‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 3 – Fear of the Hellfire: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This section discusses the third quality listed:

الصفة الثالثة : خوفهم وإشفاقهم من عذاب النَّار
Third Quality: Their Great Fear of the Punishment of the Hellfire

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا * إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا ] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا * إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا

And those who say, “Our Lord, avert the punishment of Hell away from us. Indeed, Its torment is an inseparable, permanent punishment. * How evil it is as an abode and as a place to dwell. [25:65-66]

فعباد الرحمن مع إحسانهم بالعمل والتعبد لله ، قد خافوا ووجلوا من عذاب الله وسخطه وهذه حال المؤمنين الكمل؛ كما قال الله : [ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ رَاجِعُونَ ] أي: يقدِّمون ما يقدِّمونه من عباداتٍ وطاعاتٍ وقلوبهم خائفةٌ أن ترد عليهم أعمالهم، فيصيبهم بعد ذلك عذابٌ من الله . ـ

Despite the goodness that they have in their actions and seeking to draw closer to Allah, the ‘ibad al-Rahman – the slave of the Most Merciful – feel great fear and apprehension about Allah’s punishment and displeasure. This is the way of the complete believer. It is just as Allah has said: Continue reading

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“A Word They Say with Their Mouths”: Tafsir al-Shawkani

Allah says in surah al-Tawbah:

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّـهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّـهِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّـهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ

The Jews say, “‘Uzayr is the son of Allah “; and the Christians say, “The Messiah is the son of Allah.” That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded? [9:30]

Sheikh Muhammad al-Shawkani mentions the following benefit in his explanation of this ayah:

قوله : ذلك قولهم بأفواههم الإشارة إلى ما صدر عنهم من هذه المقالة الباطلة . ـ

Allah’s statement:

ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ

That is their statement from their mouths

indicates that these things which have emanated from them are false statements.

ووجه قولهم بأفواههم مع العلم بأن القول لا يكون إلا بالفم ، بأن هذا القول لما كان ساذجا ليس فيه بيان ولا عضده برهان كان مجرد دعوى ، لا معنى تحتها ، فارغة صادرة عنهم صدور المهملات التي ليس فيها إلا كونها خارجة من الأفواه ، غير مفيدة لفائدة يعتد بها ، وقيل : إن ذكر الأفواه لقصد التأكيد كما في ” كتبت بيدي ومشيت برجلي ” ، ومنه قوله – تعالى – : يكتبون الكتاب بأيديهم ( البقرة : 79 ) وقوله : ولا طائر يطير بجناحيه ( الأنعام : 38 ) . ـ

The reason for saying “from their mouths” despite it being common knowledge that speech does not happen by any other means than the mouth is that this statement of theirs is nothing more than a claim since it is just a simple-minded statement without any further elaboration or supporting evidence. It is nothing more than an empty claim without any meaning beneath it, a careless utterance with no substance to it at all. It is just something that came from their mouths without actually having any real meaning to it. Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 2 – Steadfast Observance of Prayer: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This section discusses the second quality listed:

الصفة الثانية : محافظتهم على الصلاة، لاسيَّما قيام الليل

قال عز وجل : [ وَالَّذِينَ يَبِيتُونَ لِرَبِّهِمْ سُجَّدًا وَقِيَامًا ] ـ

The Second Characteristic: Their Consistent Performance of the Prayers, Especially the Night Prayers

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ يَبِيتُونَ لِرَبِّهِمْ سُجَّدًا وَقِيَامًا

And those who spend the night before their Lord, prostrate and standing. [25:64]

ومن صفات عباد الرحمن الظاهرة محافظتهم على أداء الصلاة التي هي أعظم الأعمال البدنية، فرضًا و نفلًا، لاسيما صلاة الليل، فإنها سنةٌ مؤكدة عن رسول الله وجاء في فضْل المحافظة عليها أحاديث عديدة، ولهذا جاء التنصيص عليها في الآية السابقة أنها منْ صفات عباد الرحمن. ـ

One of the visible characteristics of the ‘ibad al-Rahman – the slaves of the Most Merciful – is their steadfast observance of the prayers, which are the greatest form of bodily worship. They faithfully perform both the obligatory and optional prayers, especially the night prayers which are a strongly emphasized sunnah of Allah’s Messenger. There are many hadith narrations regarding the virtue of faithfully observing the night prayers, and in this ayah there is an explicit mention that this is one of the characteristics of the ‘ibad al-Rahman.

ومما ورد في فضْل قيام الليل قوله : أفضل الصلاة بعد الفريضة : صلاة الليل . ـ

Among those texts regarding the virtue of the night prayers is the Prophet’s statement, “After the obligatory prayers, the best prayer is the night prayer.”

