The Meanings of Kufr, Thulm, and Fisq: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In surah al-Maa’idah, Allah repeats a similar phrase three times:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are the kaafiroon (disbelievers) [5:44]

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are the thaalimoon (wrong-doers) [5:45]

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are the faasiqoon (rebellious, disobedient ones) [5:47]

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee devoted extensive space in his book of tafsir to discussing these and the surrounding ayaat in detail. In the last part of his discussion he condensed some of his main points, which we have translated below:

قوله تعالى : ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله فأولئك هم الفاسقون قد قدمنا أن هذه الآية في النصارى ، والتي قبلها في اليهود ، والتي قبل تلك في المسلمين ، كما يقتضيه ظاهر القرآن . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are the faasiqoon (rebellious, disobedient ones) [5:47]

we have already mentioned that this ayah is referring to the Christians, the one before it is referring to the Jews, and the one before that is referring to the Muslims, as follows from the outward meanings of the ayaat. Continue reading

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Know that Allah is Severe in Punishment and that Allah is Forgiving and Merciful: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Maa’idah:

اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ وَأَنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Know that Allah is severe in punishment and that Allah is Forgiving and Merciful [5:98]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di commented on this in his tafsir by writing:

أي: ليكن هذان العلمان موجودين في قلوبكم على وجه الجزم واليقين، تعلمون أنه شديد العقاب العاجل والآجل على من عصاه، وأنه غفور رحيم لمن تاب إليه وأطاعه. فيثمر لكم هذا العلمُ الخوفَ من عقابه، والرجاءَ لمغفرته وثوابه، وتعملون على ما يقتضيه الخوف والرجاء.ـ

meaning: Let these two pieces of information be present in your hearts with certainty and assurance – that you know that He is severe in punishment – whether it be immediate or delayed – towards those who disobey Him, and that He is forgiving and merciful towards whoever repents to Him and obeys Him.

So this knowledge should produce a fear of His punishment and a hope for His forgiveness and reward in you, and you should behave in a way that reflects that fear and that hope.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 271]

See also: Follow Allah’s Path, and Do Not Follow Other Paths: Sheikh Saalih al-Fawzan

See also: Imam al-Nawawi on Hope and Fear

A Frightening Ayah for the Leaders and Scholars: Tafsir al-Tabari

In part of surah al-Maa’idah Allah criticizes a number of characteristics of the Jews, and then says:

لَوْلَا يَنْهَاهُمُ الرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ عَن قَوْلِهِمُ الْإِثْمَ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ ۚ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ

Why don’t the rabbaaniyoon and ahbar forbid them from saying ithm and devouring suht? How wretched is what they have done! [5:63]

In his explanation of this ayah, the great mufassir Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari wrote:

قال أبو جعفر : يقول تعالى ذكره : هلا ينهى هؤلاء الذين يسارعون في الإثم والعدوان وأكل الرشى في الحكم ، من اليهود من بني إسرائيل ، ربانيوهم وهم أئمتهم المؤمنون ، وساستهم العلماء بسياستهم ، وأحبارهم وهم علماؤهم وقوادهم “عن قولهم الإثم ” يعني : عن قول الكذب والزور ، وذلك أنهم كانوا يحكمون فيهم بغير حكم الله ، ويكتبون كتبا بأيديهم ثم يقولون : “هذا من حكم الله ، وهذا من كتبه” . يقول الله : ( فويل لهم مما كتبت أيديهم وويل لهم مما يكسبون ) [ سورة البقرة : 79 ] . ـ

I, Abu Ja’far, say: Allah is saying: Why don’t they prohibit these people who rush to commit sin and oppression and those in authority who take bribes? Why those Jews from the Children of Israa’eel do this? The rabbaaniyoon are their commanders, their political leaders and those experts in political matters, and the ahbar are their religious scholars and moral role models. Why don’t they prevent those from saying ‘ithm, meaning: saying lies and deceptive things. That is because the rulings that these leaders made for their people were not according to Allah’s rulings; they wrote scriptures with their own hands and then said, “This is a ruling from Allah, this is part of His Book.” Allah says:

فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby. [2:79]

وأما قوله : ” وأكلهم السحت ” ، فإنه يعني به الرشوة التي كانوا يأخذونها على حكمهم بغير كتاب الله لمن حكموا له به . ـ

As for Allah’s statement:

وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ

and eating suht

Then this is referring to bribes which these rulers used to take for issuing judgements and rulings contrary to Allah’s Book. Continue reading

Allah Knows what the Chests Contain: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In the beginning of surah al-Maa’idah, Allah addresses the believers by saying:

وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّـهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمِيثَاقَهُ الَّذِي وَاثَقَكُم بِهِ إِذْ قُلْتُمْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ

And remember the favor of Allah upon you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said, “We hear and we obey”; and have taqwa of Allah. Indeed, Allah is the All-Knower of what is within the chests. [5:7]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following in his commentary of this ayah:

يأمر تعالى عباده بذكر نعمه الدينية والدنيوية، بقلوبهم وألسنتهم. فإن في استدامة ذكرها داعيا لشكر الله تعالى ومحبته، وامتلاء القلب من إحسانه. ـ

Allah commands His slaves to remember His blessings – both those related to the deen and those related to this worldly life – with their hearts and with their tongues, for being continuously in remembrance of them leads one to be grateful to Allah and to love Him and to have a heart filled with His goodness.

وفيه زوال للعجب من النفس بالنعم الدينية، وزيادة لفضل الله وإحسانه. و { مِيثَاقَهُْ} أي: واذكروا ميثاقه { الَّذِي وَاثَقَكُمْ بِهِ ْ} أي: عهده الذي أخذه عليكم. ـ

This would also lead to a removal of self-amazement at the blessings of this worldly life, and an increase of the bounties of goodness of Allah.

And Continue reading

“O Messenger, Convey what has been Revealed to you”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In his tafsir of surah al-Maa’idah, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee mentioned the following brief point:

قوله تعالى : يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك الآية . أمر تعالى في هذه الآية نبيه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – بتبليغ ما أنزل إليه ، وشهد له بالامتثال في آيات متعددة ، كقوله : اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم [ 5 \ 3 ] ، وقوله : وما على الرسول إلا البلاغ [ 24 \ 54 ] ، وقوله : فتول عنهم فما أنت بملوم [ 51 \ 54 ] ،  ـ

Allah’s statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّ‌سُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّ‌بِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِ‌سَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِ‌ينَ

O Messenger, convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people. [5:67]

In this noble ayah Allah commanded His prophet (ﷺ) to convey what was revealed to him. And He affirmed his compliance concerning this matter in numerous ayaat, such as His statement:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

This day I have perfected for you your religion [5:3]

And His statement:

Continue reading

The Consequences of Not Forbidding Wrongdoing: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah describes those among the Jews who disbelieved and received Allah’s curse in surah al-Maa’idah by saying:

كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَن مُّنكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ ۚ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

They used not to forbid one another from wrongdoing that they did. How wretched was that which they were doing. [5:79]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di mentioned the following points of benefit related to this ayah in the midst of his tafsir of the surrounding passage:

ـ { كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ } أي: كانوا يفعلون المنكر، ولا ينهى بعضهم بعضا، فيشترك بذلك المباشر، وغيره الذي سكت عن النهي عن المنكر مع قدرته على ذلك. ـ

كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ

They used not to forbid one another from wrongdoing that they did

meaning: They used to commit wrongdoing but they did not forbid one another from doing that, and thus they were partnered in doing that – both the one who actually did the wrongdoing and the others who remained silent and withheld from forbidding the wrongdoing despite having the ability to do so.

