The Understanding of the Disbelievers is Limited to this Life: Imam al-Shinqitee

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee authored a valuable work entitled Dafa’ Eehaam al-Idhtiraab ‘an Ayaat al-Kitaab to respond to and dispel any supposed conflicts, mistakes and contradictions in the Qur’anic text. What follows is one excerpt taken from his coverage of surah al-Baqarah:

قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ. ـ

Allah’s statement:

أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ

… Even though their fathers understood nothing, nor were they guided? [2:170]

هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ الْكَرِيمَةُ تَدُلُّ بِظَاهِرِهَا عَلَى أَنَّ الْكُفَّارَ لَا عُقُولَ لَهُمْ أَصْلًا، لِأَنَّ قَوْلَهُ: «شَيْئًا» نَكِرَةٌ فِي سِيَاقِ النَّفْيِ، فَهِيَ تَدُلُّ عَلَى الْعُمُومِ . ـ

According to its outward appearance, this noble ayah indicates that the disbelievers do not possess any understanding at all, because His statement, “nothing” is indefinite in the context of negation, and this indicates a general applicability.

وَقَدْ جَاءَتْ آيَاتٌ أُخَرُ تَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ الْكُفَّارَ لَهُمْ عُقُولٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا فِي الدُّنْيَا كَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَكَانُوا مُسْتَبْصِرِينَ [29 38] . ـ

But there are other ayaat which indicate that the disbelievers possess understanding and that they use it to understand this worldly life, such as His statement:

Continue reading

Whoever does an atom’s weight of good or evil shall see it: Imam al-Shinqitee

In his short work dedicated to dispelling misconceptions and misunderstandings that some may have regarding apparent contradictions in the Qur’an, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following comments regarding surah al-Zalzalah:

قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ. ـ

Allah’s statement:

فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ * وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it, * And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it. [99:7-8]

هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ الْكَرِيمَةُ تَقْتَضِي أَنَّ كُلَّ إِنْسَانٍ كَافِرًا كَانَ أَوْ مُسْلِمًا يُجَازَى بِالْقَلِيلِ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَالشَّرِّ. ـ

This noble ayah entails that every person – whether he be disbeliever or a Muslim – will be recompensed for (even) a small amount of good or evil.

وَقَدْ جَاءَتْ آيَاتٌ أُخَرُ تَدُلُّ عَلَى خِلَافِ هَذَا الْعُمُومِ : ـ

But other ayaat have come which indicate something contrary to this generality:

أَمَّا مَا فَعَلَهُ الْكَافِرُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ، فَالْآيَاتُ تُصَرِّحُ بِإِحْبَاطِهِ، كَقَوْلِهِ: أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا النَّارُ وَحَبِطَ مَا صَنَعُوا فِيهَا وَبَاطِلٌ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ [11 \ 16] ، وَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَى مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاءً مَنْثُورًا [25 \ 23] ، وَكَقَوْلِهِ: أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَرَمَادٍ الْآيَةَ [14 \ 18] وَقَوْلِهِ: أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ الْآيَةَ [24 \ 39] إِلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ. ـ

As for what the disbeliever does of good deeds, then there are a number of ayaat which make their futility clear, such as His statement:

أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا النَّارُ وَحَبِطَ مَا صَنَعُوا فِيهَا وَبَاطِلٌ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Those are the ones for whom there is not in the Hereafter but the Fire. And lost is what they did therein, and worthless is what they used to do. [11:16]

And His statement: Continue reading

A Clarification regarding the Questioning on the Day of Judgement: Imam al-Shinqitee

In his book dedicated to clarifying difficult passages of the Qur’an and removing doubts concerning them, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his section on surah al-A’araaf:

قال تعالى : < فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْ‌سِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْ‌سَلِينَ > الاية . ـ

Allah said:

فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْ‌سِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْ‌سَلِينَ

Then We will surely question those to whom [a message] was sent, and We will surely question the messengers. [7:6]

هذه الآية الكريمة تدل على أن الله يسأل جميع الناس يوم القيامة . ونظيرها قولة تعالى : < وَرَ‌بِّكَ لَنَسْأَلَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ * عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ > ، وقوله : < وَقِفُوهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُم مَّسْئُولُونَ > ، وقوله : < وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَا أَجَبْتُمُ الْمُرْ‌سَلِينَ > . ـ

