‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 3 – Fear of the Hellfire: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. This section discusses the third quality listed:

الصفة الثالثة : خوفهم وإشفاقهم من عذاب النَّار
Third Quality: Their Great Fear of the Punishment of the Hellfire

قال عز وجل : [وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا * إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا ] ـ

Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا * إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا

And those who say, “Our Lord, avert the punishment of Hell away from us. Indeed, Its torment is an inseparable, permanent punishment. * How evil it is as an abode and as a place to dwell. [25:65-66]

فعباد الرحمن مع إحسانهم بالعمل والتعبد لله ، قد خافوا ووجلوا من عذاب الله وسخطه وهذه حال المؤمنين الكمل؛ كما قال الله : [ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ رَاجِعُونَ ] أي: يقدِّمون ما يقدِّمونه من عباداتٍ وطاعاتٍ وقلوبهم خائفةٌ أن ترد عليهم أعمالهم، فيصيبهم بعد ذلك عذابٌ من الله . ـ

Despite the goodness that they have in their actions and seeking to draw closer to Allah, the ‘ibad al-Rahman – the slave of the Most Merciful – feel great fear and apprehension about Allah’s punishment and displeasure. This is the way of the complete believer. It is just as Allah has said:

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ رَاجِعُونَ

And they who give what they give while their hearts are fearful because they will be returning to their Lord [23:60]

meaning: they send forth whatever acts of worship and obedience they send forth while their hearts are fearful that their deeds will be rejected and as a result they will end up being afflicted by punishment from Allah.

فهذا صفة عظيمة من صفات عباد الرحمن ؛ أنهم يحسنون في أعمالهم ، وفي الوقت نفسه يشفقون أن لا تقبل منهم . ـ

This is one of the amazing qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – that make excellent work with their deeds while at the same time they fear that these deeds will not be accepted from them.

فعن عائشة قالت : سألت رسول الله عن هذه الآية : [وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ ] أهم الذين يشْربون الخمْر ويسْرقون؟ قال : لاَ يَا بِنْتَ الصِّدِّيقِ وَلَكِنَّهُمُ الَّذِينَ يَصُومُونَ وَيُصَلُّونَ وَيَتَصَدَّقُونَ وَهُمْ يَخَافُونَ أَنْ لاَ يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ . ـ

It has been transmitted from ‘A’ishah that she said:

I asked Allah’s Messenger about this ayah

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ رَاجِعُونَ

And they who give what they give while their hearts are fearful

“Are they those people who drink alcohol and steal?” He said, “No, O daughter of al-Siddeeq. Rather, these are those who fast and pray and give charity while fearing that these things will not be accepted from them.”

قال الحسن البصري : المؤمن جمع إ حسانًا وشفقةً ، والمنافق جمع إساءةً وأمنًا، ثم تلا الحسن : [إِنَّ الَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ رَبِّهِم مُّشْفِقُونَ] . ـ

al-Hasan al-Basri said, “The believer has both good deeds and fear, while the munafiq has bad deeds and a sense of security,” and he then recited

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ رَبِّهِم مُّشْفِقُونَ

Indeed, they who are apprehensive from fear of their Lord [23:57]

فالمنافق – والعياذ بالله – يسيئ العمل ، وهو مع ذلك آمن من عذاب الله غير مشفق ، بخلاف المؤمن فإن الخوف من عذاب يكون زاجرا له عن اقتراف المعاصي ، كما أن الرجاء لرحمة الله سائق له للازدياد من الفضائل والقربات إلى الله ، قال تعالى : [أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ ۚ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا] . ـ

For the munafiq – and refuge is sought from Allah – performs bad deeds, but in spite of that he feels safe from Allah’s punishment without any apprehension. This is in contrast to the believer whose fear of punishment acts to prevent him from performing any acts of disobedience, just as his hope for Allah’s mercy drives him to increase in good deeds and acts that bring him closer to Allah. Allah said:

أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ ۚ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا

Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, striving as to which of them would be nearest, and they hope for His mercy and fear His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is ever feared. [17:57]

وقول عباد الرحمن في دعائهم السابق: : [رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ] يتضمن أيضًا الدعاء بصرْف الأسْباب المفْضية إلى عذاب النار، بأنْ يوفِّقك الله في الحياة الدنيا بالبعد عن الأسباب والأعمال التي توجب دخول النار – والعياذ بالله -، كما صح عن النبي أنه علم عائشة أم المؤمنين أن تدعو فتقول : اللَّهمَّ إني أسألك الجنة ، وما قرَّب إليها من قولٍ أو عملٍ ، وأعوذ بك من النَّار، وما قرَّب إليها من قولٍ أو عمل . ـ

And the statement of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman in this supplication:

رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ

Our Lord, avert the punishment of Hell away from us

also involves a supplication to avert the causes that lead one to the punishment of the hellfire by Allah granting you the accord in this worldly life to distance yourself from those causes and any actions which would necessitate entering the hellfire – may Allah protect us. This is just as has been authentically transmitted from the Prophet that he taught ‘A’ishah, the Mother of the Believers, to say the following in her supplication:

O Allah, I indeed ask You for al-Jannah and the statements and actions which will bring me closer to it. And I seek refuge with You from the Hellfire and any statements or actions which would bring me closer to it.

وقولهم: [إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا] أي: دائمًا ملازمًا شديدًا ، [إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا ] أي: بئس المسْتقر، وبئس الخلود. ـ

Allah’s statement:

إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا

Indeed, Its torment is an inseparable, permanent punishment.

meaning: everlasting, inescapable, and severe

إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا

How evil it is as an abode and as a place to dwell.

meaning: what a terrible abode it is, what a terrible eternity it is.

[Sifat ‘Ibad al-Rahman pg 14-16]

Explore the entire series here: ‘Ibad al-Rahman Series Guide

See also: Fear the Fire Whose Fuel is Men and Stones: Tafsir al-Baghawi & Tafsir al-Qurtubi

See also: Remaining eternally in the Hell-fire and its causes: Imam al-Sa’di

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One thought on “‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 3 – Fear of the Hellfire: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

  1. Pingback: Assorted Qur’an Benefits #16 | Tulayhah

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