وذلك يدل على تهاونهم بأمر الله، وأن معصيته خفيفة عليهم، فلو كان لديهم تعظيم لربهم لغاروا لمحارمه، ولغضبوا لغضبه، وإنما كان السكوت عن المنكر -مع القدرة- موجبا للعقوبة، لما فيه من المفاسد العظيمة: ـ

This indicates their indifference towards Allah’s commandments and that disobeying Allah was something that they took lightly. For if they had a sense of the greatness of their Lord, they would have been protective of His forbidden limits and they would have been angered by what angers Him. But remaining silent about wrongdoing – despite having the ability – necessitates punishment due to what it entails of serious negative consequences: Continue reading

We Revealed the Qur’an as a Muhaymin over the previous scriptures: Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah says in surah al-Maa’idah:

وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ

And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a muhaymin over it… [5:48]

Commenting on this ayah in his famous book of tafsir, Imam ibn Kathir wrote:

وقوله : ( ومهيمنا عليه ) قال سفيان الثوري وغيره ، عن أبي إسحاق عن التميمي عن ابن عباس أي : مؤتمنا عليه . وقال علي بن أبي طلحة عن ابن عباس : المهيمن : الأمين ، قال : القرآن أمين على كل كتاب قبله . [ ص: 128 ] ـ

His statement:

وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ

and as a muhaymin over it

Sufyan al-Thawri and others said, on the authority of Abu Ishaaq, on the authority of al-Tameemi on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas, “it means, entrusted over it.” And ‘Ali ibn Abu Talhah said, on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas, “al-Muhaymin – the trustworthy.” He said, “The Qur’an is trustworthy over every book prior to it.”

وروي عن عكرمة وسعيد بن جبير ومجاهد ومحمد بن كعب وعطية والحسن وقتادة وعطاء الخراساني والسدي وابن زيد نحو ذلك . ـ

And that is [also] narrated from ‘Ikrimah, Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, Mujaahid, Muhammad ibn Ka’b, ‘Atiyyah, al-Hassan, Qataadah, ‘Ataa’ al-Khuraasaani, al-Suddi, ibn Zayd and others.

وقال ابن جريج : القرآن أمين على الكتب المتقدمة ، فما وافقه منها فهو حق ، وما خالفه منها فهو باطل . ـ

And ibn Jurayj said, “The Qur’an is trustworthy over the previous scriptures, so whatever agrees with it from them, then that is true, and whatever opposes it from them, then that is false.” Continue reading

A Clarification on the Annulment of One’s Deeds: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee mentions in the beginning of his tafsir of surah al-Maa’idah:

قوله تعالى : ومن يكفر بالإيمان فقد حبط عمله وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين ، ظاهر هذه الآية الكريمة أن المرتد يحبط جميع عمله بردته من غير شرط زائد ، ولكنه أشار في موضع آخر إلى أن ذلك فيما إذا مات على الكفر ، وهو قوله : ومن يرتدد منكم عن دينه فيمت وهو كافر [ 2 \ 217 ] . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَمَن يَكْفُرْ‌ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَ‌ةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِ‌ينَ

And whoever denies al-eemaan – his work has become worthless, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. [5:5]

What is apparent from this noble ayah is that the apostate will have all of his deeds made null and void by his apostasy, without there being any additional condition in play. However, Allah indicates elsewhere that this is in regards to if he dies in a state of disbelief, and that is His statement: Continue reading

The Rewards of Obedience, and the Different Categories of People in Respects to that: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah says in surah al-Maa’idah:

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُوا التَّوْرَ‌اةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِم مِّن رَّ‌بِّهِمْ لَأَكَلُوا مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِن تَحْتِ أَرْ‌جُلِهِم ۚ مِّنْهُمْ أُمَّةٌ مُّقْتَصِدَةٌ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ‌ مِّنْهُمْ سَاءَ مَا يَعْمَلُونَ

And if only they upheld [the law of] the Tawrah, the Injeel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have consumed [provision] from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them are a moderate community, but many of them – evil is that which they do. [5:66]

Commenting on this ayah in his book of tafsir, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

