtues of Umm Ayman:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رضى الله عنه بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِعُمَرَ انْطَلِقْ بِنَا إِلَى أُمِّ أَيْمَنَ نَزُورُهَا كَمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَزُورُهَا ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا انْتَهَيْنَا إِلَيْهَا بَكَتْ فَقَالاَ لَهَا مَا يُبْكِيكِ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ مَا أَبْكِي أَنْ لاَ أَكُونَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلَكِنْ أَبْكِي أَنَّ الْوَحْىَ قَدِ انْقَطَعَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ ‏.‏ فَهَيَّجَتْهُمَا عَلَى الْبُكَاءِ فَجَعَلاَ يَبْكِيَانِ مَعَهَا

Anas reported that after the death of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar, “Let us visit Umm Aiman as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to visit her.” When we came to her, she was weeping. They (Abu Bakr and Umar) said to her, “What makes you weep? What is with Allah is better for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).” She said, “I weep not because I do not know of the fact that what is with Allah is better for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), but I weep because the revelation which came from the Heaven has ceased to come. This moved both of them to tears and they began to weep along with her.

[Saheeh Muslim #2454]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim mentions the following points of benefit concerning the permissible and recommended activities which are derived from this hadeeth:

قوله : ( قال أبو بكر بعد وفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعمر رضي الله عنه : انطلق بنا إلى أم أيمن نزورها ، كما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يزورها ) فيه زيارة الصالحين وفضلها ، وزيارة الصالح لمن هو دونه ، وزيارة الإنسان لمن كان صديقه يزوره ، ولأهل ود صديقه ، وزيارة جماعة من الرجال للمرأة الصالحة ، وسماع كلامها ، واستصحاب العالم والكبير صاحبا له في الزيارة ، والعيادة ، ونحوهما . والبكاء حزنا على فراق الصالحين والأصحاب ، وإن كانوا قد انتقلوا إلى أفضل مما كانوا عليه . والله أعلم .

His statement, “Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar, ‘Let us visit Umm Aiman as Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to visit her.‘” This includes (the permission and/or recommendation of):

-visiting the righteous people and the virtue of that;
-the righteous person visiting those who are less (righteous) than him;
-people visiting those who their friends used to visit and (visiting) the dearly beloved people of their friend;
-a group of men visiting a righteous woman and listening to her speech;
-for the scholar or elder to bring along a companion with him in his visits, habitual activities, etc;
-weeping out of sadness over the loss of righteous people and companions [whether by death or separation], even if they have moved on to a better condition than that which they were previously in.

And Allah knows best.

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Saheeh Muslim #2454]

Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar narrates that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

اجعلوا من صلاتكم في بيوتكم ولا تتخذوها قبوراً

“Observe some of your prayers in your houses and do not make them (like) graves.”

[Muslim #777]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes:

باب استحباب صلاة النافلة في بيته وجوازها في المسجد

The chapter on the desirability of optional [nawaafil] prayer in one’s house and the permissibility of it in the masjid

 وسواء في هذا الراتبة وغيرها إلا الشعائر الظاهرة وهي العيد والكسوف والاستسقاء والتراويح وكذا ما لا يتأتى في غير المسجد كتحية المسجد ويندب كونه في المسجد هي ركعتا الطواف . ـ

[And just as this applies to optional (nawaafil) prayers] this also applies routine optional prayers (al-rawaatib) and others, except for those prayers which are the outward rituals, and they are the ‘eid prayer, and al-kusoof (eclipse prayer), and al-istisqaa’ (prayer for rain), and al-taraaweeh (night prayer during Ramadhaan), and others such as those which cannot be done except in the masjid such as tahiyyah al-masjid (prayer for greeting the masjid) and those whose performance is relegated to the masjid such as two raka’aat of Tawaaf. Continue reading

“There is no one who does not have a Qareen from the Jinn”: Sharḥ al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim recorded that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا وَإِيَّاكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ‏”‏ وَإِيَّاىَ إِلاَّ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ فَلاَ يَأْمُرُنِي إِلاَّ بِخَيْرٍ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “There is no one among you except that he has a qareen [companion] from the jinn.” They (the Companions) said, “And you too, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “And me as well, but Allah helped me against him and so I am safe, so he does not command me except with good.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2814]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following about this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( ما منكم من أحد إلا وقد وكل به قرينه من الجن ، قالوا : وإياك ؟ قال : وإياي إلا أن الله أعانني عليه فأسلم فلا يأمرني إلا بخير ) ( فأسلم ) برفع الميم وفتحها ، وهما روايتان مشهورتان فمن رفع قال : معناه : أسلمُ أنا من شره وفتنته ، ومن فتح قال : إن القرين أسلمَ ، من الإسلام وصار مؤمنا لا يأمرني إلا بخير ، واختلفوا في الأرجح منهما  .

