The Prophet clarified much of what the Ahl al-Kitaab used to conceal: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote in his book of tafsir:

قوله تعالى : يا أهل الكتاب قد جاءكم رسولنا يبين لكم كثيرا مما كنتم تخفون من الكتاب [ الآية [ 5 \ 15 ] ، لم يبين هنا شيئا من ذلك الكثير الذي يبينه لهم الرسول – صلى الله عليه وسلم – مما كانوا يخفون من الكتاب ، يعني التوراة والإنجيل ، وبين كثيرا منه في مواضع أخر . ـ

Allah’s statement:

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَ‌سُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرً‌ا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ‌ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّـهِ نُورٌ‌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book. [5:15]

Nothing was explained here of the many things things which were clarified to them by the Messenger (ﷺ) of what they used to conceal of their scripture, meaning the Tawrah and the Injeel, but He clarified much of it elsewhere.

فمما كانوا يخفون من أحكام التوراة رجم الزاني المحصن ، وبينه القرآن في قوله تعالى : ألم تر إلى الذين أوتوا نصيبا من الكتاب يدعون إلى كتاب الله ليحكم بينهم ثم يتولى فريق منهم وهم معرضون [ 3 \ 23 ] . ـ

So from the things which they used to conceal of the legislative rulings of the Tawrah was the stoning of the virgin fornicator, and the Qur’an clarified this in His statement: Continue reading

Advertisements

Ibn Taymiyah on the Books of Tafsir

In Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, Sheikh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyah was asked:

أي التفاسير أقرب إلى الكتاب والسنة ؟ الزمخشري ؟ أم القرطبي ؟ أم البغوي ؟ أو غير هؤلاء ؟

Which tafsir is nearest to the Qur’an and Sunnah: al-Zamakhshari, al-Qurtubi, al-Baghawi, or another one?

He responded by writing:

 وأما ” التفاسير ” التي في أيدي الناس فأصحها ” تفسير محمد بن جرير الطبري ” فإنه يذكر مقالات السلف بالأسانيد الثابتة وليس فيه بدعة ولا ينقل عن المتهمين كمقاتل بن بكير والكلبي والتفاسير غير المأثورة بالأسانيد كثيرة كتفسير عبد الرزاق وعبد بن حميد ووكيع وابن أبي قتيبة وأحمد بن حنبل وإسحاق بن راهويه . ـ

As for the the books of tafsir which are available to the people, then the most authentic of them is the tafsir of Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari [Tafsir al-Tabari] (d. 310 H), for it mentions the statements of the salaf with the reliable chains of narrations, and there is neither bid’ah in it nor does he transmit from people who have been accussed of fabrication such as Muqaatil ibn Bakeer or al-Kalbi. And there are many books of tafsir which do not bring the narrations with chains such as the tafsir of ‘Abd al-Razzaaq [ibn Hammaam] (d. 211 H), ‘Abd ibn Humayd (d. 249 H), Wakee’ [ibn al-Jarraah] (d. 197 H), ibn Abi Qutaybah (d. 276 H), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 H), and Ishaaq ibn Raahawayh (d. 238 H).

وأما ” التفاسير الثلاثة ” المسئول عنها فأسلمها من البدعة والأحاديث الضعيفة ” البغوي ” لكنه مختصر من ” تفسير الثعلبي ” وحذف منه الأحاديث الموضوعة والبدع التي فيه وحذف أشياء غير ذلك . ـ

As for the three tafseers which were inquired about, then the safest of them from bid’ah and weak ahaadeeth is al-Baghawi (d. 516 H), though it is abridged from Tafsir al-Tha’labi, and he [Imam al-Baghawi] removed the fabricated ahaadeeth and bid’ah therein from it, and omitted other things as well. Continue reading

Four Means of Attaining Allah’s Forgiveness: Imam al-Sa’di

While mentioning some of the benefits derived from the story of Moosaa and Haaroon, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di mentions the following point of clarity and great benefit:

ومنها : أن قوله تعالى :  < وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ‌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا ثُمَّ اهْتَدَىٰ > استوعب الله بها الأسباب التي تدرك بها مغفرة الله . ـ

And from the benefits is that Allah’s statement:

وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ‌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا ثُمَّ اهْتَدَىٰ

But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then continues in guidance. [20:82]

With this statement Allah comprises all of the means by which the forgiveness of Allah is reached.

