“And whoever becomes dim-sighted to the remembrance of al-Rahman…”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Zukhruf:

وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ‌ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِ‌ينٌ * وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ * حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَنَا قَالَ يَا لَيْتَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ بُعْدَ الْمَشْرِ‌قَيْنِ فَبِئْسَ الْقَرِ‌ينُ * وَلَن يَنفَعَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ إِذ ظَّلَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ فِي الْعَذَابِ مُشْتَرِ‌كُونَ

And whoever becomes dim-sighted to the remembrance of the Most Merciful – We appoint for him a devil, and he is to him a companion. * And indeed, the devils avert them from the way [of guidance] while they think that they are [rightly] guided * Until, when he comes to Us [at Judgement], he says [to his companion], “Oh, I wish there was between me and you the distance between the east and west – how wretched a companion!” * And never will it benefit you that Day, when you have wronged, that you are [all] sharing in the punishment. [43:36-39]

Commenting on this in his book of tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di wrote:

يخبر تعالى عن عقوبته البليغة، لمن أعرض عن ذكره، فقال‏:‏ ‏{‏وَمَنْ يَعْشُ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ يعرض ويصد ‏{‏عَنْ ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَنِ‏}‏ الذي هو القرآن العظيم، الذي هو أعظم رحمة رحم بها الرحمن عباده، فمن قبلها، فقد قبل خير المواهب، وفاز بأعظم المطالب والرغائب، ومن أعرض عنها وردها، فقد خاب وخسر خسارة لا يسعد بعدها أبدا، وقيَّض له الرحمن شيطانا مريدا، يقارنه ويصاحبه، ويعده ويمنيه، ويؤزه إلى المعاصي أزا، ـ

Allah informs us about His intense punishment for whomever turns away from His remembrance, so He said, “And whoever becomes dim-sighted” – meaning, he turns himself away and [also] averts others – “to the remembrance of the Most Merciful” which is the Magnificent Qur’an, which is the greatest mercy by which the Most Merciful has shown mercy to His slaves. So whoever accepts it, then he has accepted the best of gifts and has succeeded in the greatest of achievements and aspirations. But whoever turns away from it and rejects it, then he has been saddened and experienced a great loss after which there is no happiness for him ever, and the Most Merciful has appointed a rebellious shaytaan for him; He has joined it to him and made it as a companion for him, and it shows enmity towards him and afflicts him, and it forcefully incites him towards acts of disobedience.

‏ـ {‏وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ الصراط المستقيم، والدين القويم‏.‏ ‏{‏وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ‏}‏ بسبب تزيين الشيطان للباطل وتحسينه له، وإعراضهم عن الحق، فاجتمع هذا وهذا‏.‏ ـ

And indeed, the devils avert them from the way” – meaning, the straight path and the upright religion – “while they think that they are [rightly] guided” due to the shaytaan‘s adornment and beautification of falsehood for him, and their shunning of the truth, so it combines both this and that.

فإن قيل‏:‏ فهل لهذا من عذر، من حيث إنه ظن أنه مهتد، وليس كذلك‏؟‏ ـ

So if it is said, “Then is this an excuse for that, since he indeed thinks that he is rightly guided – isn’t that the case?” Continue reading

Advertisements

I will mislead them all, except Your chosen servants: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah informs us in surah al-Hijr of the story of Iblees, and that after Allah had granted his request for a period of respite, Iblees said:

قَالَ رَ‌بِّ بِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأُزَيِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ وَلَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ * إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ

[Iblees] said, “My Lord, because You have put me in error, I will surely make [disobedience] attractive to them on earth, and I will mislead them all * Except, among them, Your chosen servants.” [15:39-40]

Commenting on the latter ayah in his book of tafsir, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