وقال : عليكم بقيام الليل ؛ فإنه دأب الصالحين قبلكم ، وهو قربة إلى ربكم ومكفرة للسيئات ومنها للإثم . ـ

He also said, “Hold fast to the night prayers, for it was the practice of the righteous people before you and it is a form of drawing close to your Lord, an expiation of bad deeds, and a prevention against sins.” Continue reading

Assorted Qur’an Benefits #15

What follows is a collection of benefits originally posted on our Facebook page during August and September of 2016, a period which coincided with the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah and the Hajj:

♦ Restraining Oneself from Base Desires

Allah says in surah al-Naazi’aat:

 وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ * فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ

But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and restrained himself from desires. * Verily, Paradise will be his abode. [79:40-41]

Commenting on this in his tafsir, Imam al-Baghawi wrote:

عن المحارم التي تشتهيها ، قال مقاتل : هو الرجل يهم بالمعصية فيذكر مقامه للحساب فيتركها

He restrained himself from the forbidden matters which he desired.

Muqatil said: This is a man who was intending to perform an act of disobedience but then he remembered his appointment for the recompense of his deeds and so abandoned doing that act.”

[Tafsir al-Baghawi 8/331]


And If They Turn Away …

In surah al-Maa’idah, Allah instructs His Messenger: Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 1 – Composure: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. Following the introduction, this section discusses the first quality listed in the passage:

الصفة الاولى : السَّكينة والوقار والتواضع لله ولعباده

قال تعالى : [ وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا ] ـ

The First Quality: Composure, Dignity, and Humility towards Allah and His slaves

Allah said:

وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا

And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth with composure, and when the ignorant address them, they say words of peace. [25:63]

من صفات عباد الرحمن وجميل نعوتهم : تواضعهم لله ولعباده، فيمشون بسكينةٍ وطمأنينة ووقار، وهذا التواضع الذي ظهر على مشيهم وهيئتهم إنما هو ثمرةٌ من ثمار الإيمان، وأثرٌ من آثاره. ـ

One of the characteristics and beautiful traits of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – is their humility towards Allah and His slaves, such that they go about with composure, calmness and dignity. But this the humility which is plain to see from the way they walk and outwardly appear is actually one of the fruits and effects of eemaan.

وقال ابن عباس في قوله تعالى : [ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا ] ، أي : بالطاعة والعفاف والتواضع . ـ

Ibn ‘Abbaas said about Allah’s statement:

الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا

… those who walk upon the earth with composure …

i.e. in obedience, exercising self-control and practicing humility towards others. Continue reading

What the Salaf Meant by “Abrogation”: Ibn al-Qayyim

In the midst of a discussion urging people not to be hasty or eager to issue legal rulings, ibn al-Qayyim mentioned the following narration about naskh – frequently translated as “abrogation” – and then added some valuable commentary afterwards:

وقال ابن وهب : حدثنا أشهل بن حاتم عن عبد الله بن عون عن ابن سيرين قال : قال حذيفة : إنما يفتي الناس أحد ثلاثة : من يعلم ما نسخ من القرآن ، أو أمير لا يجد بدا ، أو أحمق متكلف ، قال : فربما قال ابن سيرين : فلست بواحد من هذين ، ولا أحب أن أكون الثالث ـ

… ibn Sireen said: Hudhayfah said,

The only ones who issue legal rulings to the people are one of the following three types: 1) someone who knows which parts of the Qur’an have been subject to naskh, 2) a ruler who cannot find any alternative, or 3) an imbecile who fancies himself as being qualified.

The sub-narrator said: I think ibn Sireen said, “I am neither one of the first two, and I would not like to be the third.”

قلت : مراده ومراد عامة السلف بالناسخ والمنسوخ رفع الحكم بجملته تارة وهو اصطلاح المتأخرين ، ورفع دلالة العام والمطلق والظاهر وغيرها تارة ، إما بتخصيص أو تقييد أو حمل مطلق على مقيد وتفسيره وتبيينه حتى إنهم يسمون الاستثناء والشرط والصفة نسخا لتضمن ذلك رفع دلالة الظاهر وبيان المراد ، فالنسخ عندهم وفي لسانهم هو بيان المراد بغير ذلك اللفظ ، بل بأمر خارج عنه ، ومن تأمل كلامهم رأى من ذلك فيه ما لا يحصى ، وزال عنه به إشكالات أوجبها حمل كلامهم على الاصطلاح الحادث المتأخر . ـ Continue reading

‘Ibad al-Rahman – Introduction: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the well-known scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet discussing the closing of surah al-Furqan where Allah lists several honorable traits of His believing slaves. We have translated this booklet as a series of posts, and what follows is the sheikh’s introduction:

الحمد لله، والصلا ة والسلام على رسول الله، وعلى آله وصحبه ومن والاه، أما بعد: ـ

All praise is due to Allah. May peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah, as well as his family, his companions and whoever aligns themselves with him. To proceed:

فإن مقام العبودية لله مقامٌ عظيم، بل هو أشرف المقامات التي امتدح الله بها أنبياءه وأولياءه ، وأضاف أهلها لنفْسه في آيات عديدة؛ تشريفًا لهم وتعليةً لمقامهم. ـ

The station of servitude to Allah is a tremendous station; in fact it is the most noble position with which Allah has praised His prophets and allies. In numerous ayaat Allah has mentioned those who fulfill this rank in conjunction with His name as a form of honoring them and showing the elevated nature of their rank.