أحدها: التوبة، وهو الرجوع عما يكرهه الله ظاهرا وباطنا إلى ما يحبه الله ظاهرا وباطنا، وهي تَجُبُّ ما قبلها من الذنوب صغارها وكبارها. ـ

First: al-Tawbah (repentance), and that is returning from what Allah hates – both outwardly and inwardly – back towards what Allah loves – both outwardly and inwardly. And this is in respond to what previously occurred in terms of both major and minor sins. Continue reading

Do any sins remain after entering Islam?: Ibn Taymiyah

As it comes in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa:

وسئل عن اليهودي أو النصراني إذا أسلم . هل يبقى عليه ذنب بعد الإسلام ؟ ـ

He was asked about the Jew or the Christian who enters into Islam – does his sin remain on him after entering into Islam?

So Sheikh al-Islaam ibn Taymiyah replied:

فأجاب : – إذا أسلم باطنا وظاهرا غفر له الكفر الذي تاب منه بالإسلام بلا نزاع وأما الذنوب التي لم يتب منها مثل : أن يكن مصرا على ذنب أو ظلم أو فاحشة ولم يتب منها بالإسلام . ـ

When one enters into Islam both inwardly and outwardly, he is forgiven of the kufr which he repented of by way of his Islam. This is without any dispute. But as for the sins from which he did not repent, such as persisting upon a sin or an injustice or a sexually immoral deed, then he did not repent of it by way of his Islam.

فقد قال بعض الناس : إنه يغفر له بالإسلام . والصحيح : أنه إنما يغفر له ما تاب منه . ـ

Some of the people have said, “Verily he is forgiven of it by way of his Islam.” But the correct position is, “Verily he is only forgiven of it if he repents from it.” Continue reading

The Nine Signs given to Moosaa: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In his tafsir of surah al-Israa, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

قوله تعالى : ولقد آتينا موسى تسع آيات بينات

Allah’s statement:

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ تِسْعَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ

“And We had certainly given Moosaa nine clear signs” [17:101]

الآية . قال بعض أهل العلم : هذه الآيات التسع ، هي : العصا ، واليد ، والسنون ، والبحر ، والطوفان ، والجراد ، والقمل ، والضفادع ، والدم ، آيات مفصلات . ـ

Some of the people of knowledge said: these nine signs are the staff, the hand, famine, the sea, flooding, locusts, lice, frogs and blood as clear signs.

وقد بين جل وعلا هذه الآيات في مواضع أخر ; كقوله : فألقى عصاه فإذا هي ثعبان مبين ونزع يده فإذا هي بيضاء للناظرين [ 7 \ 107 – 108 ] ، وقوله : ولقد أخذنا آل فرعون بالسنين ونقص من الثمرات الآية [ 7 \ 130 ] ، وقوله : فأوحينا إلى موسى أن اضرب بعصاك البحر فانفلق فكان كل فرق كالطود العظيم [ 26 \ 63 ] وقوله : فأرسلنا عليهم الطوفان والجراد والقمل والضفادع والدم آيات مفصلات [ 7 \ 133 ] إلى غير ذلك من الآيات المبينة لما ذكرنا ، وجعل بعضهم الجبل بدل ” السنين ” وعليه فقد بين ذلك قوله تعالى : وإذ نتقنا الجبل فوقهم كأنه ظلة [ 7 \ 117 ] ، ونحوها من الآيات . ـ

And Allah has clarified these signs in other places, such as His statement: Continue reading

The supplication is granted so long as one does not show impatience: Ibn Hajr

In Saheeh al-Bukhari, it narrated that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said:

يُسْتَجَابُ لأَحَدِكُمْ مَا لَمْ يَعْجَلْ يَقُولُ دَعَوْتُ فَلَمْ يُسْتَجَبْ لِي

The supplication of anyone of you is granted if he does not show impatience by saying, “I supplicated but my request has not been granted.”

[al-Bukhari #6340]

Commenting on this in his explanation of Saheeh al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaani wrote:

قوله : يستجاب لأحدكم ما لم يعجل أي يجاب دعاؤه وقد تقدم بيان ذلك في التفسير في قوله – تعالى – الذين استجابوا لله . ـ

His statement, “The supplication of anyone of you is granted if he does not show impatience” – meaning his supplication is answered, and the explanation of that has already come in the tafsir of Allah’s statement, “Those [believers] who responded to Allah” [3:172].