His (ﷺ) statement, “‘There is no one among you except that he has a qareen [companion] from the jinn.’ They (the Companions) said, ‘And you too, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘And me as well, but Allah helped me against him and so I am safe, so he does not command me except with good.'” – “So I am safe” with a fatḥah on the letter meem. And there are two well-known narrations of this word, and those who place a dummah on the meem say, “It means: I am safe from his evil and trials.” And those who place a fatḥah on the meem say, “[it means] Verily the Qareen submitted himself in al-Islaam and he became a mu’min, so he does not command anything except for good.” And they differed on the correct meaning between these two. Continue reading

Two qualities which Allah loves: Sharh al-Nawawi

In Saheeh Muslim, Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet said to al-Ashajj ‘Abd al-Qais that:

إِنَّ فِيكَ خَصْلَتَيْنِ يُحِبُّهُمَا اللَّهُ الْحِلْمُ وَالأَنَاةُ

“Indeed there are two traits in you that Allah loves: Forbearance, and deliberateness.”
[Muslim #17]
Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on this hadeeth, writes:
وأما الحلم فهو العقل ، وأما الأناة فهي التثبيت [أو التثبت] وترك العجلة وهي مقصورة

As for ilm (forbearance), then it is ‘aql (intellect). And as for anaah (deliberateness), then it is proceeding with care and exactness and abandoning haste, and that is reigning oneself in. Continue reading

“Our eyes shed tears and our hearts grieve, but we do not say anything except what pleases our Lord”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Anas ibn Maalik narrated that the Messenger of Allah said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ وُلِدَ لِيَ اللَّيْلَةَ غُلاَمٌ فَسَمَّيْتُهُ بِاسْمِ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ دَفَعَهُ إِلَى أُمِّ سَيْفٍ امْرَأَةِ قَيْنٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ أَبُو سَيْفٍ فَانْطَلَقَ يَأْتِيهِ وَاتَّبَعْتُهُ فَانْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى أَبِي سَيْفٍ وَهُوَ يَنْفُخُ بِكِيرِهِ قَدِ امْتَلأَ الْبَيْتُ دُخَانًا فَأَسْرَعْتُ الْمَشْىَ بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ يَا أَبَا سَيْفٍ أَمْسِكْ جَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَأَمْسَكَ فَدَعَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِالصَّبِيِّ فَضَمَّهُ إِلَيْهِ وَقَالَ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَقُولَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَنَسٌ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُهُ وَهُوَ يَكِيدُ بِنَفْسِهِ بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَدَمَعَتْ عَيْنَا رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏”‏ تَدْمَعُ الْعَيْنُ وَيَحْزَنُ الْقَلْبُ وَلاَ نَقُولُ إِلاَّ مَا يَرْضَى رَبُّنَا وَاللَّهِ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ إِنَّا بِكَ لَمَحْزُونُونَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

A child was born into me this night and I named him after the name of my father Ibrahim. He then sent him to Umm Saif, the wife of a blacksmith who was called Abu Saif. He (the Holy Prophet) went to him and I followed him until we reached Abu Saif and he was blowing fire with the help of blacksmith’s bellows and the house was filled with smoke. I hastened my step and went ahead of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and said, “Abu Saif, stop it! as there comes Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).” He stopped and Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) called for the child. He embraced him and said whatever Allah wished. Anas said: I saw that the boy breathed his last in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). The eyes of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) shed tears and he said, “Ibrahim, our eyes shed tears and our hearts are filled with grief, but we do not say anything except that by which our Lord is pleased. O Ibrahim, we are grieved for you.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2315]

Imam al-Nawawi, in part of his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, writes:

قوله : ( فدمعت عينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى آخره ) فيه جواز البكاء على المريض والحزن ، وأن ذلك لا يخالف الرضا بالقدر ، بل هي رحمة جعلها الله في قلوب عباده ، وإنما المذموم الندب والنياحة ، والويل والثبور ، ونحو ذلك من القول الباطل ، ولهذا قال صلى الله عليه وسلم : ” ولا نقول إلا ما يرضي ربنا ” .