وقد ذكر الله لأهل هذا المقام الشريف أوصافًا عديدة، وسماتٍ مباركة، في نصوصٍ كثيرة؛ ليجتهد المسلم في الاتِّصاف بها، والعمل بمقتضاها؛ لينال المقام الرفيع، والشرف الكبير عند رب العالمين. ـ

Allah has mentioned a number of characteristics and blessed titles for those people who hold this noble station. These are mentioned in numerous places in our texts so that the Muslims would strive to imbue themselves with these qualities and conduct themselves in the way that these characteristics entail. In doing so, they would achieve a lofty station and great honor with the Lord of all creation.

ومن أبرز المواضع التي ذكر الله فيها أوصاف عباده المؤمنين في سياقٍ واحدٍ ما جاء في خواتيم سورة الفرقان، حيث ذكر ثمانية أوصافٍ، بدأها بقوله عز وجل [ وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا … ] وفي هذا دلالة على عظيم اختصاصهم بما دل عليه هذا الاسم من معاني الرحمة، فبرحمته هداهم للإيمان، ورباهم على طاعة الرحمن، وحسْ التقرب إليه عز وجل . ـ

One of the most prominent places in which Allah mentions the qualities of His believing slaves is in a single passage found at the closing of surah al-Furqan. Here Allah mentions eight qualities, starting from His statement:

وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا

And the servants of al-Rahman are those who walk upon the earth with composure … [25:63]

We get an indication of the great distinction of these people in this ayah due to what the meanings of this word “al-Rahman” entail. For it is out of His Rahmah – mercy, kindness – that He guided these people of have eemaan and raised them up to be obedient to al-Rahman and to draw close to Him through the proper ways means.

ثم عدد صفاتهم كل صفةٍ مبْدوءةٍ بقوله : [ الذين ] وختم الله هذا السِّياق الكريم بذكر ما أعده لهم منْ ثوابٍ عظيم، وأجرٍ جزيل. ـ

Allah then lists their characteristics, beginning each new characteristic by saying:

وَالَّذِينَ

and those who …

and then Allah concludes this noble passage by mentioning the tremendous rewards and great recompense He has prepared for them.

وجديرٌ بكلِّ مسلمٍ يسعى في نجاة نفسه وسعادتها أن يتأمل صفات عباد الرحمن التي وردت في هذا السِّياق المبارك؛ فيعْرفها معرفةً جيدة، ثم يسْعى بعد ذلك في تحقيقها على أكمل وجهٍ. ـ

So every Muslim working towards the salvation and eternal joy of his own soul ought to reflect on these descriptions of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – the slaves of the Most Merciful – which have been mentioned in this noble passage. In this way he will become well acquainted with them, and thereafter he will be able to work towards actualizing and enacting them in the most complete way.

[Sifat ‘Ibad al-Rahman pg 5-6]

Continue reading: ‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 1 – Composure: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

For more information about this series, see our ‘Ibad al-Rahman Series Guide

See also: Qualities of the Successful Believers Series

See also: Qualities of the Successful Ones: Tafsir al-Sa’di

The Entire Qur’an is about al-Tawheed: ibn al-Qayyim

In one of his many writings, sheikh al-Islam ibn al-Qayyim wrote the following important words:

كل آية في القرآن فهي متضمنة للتوحيد شاهدة به داعية إليه، فإن القرآن إمَّا خبر عن الله وأسمائه وصفاته وأفعاله فهو التوحيد العلمي الخبري، و إمَّا دعوة إلى عبادته وحده لا شريك له وخلع كل ما يعبد من دونه فهو التوحيد الإرادي الطلبي، و إمَّا أمر ونهي وإلزام بطاعته في نهيه وأمره فهي حقوق التوحيد ومكملاته، و إمَّا خبر عن كرامة الله لأهل توحيده وطاعته وما فعل بهم في الدنيا وما يكرمهم به في الآخرة فهو جزاء توحيده، و إمَّا خبر عن أهل الشرك وما فعل بهم في الدنيا من النكال وما يحل بهم في العقبى من العذاب فهو خبر عمن خرج عن حكم التوحيد، فالقرآن كله في التوحيد وحقوقه وجزائه وفي شأن الشرك و أهله وجزائهم

Every ayah in the Qur’an involves al-Tawheed – bearing witness to it and inviting to it.

The Qur’an is always one of the following:

○ Information about Allah, His names and attributes, His actions. This is the tawheed of knowledge and information.

○ Or it is is calling the people to the sole worship of Allah with no partners and doing away with everything else that is worshiped besides Him. This is the tawheed that is sought to be put into practice.

○ Or it is commands and prohibitions and mandating you to obey Him in His prohibitions and commands. This is actualizing al-tawheed and putting it fully into practice. Continue reading