قوله : يقول دعوت فلم يستجب لي في رواية غير أبي ذر ” فيقول ” بزيادة فاء واللام منصوبة قال ابن بطال : المعنى أنه يسأم فيترك الدعاء فيكون كالمان بدعائه أو أنه أتى من الدعاء ما يستحق به الإجابة فيصير كالمبخل للرب الكريم الذي لا تعجزه الإجابة ولا ينقصه العطاء

His statement, “by saying ‘I supplicated but my request has not been granted’“. … And ibn Battaal said: the meaning is that he tired and so he abandoned supplicating as if he were expending himself by making his supplication, or he (only) brings supplications which are guaranteed a response so then he becomes like a penny-pincher with His Lord, the Generous One, Who does not show impatience in responding nor does He decrease what He gives.

وقد وقع في رواية أبي إدريس الخولاني عن أبي هريرة عند مسلم والترمذي لا يزال يستجاب للعبد ما لم يدع بإثم أو قطيعة رحم وما لم يستعجل . قيل وما الاستعجال ؟ قال يقول قد دعوت وقد دعوت فلم أر يستجاب لي فيستحسر عند ذلك ويدع الدعاء ومعنى قوله يستحسر وهو بمهملات ينقطع

And it has come in the narration of Abu Idrees al-Khawlaani from Abu Hurayrah in Muslim and al-Tirmidhi:

“The supplication of the servant is granted so long as he does not supplicate for sin or for severing the ties of kinship, or he does not become impatient.” It was said: “O Messenger of Allah, what does ‘so long as he does not grow impatient’ mean?” He said, “That he should say, ‘I supplicated and I supplicated but I did not see a response,’ and then he becomes frustrated and abandons supplication.

وفي هذا الحديث أدب من آداب الدعاء وهو أنه يلازم الطلب ولا ييأس من الإجابة لما في ذلك من الانقياد والاستسلام وإظهار الافتقار حتى قال بعض السلف : لأنا أشد خشية أن أحرم الدعاء من أن أحرم الإجابة وكأنه أشار إلى حديث ابن عمر رفعه من فتح له منكم باب الدعاء فتحت له أبواب الرحمة الحديث أخرجه الترمذي بسند لين وصححه الحاكم فوهم قال الداودي : يخشى على من خالف وقال : قد دعوت فلم يستجب لي أن يحرم الإجابة وما قام مقامها من الادخار والتكفير انتهى

And in this hadeeth is an etiquette from the etiquettes of supplication, which is that one should persist in seeking and should not despair of a response, for in that there is compliance and submission and demonstrating one’s neediness to the extent that some of the salaf said, “Indeed I am more fearful that I might be deprived of supplication than that I might be deprived of responses to supplication.” And it is as if this is referring to the hadeeth of ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet:

For whomsoever of you the door of supplication is opened, the doors of mercy have been opened for him.

The hadeeth is reported by al-Tirmidhi with a good chain of narration which al-Haakim graded as saheeh. And al-Daawoodi mused, “It is feared for the one goes against this and says, ‘I have supplicated but my request has not been granted’ – it is feared that he will be deprived of a response as well as what goes in its place such as storing-up [good for the hereafter] or expiation of sins.” End quote.

وقد قدمت في أول كتاب الدعاء الأحاديث الدالة على أن دعوة المؤمن لا ترد وأنها إما أن تعجل له الإجابة وإما أن تدفع عنه من السوء مثلها وإما أن يدخر له في الآخرة خير مما سأل

And multiple ahaadeeth have already come in the beginning of the chapter of supplication demonstrating that the supplication of the believer is not rejected, and that it is either that the response is delayed for him, or that it repels some evil the like thereof from him, or something better than what he asked for is stored up for him in the hereafter.

فأشار الداودي إلى ذلك وإلى ذلك أشار ابن الجوزي بقوله اعلم أن دعاء المؤمن لا يرد غير أنه قد يكون الأولى له تأخير الإجابة أو يعوض بما هو أولى له عاجلا أو آجلا فينبغي للمؤمن أن لا يترك الطلب من ربه فإنه متعبد بالدعاء كما هو متعبد بالتسليم والتفويض

And al-Daawoodi indicated that, as did ibn al-Jawzi by his statement, “Know that the supplication of the believer is not rejected – either it is better for him to delay the response, or he will be compensated with that which is better for him, whether in this life or the next. So it is becoming of the believer that he should not abandon seeking of his Lord, for verily he is engaging in worship by means of supplication just as he is engaged in worship by means of submission and entrusting his affair to Allah.