ذكر تعالى في هذه الآية الكريمة أن الشيطان لما أوعد بأنه سيضل أكثر بني آدم ، استثنى من ذلك عباد الله المخلصين ، معترفا بأنه لا قدرة له على إضلالهم ، ونظيره قوله في ص أيضا قال فبعزتك لأغوينهم أجمعين إلا عبادك منهم المخلصين [ 38 \ 82 – 83 ] وعباد الله المخلصون هم المرادون بالاستثناء في قوله في بني إسرائيل لأحتنكن ذريته إلا قليلا [ 17 \ 62 ] وقوله في سبأ ولقد صدق عليهم إبليس ظنه فاتبعوه إلا فريقا من المؤمنين [ 34 \ 20 ] وهم الذين احترز منهم بقوله ولا تجد أكثرهم شاكرين [ 7 \ 17 ] . ـ

In this noble ayah Allah mentioned that when the shaytaan threatened that he would misguide most of the children of Adam he made an exception therein for the chosen servants of Allah, recognizing that he had no ability to misguide them. And the counterpart of that is his statement in surah Saad; he also said:

فَبِعِزَّتِكَ لَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ * إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ

By Your might, I will surely mislead them all * Except, among them, Your chosen servants [38:82-83]

And the chosen servants of Allah are the ones intended by the exception which comes in his statement in surah Banu Israa’eel: Continue reading

Disputing about Allah without knowledge: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee mentions in his tafsir:

قوله تعالى : ومن الناس من يجادل في الله بغير علم ويتبع كل شيطان مريد كتب عليه أنه من تولاه فأنه يضله ويهديه إلى عذاب السعير . ذكر جل وعلا في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن من الناس بعضا يجادل في الله بغير علم ؛ أي : يخاصم في الله بأن ينسب إليه ما لا يليق بجلاله وكماله ، كالذي يدعي له الأولاد والشركاء ، ويقول : إن القرآن أساطير الأولين ، ويقول : لا يمكن أن يحيي الله العظام الرميم ، كالنضر بن الحارث ، والعاص بن وائل ، وأبي جهل بن هشام ، وأمثالهم من كفار مكة الذين جادلوا في الله ذلك الجدال الباطل بغير مستند ، من علم عقلي ، ولا نقلي ، ـ

The statement of the Exalted:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّـهِ بِغَيْرِ‌ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَانٍ مَّرِ‌يدٍ * كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ مَن تَوَلَّاهُ فَأَنَّهُ يُضِلُّهُ وَيَهْدِيهِ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ‌

And of the people is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge and follows every rebellious shaytaan* It has been decreed for every shaytaan that whoever turns to him – he will misguide him and will lead him to the punishment of the Blaze. [22:3-4]

In this noble ayah Allah mentioned that there are some among mankind who argue regarding Allah without knowledge, meaning: they dispute concerning Allah in that they attribute to Him that which is not befitting of His Majesty and Perfection, such as those who claim that He has offspring or partners, and they say, “verily the Qur’an is [just] the tales of old”, and they say, “it is not possible for Allah to give life to disintegrated bones,” as did al-Nadhr ibn al-Haarith and al-‘Aas ibn Waa’il and Abu Jahl ibn Hishaam and their likes from the disbelievers or Mecca who argued regarding Allah with false argumentation without any basis – neither of intellectual nor textual knowledge.

ومع جدالهم في الله ذلك الجدال الباطل يتبعون كل شيطان مريد ؛ أي : عات طاغ من شياطين الإنس والجن كتب عليه [ 22 \ 3 ] ؛ أي : كتب الله عليه كتابة قدر وقضاء أنه من تولاه [ 22 \ 3 ] ؛ أي : كل من صار وليا له ؛ أي : للشيطان المريد المذكور ، فإنه يضله عن طريق الجنة إلى النار ، وعن طريق الإيمان إلى الكفر ، ويهديه إلى عذاب السعير ؛ أي : النار الشديدة الوقود . ـ

And in addition to their disputing with that false argumentation in regards to Allah, they followed every rebellious shaytaan, meaning:  the arrogant and impulsive ones from among the shayaateen of mankind and Jinn. “It has been decreed for them“, meaning: Allah wrote for them a writing of decree and pre-ordainment “that whoever turns to him“, meaning: all those who would all become allies to him, meaning: to the rebellious shaytaan mentioned here, for verily he misguids them from the path of Jannah unto the Hell-Fire, and from the path of al-eemaan unto al-kufr, and he guides them to the punishment of the blaze, meaning: the Hell-Fire of extreme heat. Continue reading