This noble ayah indicates that Allah will question all of mankind on Yawm al-Qiyaamah. And its parallel is Allah’s statement:

فَوَرَ‌بِّكَ لَنَسْأَلَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ * عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

So by your Lord, We will surely question them all * About what they used to do. [15:92-93]

And His statement:

وَقِفُوهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُم مَّسْئُولُونَ

And stop them; indeed, they are to be questioned. [37:24]

And His statement:

وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَا أَجَبْتُمُ الْمُرْ‌سَلِينَ

And [mention] the Day He will call them and say, “What did you answer the messengers?” [28:65]

وقد جاءت في آيات أخر تدل على خلاف ذلك  ، كقوله : <  فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذَنبِهِ إِنسٌ وَلَا جَانٌّ > ، وكقوله : < وَلَا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذُنُوبِهِمُ الْمُجْرِ‌مُونَ > . ـ

And it has come in other ayaat that which indicates the contrary to that, such as His statement:

فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذَنبِهِ إِنسٌ وَلَا جَانٌّ

Then on that Day none will be asked about his sin among men or jinn. [55:39]

And such as His statement:

وَلَا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذُنُوبِهِمُ الْمُجْرِ‌مُونَ

But the criminals, about their sins, will not be asked. [28:78]

والجواب عن هذا من ثلاثة أوجة : ـ

The answer to this comes from three angles: Continue reading

The Reckoning for the Believers will End in the Middle of the Day: Imam al-Shinqitee

In his book dedicated to responding to supposed contradictions or problematic passages of the Qur’an, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee brought the following section in his treatment of surah al-Furqaan:

قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ مَقِيلًا. هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ الْكَرِيمَةُ تَدُلُّ عَلَى انْقِضَاءِ الْحِسَابِ فِي نِصْفِ نَهَارٍ، لِأَنَّ الْمَقِيلَ لِلْقَيْلُولَةِ أَوْ مَكَانِهَا، وَهِيَ الِاسْتِرَاحَةُ نِصْفَ النَّهَارِ فِي الْحَرِّ . ـ

Allah’s statement:

أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ مَقِيلًا

The dwellers of Paradise will, on that Day, have the best abode, and have the fairest of resting-places [25:24]

This noble ayah shows that the conclusion of the reckoning [on the Day of Judgement] will be in the middle of the day, because al-maqeel (resting-place) refers to a qaylulah or the place where one takes a qaylulah. And a qaylulah is period of rest in the middle of the day during the hottest part of the day.

وَمِمَّنْ قَالَ بِانْقِضَاءِ الْحِسَابِ فِي نِصْفِ نَهَارٍ: ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ وَعِكْرِمَةُ وَابْنُ جُبَيْرٍ لِدَلَالَةِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ، كَمَا نَقَلَهُ عَنْهُمُ ابْنُ كَثِيرٍ وَغَيْرُهُ . ـ

And among those who said that the conclusion of the reckoning will be in the middle of the day were ibn ‘Abbaas, ibn Mas’ood, ‘Ikrimah, and ibn Jubayr based on the evidence of this ayah in support of that position. This is as ibn Kathir and others transmitted that from them[1].

وَفِي تَفْسِيرِ الْجَلَالَيْنَ مَا نَصُّهُ: وَأُخِذَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ انْقِضَاءُ الْحِسَابِ فِي نِصْفِ نَهَارٍ، كَمَا وَرَدَ فِي حَدِيثٍ، انْتَهَى مِنْهُ، مَعَ أَنَّهُ تَعَالَى ذَكَرَ أَنَّ مِقْدَارَ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ خَمْسُونَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ [70 \ 4] . ـ

And in Tafsir al-Jalalayn is the text, “And it is derived from this that the conclusion of the reckoning will be in the middle of the day, as is mentioned in a hadeeth[2],” end quote. All of this while also bearing in mind that Allah mentioned that the length of the Day of Judgement will be fifty thousand years in His statement:

فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ

… during a Day the extent of which is fifty thousand years [70:4]