قوله تعالى : ولو أنهم أقاموا التوراة والإنجيل وما أنزل إليهم من ربهم لأكلوا من فوقهم ومن تحت أرجلهم ، ذكر تعالى في هذه الآية الكريمة أن أهل الكتاب لو أطاعوا الله ، وأقاموا كتابهم باتباعه ، والعمل بما فيه ، ليسر الله لهم الأرزاق ، وأرسل عليهم المطر ، وأخرج لهم ثمرات الأرض . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُوا التَّوْرَ‌اةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِم مِّن رَّ‌بِّهِمْ لَأَكَلُوا مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِن تَحْتِ أَرْ‌جُلِهِم

And if only they upheld [the law of] the Tawrah, the Injeel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have consumed [provision] from above them and from beneath their feet.

In this noble ayah He mentioned that if only the Ahl al-Kitaab were to obey Allah and uphold their scripture by following it and acting according to what is in it, then Allah would facilitate provision for them, send rain upon them, and bring forth the produce of the earth for them.

وبين في مواضع أخر أن ذلك ليس خاصا بهم ، كقوله عن نوح وقومه فقلت استغفروا ربكم إنه كان غفارا يرسل السماء عليكم مدرارا ويمددكم بأموال وبنين ويجعل لكم جنات ويجعل لكم أنهارا [ 71 \ 11 ] ، وقوله عن هود وقومه : ويا قوم استغفروا ربكم ثم توبوا إليه يرسل السماء عليكم مدرارا ويزدكم قوة إلى قوتكم الآية [ 11 \ 52 ] ، وقوله عن نبينا – عليه الصلاة والسلام – وقومه وأن استغفروا ربكم ثم توبوا إليه يمتعكم متاعا حسنا إلى أجل مسمى [ 11 \ 3 ] ، وقوله تعالى : من عمل صالحا من ذكر أو أنثى وهو مؤمن فلنحيينه حياة طيبة الآية [ 16 \ 97 ] . على أحد الأقوال وقوله : ولو أن أهل القرى آمنوا واتقوا لفتحنا عليهم بركات من السماء والأرض الآية [ 7 \ 96 ] ، وقوله : ومن يتق الله يجعل له مخرجا ويرزقه من حيث لا يحتسب [ 65 \ 2 ، 3 ] ، وقوله : وأمر أهلك بالصلاة واصطبر عليها لا نسألك رزقا نحن نرزقك والعاقبة للتقوى [ 20 \ 132 ] ،  ـ

And elsewhere He clarified that that is not exclusive to them, such as His statement concerning Nooh and his people: Continue reading

The Ruling on Fighting during the Sacred Months: Ibn Rajab

In his chapter concerning the sacred month of Rajab, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali brought forth the following discussion on the ruling of fighting during the sacred months (al-Ashhoor al-Hurum):

وقد اختلف العلماء في حكم القتال في الأشهر الحرم هل تحريمه باق أو نسخ ؟ فالجمهور على أنه نسخ تحريمه ونص على نسخه الإمام أحمد وغيره من الأئمة . وذهبت طائفة من السلف ، منهم عطاء ، إلى بقاء تحريمه ورجحه بعض المتأخرين واستدلوا بآية المائدة والمائدة من آخر ما نزل من القرآن وقد روي: “أحلوا حلالها وحرموا حرامها” ـ

The scholars have differed concerning the ruling of fighting during the Sacred Months – does its prohibition remain or was it abrogated? The majority are of the opinion that its prohibition was abrogated, and Imam Ahmad and others from the scholars specifically stated that. And a group of the salaf held the position – and among them was ‘Ataa’ – that its prohibition remained, and some of the latter-day scholars held that to be correct and they used the ayah of surah al-Maa’idah* as evidence since al-Maa’idah was one of the last parts of the Qur’an to be revealed. And it is narrated [concerning surah al-Maa’idah], “Consider halaal its halaal, and consider haraam its haraam.” Continue reading