The Shaytaan and his tribe see you from where you do not see them: ibn Taymiyah

As is recorded in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa:

سئل الشيخ رحمه الله عن : قوله تعالى { إنه يراكم هو وقبيله من حيث لا ترونهم } الآية الكريمة . هل ذلك عام لا يراهم أحد أم يراهم بعض الناس دون بعض ؟ وهل الجن والشياطين جنس واحد ولد إبليس أم جنسين : ولد إبليس وغير ولده ؟ . ـ

The sheikh – may Allah have mercy on him – was asked about Allah’s statement:

إِنَّهُ يَرَ‌اكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَ‌وْنَهُمْ

Indeed, he [the Shaytaan] sees you – he and his tribe – from where you do not see them. [7:27]

Is this general such that no one can see them, or is it the case that some of mankind can see them to the exclusion of others? And do the jinn and the shayaateen belong to one single category of the children of Iblis or to two categories; the children of Iblis and other than his children?

فأجاب شيخ الإسلام أبو العباس أحمد بن تيمية رحمه الله ورضي عنه آمين . فقال : الحمد لله : الذي في القرآن أنهم يرون الإنس من حيث لا يراهم الإنس وهذا حق يقتضي أنهم يرون الإنس في حال لا يراهم الإنس فيها وليس فيه أنهم لا يراهم أحد من الإنس بحال ; بل قد يراهم الصالحون وغير الصالحين أيضا ; لكن لا يرونهم في كل حال

So Sheikh al-Islaam Abu’l-‘Abbaas Ahmad ibn Taymiyah – may Allah have mercy on him and be pleased with him, ameen – responded by saying: al-hamdulillah. That which is in the Qur’an is that they see mankind from where mankind does not see them. And this is the truth which requires that they see mankind in situations where mankind does not see them. And this does not indicate that no one from mankind sees them at all – rather, perhaps both the righteous ones see them and the non-righteous as well. However, they do not see them in all situations.

والشياطين هم مردة الإنس والجن وجميع الجن ولد إبليس . والله أعلم . ـ

And the shayaateen refers to both mankind and jinn. And all jinn are children of Iblis – and Allah knows best.

[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa 15/7]

See also: Dealing with the human shayaateen and the jinn shayaateen: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: “There is no one who does not have a Qareen from the Jinn”: Sharḥ al-Nawawi

See also: Ibn al-Qayyim on the Wisdom and Benefits of the Creation of the Shayaateen

See also: Do not delve deeply into the affairs of the Unseen: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

Referring issues back to their experts – Imam al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-Nisaa’:

وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ‌ مِّنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ ۖ وَلَوْ رَ‌دُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّ‌سُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ‌ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّـهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَ‌حْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, in order that the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it. And were it not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have followed Shaytaan, except for a few. [4:83]

Commenting on this in his famous book of tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di wrote:

هذا تأديب من الله لعباده عن فعلهم هذا غير اللائق. وأنه ينبغي لهم إذا جاءهم أمر من الأمور المهمة والمصالح العامة ما يتعلق بالأمن وسرور المؤمنين، أو بالخوف الذي فيه مصيبة عليهم أن يتثبتوا ولا يستعجلوا بإشاعة ذلك الخبر، بل يردونه إلى الرسول وإلى أولي الأمر منهم، أهلِ الرأي: والعلم والنصح والعقل والرزانة، الذين يعرفون الأمور ويعرفون المصالح وضدها. ـ

This is a chastisement from Allah to His slaves for their committing an act which was inappropriate.[1] And when an issue comes to them from among the issues of importance and public well-being related to (public) safety and the secrets of the believers or concerning fear of a crisis for them, in order that they may be fortified and not take part in spreading that news it is befitting for them that they should refer it back to the Messenger and to those in authority among them – the experts: those of ‘ilm, sincerity, intelligence and poise, those who know the issues and know the pros and cons. Continue reading

“A donation is not to be compared to a bribe”: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

Abu’l-Faraj Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, in part of a longer discussion on repentance, wrote the following insightful words on a great difference between our father Adam (‘alaihis salaam) and the Shaytaan.