In his statement, “The eyes of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) shed tears” until the end of the hadeeth there is the permission to weep in the case of sickness and grief. And that does not contradict being content with the qadr; rather it is a rahmah that Allah has placed in the hearts of His slaves. And what is blameworthy is only lamentation, wailing, excessive weeping and acts of destruction [i.e. ripping clothes, pulling out hair, etc.], and the likes of that in terms of false speech, and it was for this reason that he (ﷺ) said, “but we do not say anything except that by which our Lord is pleased

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim #2315]

“Whoever stands Ramadan with eemaan and ihtisaab, his previous sins will be forgiven”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim records that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ

Whoever stands Ramadan [i.e. in optional night prayers] with eemaan and iḥtisaab, his previous sins will be forgiven.

[Saheeh Muslim #759]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on this hadeeth, wrote:

قوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – : ( من قام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا ) معنى ( إيمانا ) تصديقا بأنه حق مقتصد فضيلته ، ومعنى ( احتسابا ) أن يريد الله تعالى وحده لا يقصد رؤية الناس ، ولا غير ذلك مما يخالف الإخلاص . ) .

His (ﷺ) statement, “Whoever stands Ramadan with eemaan and iḥtisaab”. ‘With eemaan‘ means believing that it is true and intending its blessings, and ‘with iḥtisaab‘ means that one desires Allah the Exalted alone and does not intend being seen by the people nor anything else which contradicts ikhlaaṣ (sincerity). Continue reading

“Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim begins the chapter of his Saheeh entitled, “The Book of Paradise, its Description, its Bounties and its Inhabitants” with the following hadeeth reported from Anas ibn Maalik and Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

حُفَّتِ الْجَنَّةُ بِالْمَكَارِهِ وَحُفَّتِ النَّارُ بِالشَّهَوَاتِ

“Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires.”

[Muslim #2822, al-Tirmidhi #2559. Al-Bukhari also reported it with a different wording.]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following on this hadeeth:

 قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( حفت الجنة بالمكاره وحفت النار بالشهوات ) هكذا رواه مسلم ( حفت ) ووقع في البخاري ( حفت ) ووقع أيضا ( حجبت ) وكلاهما صحيح  .

His statement (ﷺ) “Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires” – this is the narration of Muslim (with the word) “surrounded“. And ‘surrounded‘ is replaced in the narration of al-Bukhari with ‘veiled‘, and both of these wordings are authentic (saheeh). Continue reading

Neither add nor detract from the sunnah, even when it comes to sneezing

Hadrami, the freed slave of the family of al-Jaarood narrated from Naafi’ that:

 أَنَّ رَجُلاً، عَطَسَ إِلَى جَنْبِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ وَأَنَا أَقُولُ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَيْسَ هَكَذَا عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَّمَنَا أَنْ نَقُولَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ

“A man sneezed beside Ibn ‘Umar and said, ‘al-hamdulillaah w’al-salaam ‘alaa rasoolillaah. (All praise is due to Allah, and peace upon the Messenger of Allah)’. So Ibn ‘Umar said, ‘I too could say al-hamdulillaah w’al-salaam ‘alaa rasoolillaah, but this is not what the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) taught us. He taught us to say, “Al-Hamdulillah ‘alaa kulli hal (All praise is due to Allah in every circumstance).”

[al-Tirmidhi #2738, hasan]

Imam al-Mubarakfoori, in his commentary on Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote the following concerning this hadeeth:

اعلم أن العطاس نعمة من نعم الله ، فلا بد للعاطس إذا عطس أن يحمد الله تعالى . قال الحافظ ابن القيم في زاد المعاد : العاطس قد حصلت له بالعطاس نعمة ومنفعة بخروج الأبخرة المحتقنة في دماغه التي لو بقيت فيه أحدثت له أدواء عسرة ، شرع له حمد الله على هذه النعمة ، مع بقاء أعضائه على التئامها وهيئتها على هذه الزلزلة التي هي للبدن كزلزلة الأرض لها . انتهى .

Know that sneezing is a blessing from Allaah, so when the sneezer sneezes he should praise and thank Allah the Exalted. Al-Haafidh ibn al-Qayyim said in Zaad al-Ma’aad, “The one who sneezes has received a blessing and a benefit by that sneeze in the expulsion of the congestion in his head which, had it remained there, would have caused him severe illness. It is legislated for him to praise and thank Allah for this blessing, as well as his limbs remaining well and present in the midst of this great shaking which is like as earthquake to the body just as the earthquake is to the earth.” Continue reading