ومن جملة آداب الدعاء تحري الأوقات الفاضلة كالسجود وعند الأذان ومنها تقديم الوضوء ، والصلاة واستقبال القبلة ورفع اليدين وتقديم التوبة والاعتراف بالذنب ، والإخلاص وافتتاحه بالحمد والثناء والصلاة على النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – والسؤال بالأسماء الحسنى وأدلة ذلك ذكرت في هذا الكتاب

And from the overall etiquettes of supplication is:

-To seek out the preferred times, such as during al-sujood or at the time of the adhaan.

-And from the etiquettes is preceding it with wudhoo’,

-and during al-salaah

-and while facing the qiblah

-and while raising one’s hands

-and preceding it with al-tawbah and recognition of one’s sins

-and having ikhlaas

-and opening with praise and extolling [of Allah] and sending salaah on the Prophet (ﷺ)

-and asking by the beautiful names of Allah

And the evidence for these things in mentioned [elsewhere] is this book.

وقال الكرماني ما ملخصه الذي يتصور في الإجابة وعدمها أربع صور الأولى عدم العجلة وعدم القول المذكور الثانية وجودهما الثالثة والرابعة عدم أحدهما ووجود الآخر فدل الخبر على أن الإجابة تختص بالصورة الأولى دون ثلاث قال ودل الحديث على أن مطلق قوله – تعالى – أجيب دعوة الداع إذا دعان مقيد بما دل عليه الحديث . ـ

And al-Karmaani said, “What can be summarized of what leads to a response or the absence thereof are four cases: 1) The absence of impatience and the absence of the aforementioned statement. 2) [Conversely] the presence of these two things. 3) and 4) the presence of one of these two things and the absence of the other.”  So this narration demonstrates that a response is specific to the first case to the exclusion of the third. And he said, “And this hadeeth demonstrates that the general nature of Allah’s statement, “I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me” [2:186] is restricted by what this hadeeth indicates.

قلت وقد أول الحديث المشار إليه قبل على أن المراد بالإجابة ما هو أعم من تحصيل المطلوب بعينه أو ما يقوم مقامه ويزيد عليه والله أعلم

I [ibn Hajr] say, “And the initial hadeeth mentioned refers to the fact that the intended meaning of a response [to supplication] is more general than just attaining what is sought in and of itself or what takes it place, and it is more than that – and Allah knows best.”

[Fath al-Baari #9479]

See also: Avoid the sins which prevent forgiveness and the acceptance of du’a: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: “Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.”: Imam al-Qurtubi’s tafsir of 7:55

See also: Words for those in the midst of long-suffering: Ibn al-Jawzi

See also: “When My slaves ask you about Me, Indeed I am near”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Allah’s Name al-Mujeeb al-Qareeb – Sheikh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq

The command to treat parents with ihsaan: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah says in surah al-Israa’:

وَقَضَىٰ رَ‌بُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۚ إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ‌ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُل لَّهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْ‌هُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِ‌يمًا

And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment. Whether one or both of them reach old age [while] with you, say not to them [so much as], “uff,” and do not repel them but speak to them a noble word. [17:23]

Commenting on this ayah, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote the following:

قوله تعالى : وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا

Allah’s statement, “And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment“.

 أمر جل وعلا في هذه الآية الكريمة بإخلاص العبادة له وحده ، وقرن بذلك الأمر بالإحسان إلى الوالدين . ـ

In this noble ayah, He commanded them with sincerity of worship towards Him alone. And He paired that with the command to have excellent treatments towards parents.

وجعله بر الوالدين مقرونا بعبادته وحده جل وعلا المذكور هنا ذكره في آيات أخر ; كقوله في سورة ” النساء ” : واعبدوا الله ولا تشركوا به شيئا وبالوالدين إحسانا الآية [ 4 \ 36 ] ، وقوله في البقرة : وإذ أخذنا ميثاق بني إسرائيل لا تعبدون إلا الله وبالوالدين إحسانا الآية [ 2 \ 83 ] ، وقوله في سورة لقمان : أن اشكر لي ولوالديك إلي المصير [ 31 \ 14 ] ، ـ

He made mention of Birr al-Waalidayn (good treatment towards parents) paired with worshiping Him alone both here and in other ayaat, such as His statement in surah al-Nisaa’, Continue reading

The Shaytaan and his tribe see you from where you do not see them: ibn Taymiyah

As is recorded in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa:

سئل الشيخ رحمه الله عن : قوله تعالى { إنه يراكم هو وقبيله من حيث لا ترونهم } الآية الكريمة . هل ذلك عام لا يراهم أحد أم يراهم بعض الناس دون بعض ؟ وهل الجن والشياطين جنس واحد ولد إبليس أم جنسين : ولد إبليس وغير ولده ؟ . ـ

The sheikh – may Allah have mercy on him – was asked about Allah’s statement:

إِنَّهُ يَرَ‌اكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَ‌وْنَهُمْ

Indeed, he [the Shaytaan] sees you – he and his tribe – from where you do not see them. [7:27]

Is this general such that no one can see them, or is it the case that some of mankind can see them to the exclusion of others? And do the jinn and the shayaateen belong to one single category of the children of Iblis or to two categories; the children of Iblis and other than his children?