سبحان من إذا لطف بعبده في المحن قلبها منحاً, وإذا خذل عبداً لم ينفعه كثرة اجتهاده, وعاد عليه وبالا. لُقِّنَ آدم حجَّتَه وأُلقي إليه ما تُتَقبَّلُ به توبته : ( فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّ‌بِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ).

Exalted is He who, if He is kind to His slave in tribulation He bestows a blessing upon his heart, and if He abandons a slave, then no large amount of effort will be of benefit to him, and this effort will turn upon him [i.e. he will be punished for his misguided efforts]. Adam was inspired with his plea and received what would lead to the acceptance of his tawbah (repentance), “Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance.” [2:37]

وطرد إبليس بعد طول خدمته فصار عمله هباء منثورا (قَالَ فَاخْرُ‌جْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّكَ رَ‌جِيمٌ  وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكَ اللَّعْنَةَ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ). إذا وضع عدله على عبد لم تبق له حسنة, وإذا بسط فضله على عبد لم تبق له سيئة

يُعْطِي وَيَمْنَعُ من يشاء كما يَشَا     وهِباتُهُ لَيْسَتْ تُقارِنُها الرُّشا

And Iblees was expelled (from Jannah) after he prolonged his dispute, so his deeds all came to nothing, “[Allah] said, ‘Then get out of it, for indeed, you are expelled. And indeed, upon you is the curse until the Day of Recompense.” [14:34-35]. When Allah executes His justice on a slave, then no good remains for him, and when He extends His favor to a slave, then no sins remain for him.  

Allah gives and withholds to whom He wills, as He wills
And a donation is not to be compared to a bribe

[Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif pg. 123]

See also: “All of you are astray except whomever I guide”: Explanation of Ibn Rajab

See also: Allah created His creation in darkness: Sharh al-Mubaarakfoori

See also: The purpose of Allah’s creation: Imam al-Shinqitee

Dealing with the human shayaateen and the jinn shayaateen: Imam al-Shinqitee

Allah says towards the end of surah al-A’araaf:

خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ‌ بِالْعُرْ‌فِ وَأَعْرِ‌ضْ عَنِ الْجَاهِلِينَ * وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the ignorant. And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearer, All-Knower. [7:199-200]
Commenting on this ayah in his book of tafsir, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote:
بين في هذه الآية الكريمة ما ينبغي أن يعامل به الجهلة من شياطين الإنس والجن . فبين أن شيطان الإنس يعامل باللين ، وأخذ العفو ، والإعراض عن جهله وإساءته . وأن شيطان الجن لا منجى منه إلا بالاستعاذة بالله منه ، قال في الأول : خذ العفو وأمر بالعرف وأعرض عن الجاهلين [ 7 \ 199 ] ، وقال في الثاني : وإما ينزغنك من الشيطان نزغ فاستعذ بالله إنه سميع عليم [ 7 \ 200 ] ، وبين هذا الذي ذكرنا في موضعين آخرين . ـ
In this noble ayah, Allah clarified how one should act concerning the ignorance of the shayaateen of mankind and the jinn. So He clarified that the shaytaan of mankind should be treated with gentleness, pardoning and turning away from his ignorance and abuse. And as for the shaytaan of the jinn, there is no safety from him except in seeking refuge with Allah from him. Continue reading

Words for those in the midst of long-suffering: Ibn al-Jawzi

Imam ibn al-Jawzi wrote the following encouraging words for the one who finds themselves awaiting the response to their du’a:

إذا وقعت في محنة يصعب الخلاص منها ، فليس لك إلّا الدعاء واللجأ إلى الله بعد أن تقدم التوبة من الذنوب.

