‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 1 – Composure: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr, one of the contemporary scholars of al-Madinah, wrote a small booklet on the qualities of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – mentioned in the end of Surah al-Furqan. We have translated this booklet in a series of posts. Following the introduction, this section discusses the first quality listed in the passage:

الصفة الاولى : السَّكينة والوقار والتواضع لله ولعباده

قال تعالى : [ وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا ] ـ

The First Quality: Composure, Dignity, and Humility towards Allah and His slaves

Allah said:

وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا

And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth with composure, and when the ignorant address them, they say words of peace. [25:63]

من صفات عباد الرحمن وجميل نعوتهم : تواضعهم لله ولعباده، فيمشون بسكينةٍ وطمأنينة ووقار، وهذا التواضع الذي ظهر على مشيهم وهيئتهم إنما هو ثمرةٌ من ثمار الإيمان، وأثرٌ من آثاره. ـ

One of the characteristics and beautiful traits of the ‘Ibad al-Rahman – servants of the Most Merciful – is their humility towards Allah and His slaves, such that they go about with composure, calmness and dignity. But this the humility which is plain to see from the way they walk and outwardly appear is actually one of the fruits and effects of eemaan.

وقال ابن عباس في قوله تعالى : [ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا ] ، أي : بالطاعة والعفاف والتواضع . ـ

Ibn ‘Abbaas said about Allah’s statement:

الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا

… those who walk upon the earth with composure …

i.e. in obedience, exercising self-control and practicing humility towards others.

ومن مظاهر تواضعهم وسكينتهم أنهم إنْ واجهوا في طريقهم بعض أهل السفه والجهْل فإنهم يخاطبونهم بكلامٍ سديدٍ سالمٍ من السفه والجهْل، وهذا معنى قوله : [وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا] أي: قولًا يسْلمون به من الإثم واللغو. ـ

One of the manifestations of their humility towards others and their self-composure is that if they encounter some foolish or ignorant people as they are going about their way then they address them with appropriate and proper speech devoid of any foolishness or ignorant behavior. This is the meaning of Allah’s statement:

وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا

… and when the ignorant address them, they say words peace.

meaning: words free of any sinfulness or foul language.

وهم بهذا قد جمعوا لأنفسهم السلامة من عثرتين: عثْرة الرِّجْل، وعثْرة اللِّسان. ـ

In this way they have protected themselves from two stumblings: a stumble of the feet and a stumble of the tongue.

قال ابن القيم : ولما كانت العثرة عثرتين: عثرة الرِّجْل، وعثرة اللسان؛ جاءت إحداهما قرينة الأخرى في قوله تعالى: [وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا ] فوصفهم بالاسْتقامة في لفظاتهم وخطواتهم . ـ

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

There are two main types of stumblings : a stumble of one’s feet and a stumble of one’s tongue. The two are mentioned alongside each other in Allah’s statement:

وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا

And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth with composure, and when the ignorant address them, they say words of peace.

So Allah describes them as being upright and steadfast both in their statements and in their footsteps.

فلا يقابلون الجاهلين والسفهاء بمثل جهلهم وسفههم، وإنما يعْرضون عنهم، ويخاطبونهم بكلامٍ سليمٍ من هذه الآفات، فيدْفعون الإساءة بالإحسان، كما قال الله : [وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ * وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا ذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ ] . ـ

These people do not respond to the ignorant behavior of the ignorant ones nor the foolishness of the fools in kind. Instead they turn away from them and address them with speech that is free of such blemishes. So they respond to ill treatment with good behavior, just as Allah said:

وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ * وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا ذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ

The good deed and the bad deed are not equal. Respond with what is better. If you do that, then the relationship between you and your enemy will become like that of a close friend. * But none is granted that except for those who exercise steadfast patience, and none is granted that except those with a tremendous blessing. [41:34-35]

فالناس يتفاوتون في أخلاقهم وتعاملاتهم تفاوتًا عظيمًا، والواجب على المسْلم بحسْن ديانته، وجميل أخلاقه أن يتصف بما ذكره الله عن عباد الرحمن في الآية السابقة، فيقابل الإساءة بالإحسان، ويتواضع لعباد الله مهما كانت أخلاقهم. ـ

For people fall along a broad spectrum in terms of their manners and their ways of interacting with others. What the Muslim is obligated to do for both the good of his worldly life and the beautification of his manners is to characterize himself with what Allah mentioned about the ‘Ibad al-Rahman in this ayah. This entails that he responds to bad behavior with good behavior and exhibits humility towards Allah’s slaves no matter what their behavior.

وينبغي قبل ذلك أن يستعين بالله في أموره كلِّها، وأن يدعوه أن يهديه لأحسن الأخلاق، وأن يصرف عنه سيئها كما ثبت عن النبي أنه كان يقول في دعاء الاستفتاح : [اهدني لأحسن الأخلاق، لا يهدي لأحسنها إلا أنت، واصرف عني سيئها، لا يصرف عني سيئها إلا أنت] . ـ

But even before this he must seek Allah’s assistance in every single thing that he does, and he must beseech Allah to guide him to the best type of character and behavior and divert him away from bad character and from bad behavior. This is as is authentically reported from the Prophet, that he used to supplicate in the opening of the prayer by saying:

اهْدِنِي لأَحْسَنِ الأَخْلاَقِ لاَ يَهْدِي لأَحْسَنِهَا إِلاَّ أَنْتَ وَاصْرِفْ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا لاَ يَصْرِفُ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا إِلاَّ أَنْتَ

Guide me to the best of character, and no one can guide me to the best character except for You. And divert me away from bad character, and no one can divert me away from bad character except for You.

وكان النبي يرشد من خرج من بيته أن يقول: اللَّهُمَّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَضِلَّ أَوْ أُضَلَّ أَوْ أَزِلَّ أَوْ أُزَلَّ أَوْ أَظْلِمَ أَوْ أُظْلَمَ أَوْ أَجْهَلَ أَوْ يُجْهَلَ عَلَيَّ . وفي هذا الدعاء المبارك تحْصينٌ للعبد أن يكون منه جهْلٌ على الآخرين ، وأن يسْلم هو من جهْل الآخرين عليه. ـ

And the Prophet instructed us when leaving the house to say:

اللَّهُمَّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَضِلَّ أَوْ أُضَلَّ أَوْ أَزِلَّ أَوْ أُزَلَّ أَوْ أَظْلِمَ أَوْ أُظْلَمَ أَوْ أَجْهَلَ أَوْ يُجْهَلَ عَلَيَّ

O Allah, I seek refuge in you from going astray or being led astray, from slipping or being made to slip, from causing injustice or suffering injustice, from behaving ignorantly or encountering ignorant behavior.

This blessed supplication contains protection for the slave against behaving ignorantly towards others and that he would be safe from others behaving ignorantly towards him.

[Sifat ‘Ibad al-Rahman pg 7-10]

Translator’s Note: In the original booklet, the hadith references and gradings are provided in the footnotes. We hope it will be sufficient to mention that all of the hadith narrations mentioned in this booklet were graded as Saheeh by sheikh al-Albani.

Explore the entire series here: ‘Ibad al-Rahman Series Guide

See also: Qualities of the Successful Ones: Tafsir al-Sa’di

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One thought on “‘Ibad al-Rahman Part 1 – Composure: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

  1. Pingback: ‘Ibad al-Rahman – Introduction: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr | Tulayhah

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