وَالظَّاهِرُ فِي الْجَوَابِ: أَنْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَطُولُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ وَيَقْصُرُ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَيُشِيرُ لِهَذَا قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى بَعْدَ هَذَا بِقَلِيلٍ: الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ لِلرَّحْمَنِ وَكَانَ يَوْمًا عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ عَسِيرًا [25 \ 26] فَتَخْصِيصُهُ عُسْرَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ بِالْكَافِرِينَ يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَيْسُوا كَذَلِكَ، وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: فَذَلِكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوْمٌ عَسِيرٌ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ غَيْرُ يَسِيرٍ [74 \ 9 – 10] ، يَدُلُّ بِمَفْهُومِهِ أَيْضًا عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَسِيرٌ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ عَسِيرٍ. كَمَا دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: مُهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاع يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ [54 \ 8] ـ

And what is apparent in terms of a resolution is: that the Day of Judgement is lengthy for the disbelievers and shortened for the believers, and this is indicated by Allah’s statement which comes shortly after the initial one [in surah al-Furqaan]: Continue reading

“And who is more unjust than…”: Imam al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee authored a valuable work entitled Dafa’ Eehaam al-Idhtiraab ‘an Ayaat al-Kitaab to respond to and dispel supposed conflicts, mistakes or contradictions in the Qur’anic text. What follows is one excerpt taken from his section on surah al-Baqarah:

قوله تعالى: {وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ مَنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ أَنْ يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ} الآية. الِاسْتِفْهَامُ فِي هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ إِنْكَارِيٌّ وَمَعْنَاهُ النَّفْيُ، فَالْمَعْنَى: لَا أَحَدَ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ مَنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ، وَقَدْ جَاءَتْ آيَاتٌ أُخَرُ يُفْهَمُ مِنْهَا خِلَافُ هَذَا، كَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا الْآيَةَ [6 \ 144] . وَقَوْلِهِ: فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ كَذَبَ عَلَى اللَّهِ [39] ، وَقَوْلِهِ: وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ ذُكِّرَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ. . . . . . الْآيَةَ [18 \ 57] ، إِلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّـهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ‌ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَىٰ فِي خَرَ‌ابِهَا

And who are more unjust than those who prevent the name of Allah from being mentioned in His masaajid and strive toward their destruction [2:114]

What is implicitly understood from this ayah is a denial, meaning a negation. And its meaning is: there is no one more unjust than those who prevent others from the masaajid of Allah. But there are other ayaat from which something contrary to this is understood, such as Allah’s statement:

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَ‌ىٰ عَلَى اللَّـهِ كَذِبًا لِّيُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ‌ عِلْمٍ

Then who is more unjust than one who invents a lie about Allah to mislead the people by [something] other than knowledge? [6:144]

And His statement:

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَذَبَ عَلَى اللَّـهِ وَكَذَّبَ بِالصِّدْقِ إِذْ جَاءَهُ

So who is more unjust than one who lies about Allah and denies the truth when it has come to him? [39:32]

And His statement:

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن ذُكِّرَ‌ بِآيَاتِ رَ‌بِّهِ فَأَعْرَ‌ضَ عَنْهَا وَنَسِيَ مَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاهُ

And who is more unjust than one who is reminded of the verses of his Lord but turns away from them and forgets what his hands have put forth? [18:57]

as well as other ayaat.

 وَلِلْجَمْعِ بَيْنَ هَذِهِ الْآيَاتِ أَوْجُهٌ: ـ

And there are several angles of reconciling between these ayaat: Continue reading

Will the Disbelievers speak on the Day of Judgement?: Imam al-Shinqitee

In his book written to respond to supposed contradictions and difficult passages of the Qur’an, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee brought the following discussion under his treatment of surah al-Mursalat:

قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: هَذَا يَوْمُ لَا يَنْطِقُونَ وَلَا يُؤْذَنُ لَهُمْ فَيَعْتَذِرُونَ. هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ الْكَرِيمَةُ تَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ أَهْلَ النَّارِ لَا يَنْطِقُونَ وَلَا يَعْتَذِرُونَ. ـ

Allah’s statement:

هَذَا يَوْمُ لَا يَنْطِقُونَ * وَلَا يُؤْذَنُ لَهُمْ فَيَعْتَذِرُونَ

This is a Day they will not speak, * Nor will it be permitted for them to make an excuse. [77:35-36]

This noble ayah indicates that the people of the Hell-fire will neither speak nor proffer excuses.