If a trials afflicts you from which it is difficult to be free, then there is nothing else for you to do except to supplicate and seek refuge with Allah after having preceded this with tawbah for your sins.

فإن الزلل يوجب العقوبة فإذا زال الزلل بالتوبة من الذنوب ارتفع السبب .

For verily sins require punishment, so if the sins disappear due to tawbah from the sins, then the reason (for the punishment) has been lifted.

فإذ تبت ودعوت ولم تر للإجابة أثراً فتفقد أمرك ، فربما كانت التوبة ما صحت فصححها ثم أدع ولا تمل من الدعاء

Then if you have repented and supplicate but you do not see any trace of response, then investigate your affair, for perhaps the tawbah was not sound, so correct it and then supplicate, and do not tire of supplication. Continue reading

“If he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels?”: Ibn al-Qayyim

Ibn al-Qayyim, while speaking about some of the events of the Battle of Uhud, mentions the following points of great benefit:

ومنها : أن وقعة أحد كانت مقدمة وإرهاصا بين يدي موت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فثبتهم ووبخهم على انقلابهم على أعقابهم إن مات رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو قتل ، بل الواجب له عليهم أن يثبتوا على دينه وتوحيده ويموتوا عليه أو يقتلوا ، فإنهم إنما يعبدون رب محمد ، وهو حي لا يموت ، فلو مات محمد أو قتل لا ينبغي لهم أن يصرفهم ذلك عن دينه ، وما جاء به ، فكل نفس ذائقة الموت ، وما بعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم ليخلد لا هو ولا هم ، بل ليموتوا على الإسلام والتوحيد ، فإن الموت لا بد منه سواء مات رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو بقي ،

And from the benefits: That the Battle of Uhud was like a precursor and prelude before their very eyes of the (actual) death of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). So Allah fortified them (for that eventually), and rebuked them for their having turned back on their heels in the event that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) had died or been killed. Rather, it was obligatory upon them to remain firm upon his Deen and his (message of) tawheed and for them to die or be killed upon that. For verily they were only worshipping the Lord of Muhammad, and He is alive and does not die. So if Muhammad died or was killed, it is not appropriate for that to change them from his deen. And he did not come for that, for every soul will taste death, and Muhammad (ﷺ) was not sent to remain alive forever – neither he nor they. Rather, in order that they could die upon al-Islaam and al-Tawheed, for death is inevitable, whether it is the death of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) or anyone else. Continue reading

“There is no one who does not have a Qareen from the Jinn”: Sharḥ al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim recorded that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا وَإِيَّاكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ‏”‏ وَإِيَّاىَ إِلاَّ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ فَلاَ يَأْمُرُنِي إِلاَّ بِخَيْرٍ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “There is no one among you except that he has a qareen [companion] from the jinn.” They (the Companions) said, “And you too, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “And me as well, but Allah helped me against him and so I am safe, so he does not command me except with good.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2814]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following about this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( ما منكم من أحد إلا وقد وكل به قرينه من الجن ، قالوا : وإياك ؟ قال : وإياي إلا أن الله أعانني عليه فأسلم فلا يأمرني إلا بخير ) ( فأسلم ) برفع الميم وفتحها ، وهما روايتان مشهورتان فمن رفع قال : معناه : أسلمُ أنا من شره وفتنته ، ومن فتح قال : إن القرين أسلمَ ، من الإسلام وصار مؤمنا لا يأمرني إلا بخير ، واختلفوا في الأرجح منهما  .

His (ﷺ) statement, “‘There is no one among you except that he has a qareen [companion] from the jinn.’ They (the Companions) said, ‘And you too, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘And me as well, but Allah helped me against him and so I am safe, so he does not command me except with good.'” – “So I am safe” with a fatḥah on the letter meem. And there are two well-known narrations of this word, and those who place a dummah on the meem say, “It means: I am safe from his evil and trials.” And those who place a fatḥah on the meem say, “[it means] Verily the Qareen submitted himself in al-Islaam and he became a mu’min, so he does not command anything except for good.” And they differed on the correct meaning between these two. Continue reading