فأجاب شيخ الإسلام أبو العباس أحمد بن تيمية رحمه الله ورضي عنه آمين . فقال : الحمد لله : الذي في القرآن أنهم يرون الإنس من حيث لا يراهم الإنس وهذا حق يقتضي أنهم يرون الإنس في حال لا يراهم الإنس فيها وليس فيه أنهم لا يراهم أحد من الإنس بحال ; بل قد يراهم الصالحون وغير الصالحين أيضا ; لكن لا يرونهم في كل حال

So Sheikh al-Islaam Abu’l-‘Abbaas Ahmad ibn Taymiyah – may Allah have mercy on him and be pleased with him, ameen – responded by saying: al-hamdulillah. That which is in the Qur’an is that they see mankind from where mankind does not see them. And this is the truth which requires that they see mankind in situations where mankind does not see them. And this does not indicate that no one from mankind sees them at all – rather, perhaps both the righteous ones see them and the non-righteous as well. However, they do not see them in all situations.

والشياطين هم مردة الإنس والجن وجميع الجن ولد إبليس . والله أعلم . ـ

And the shayaateen refers to both mankind and jinn. And all jinn are children of Iblis – and Allah knows best.

[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa 15/7]

See also: Dealing with the human shayaateen and the jinn shayaateen: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: “There is no one who does not have a Qareen from the Jinn”: Sharḥ al-Nawawi

See also: Ibn al-Qayyim on the Wisdom and Benefits of the Creation of the Shayaateen

See also: Do not delve deeply into the affairs of the Unseen: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

Whoever wills, let him believe; and whoever wills, let him disbelieve – Tafsir al-Sa’di & Tafsir al-Shinqeeti

Allah says in surah al-Kahf:

وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّ‌بِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَن شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ‌ ۚ إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ نَارً‌ا أَحَاطَ بِهِمْ سُرَ‌ادِقُهَا ۚ وَإِن يَسْتَغِيثُوا يُغَاثُوا بِمَاءٍ كَالْمُهْلِ يَشْوِي الْوُجُوهَ ۚ بِئْسَ الشَّرَ‌ابُ وَسَاءَتْ مُرْ‌تَفَقًا

And say, “The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills – let him believe; and whoever wills – let him disbelieve.” Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them. And if they call for relief, they will be relieved with water like murky oil, which scalds [their] faces. Wretched is the drink, and evil is the resting place. [18:29]

Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di commented on this ayah by writing:

 أي: قل للناس يا محمد: هو الحق من ربكم أي: قد تبين الهدى من الضلال، والرشد من الغي، وصفات أهل السعادة، وصفات أهل الشقاوة، وذلك بما بينه الله على لسان رسوله، فإذا بان واتضح، ولم يبق فيه شبهة. ـ

It means: Say to the people, O Muhammad: this is the truth from your Lord. Meaning: Guidance has been clearly distinguished from misguidance, as well as direction from misdirection, as well as the characteristics of the people of ultimate joy and the characteristics of the people of ultimate sorrow. That is what has been clarified by Allah on the tongue of His messenger. So when something has been clarified and has become clear, then no doubt remains concerning it.

ـ { فَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِنْ وَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ } أي: لم يبق إلا سلوك أحد الطريقين، بحسب توفيق العبد، وعدم توفيقه، وقد أعطاه الله مشيئة بها يقدر على الإيمان والكفر، والخير والشر، فمن آمن فقد وفق للصواب، ومن كفر فقد قامت عليه الحجة، وليس بمكره على الإيمان، كما قال تعالى { لا إكراه في الدين قد تبين الرشد من الغي } وليس في قوله: { فمن شاء فليؤمن ومن شاء فليكفر } الإذن في كلا الأمرين، وإنما ذلك تهديد ووعيد لمن اختار الكفر بعد البيان التام، كما ليس فيها ترك قتال الكافرين. ثم ذكر تعالى مآل الفريقين … ـ

Continue reading