وَقَدْ جَاءَتْ آيَاتٌ تَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُمْ يَنْطِقُونَ وَيَعْتَذِرُونَ، كَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ [6 \ 23] ، وَقَوْلِهِ: فَأَلْقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِنْ سُوءٍ [16 \ 28] ، وَقَوْلِهِ: بَلْ لَمْ نَكُنْ نَدْعُو مِنْ قَبْلُ شَيْئًا [40] ، وَقَوْلِهِ: تَاللَّهِ إِنْ كُنَّا لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ إِذْ نُسَوِّيكُمْ بِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَمَا أَضَلَّنَا إِلَّا الْمُجْرِمُونَ [26 \ 97 – 99] ، وَقَوْلِهِ: رَبَّنَا هَؤُلَاءِ أَضَلُّونَا [7 \ 38] ، إِلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ.ـ

But other ayaat have already come which indicates that they will speak and offer excuses, such as His statement:

وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

[the disbelievers will say] “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who committed al-shirk.” [6:23]

And His statement: Continue reading

A Clarification on Warnings in the Qur’an: Imam al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee mentioned the following point in his book specifically authored to address any supposed contradictions or difficult passages of the Qur’an:

قوله تعالى : [ إِنَّمَا تُنذِرُ‌ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الذِّكْرَ‌ وَخَشِيَ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنَ ] الآية {يس 11} . ـ

Allah’s statement:

إِنَّمَا تُنذِرُ‌ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الذِّكْرَ‌ وَخَشِيَ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنَ بِالْغَيْبِ ۖ فَبَشِّرْ‌هُ بِمَغْفِرَ‌ةٍ وَأَجْرٍ‌ كَرِ‌يمٍ

You can only warn one who follows the message and fears the Most Merciful unseen. So give him good tidings of forgiveness and noble reward. [36:11]

ظاهرها خصوص الإنذار بالمنتفعون به . ـ ونظيرها قوله تعالى : [ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرُ‌ مَن يَخْشَاهَا ] {النازعات 45} . ـ

What it outwardly apparent is that this is a specific warning to those who would benefit from it. And its parallel is Allah’s statement:

إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرُ‌ مَن يَخْشَاهَا

You are only a warner for those who fear it (i.e. the arrival of the Hour) [79:45]

وقد جاءت آيات أخر تدل على عموم الإنذار ، كقوله : [ وَتُنذِرَ‌ بِهِ قَوْمًا لُّدًّا ] {مريم 97} ، وقوله : [ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرً‌ا ] {الفرقان 1} وقوله : [ فَأَنذَرْ‌تُكُمْ نَارً‌ا تَلَظَّىٰ ] {الليل 14} . ـ

But other ayaat have already come which demonstrate the generality of the warning, such as His statement: Continue reading

Using truthful speech for false purposes: Imam al-Shinqitee

In his book addressing and resolving apparent contradictions and conflicts in the Qur’an, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee brought the following discussion in his chapter on surah al-An’aam:

قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ شَيْءٍ الْآيَةَ. ـ

Allah’s statement:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ مَا أَشْرَ‌كْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّ‌مْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ

Those who associated with Allah will say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have associated [anything] and neither would our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.” [6:148]

until the end of the ayah.

هَذَا الْكَلَامُ الَّذِي قَالُوهُ بِالنَّظَرِ إِلَى ذَاتِهِ كَلَامُ صِدْقٍ لَا شَكَّ فِيهِ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَوْ شَاءَ لَمْ يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمُوا شَيْئًا مِمَّا لَمْ يُحَرِّمْهُ كَالْبَحَائِرِ وَالسَّوَائِبِ. ـ

This speech which they said – when one looks at its essence – is true speech about which there is no doubt, for were Allah to will then they would not associate anything with Him and they would not prohibit anything which He did not make prohibited, such as a bahirah or a sa’ibah [see 5:103].

وَقَدْ قَالَ تَعَالَى: وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكُوا [6 \ 107] وَقَالَ: وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَآتَيْنَا كُلَّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا [32 \ 13] ، وَقَالَ: وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَى [6 \ 35] . ـ

And Allah has said: Continue reading