Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 5/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and are in the midst of publishing as a series. For a guide to the different sections, click here. Sheikh al-Shinqitee continued with the fifth section of his tafsir of the opening of surah al-Mumi’noon as follows:

قوله تعالى : والذين هم لأماناتهم وعهدهم راعون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآية الكريمة : أن من صفات المؤمنين المفلحين الوارثين الفردوس : أنهم راعون لأماناتهم وعهدهم ، أي : محافظون على الأمانات ، والعهود ، ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَ‌اعُونَ

and those who, in respect to their trusts and their covenants, are keepers [23:8]

In this noble ayah, Allah mentioned that one of the qualities of the successful believers who will inherit al-Firdaws is that they are keepers of their trusts and covenants – meaning: they are protective over their amaanaat (trusts) and ‘uhood (covenants).

والأمانة تشمل : كل ما استودعك الله ، وأمرك بحفظه ، فيدخل فيها حفظ جوارحك من كل ما لا يرضي الله ، وحفظ ما ائتمنت عليه من حقوق الناس ، ـ

And the word al-amaanah (trust) encompasses everything which Allah has entrusted to you and commanded you to preserve and protect. So this includes safeguarding your limbs from anything that is not pleasing to Allah, and safeguarding the whatever rights of the people have been entrusted to you.

والعهود أيضا تشمل : كل ما أخذ عليك العهد بحفظه ، من حقوق الله ، وحقوق الناس ، ـ

And the the word ‘ahd (covenant) encompasses everything for which a covenant has been taken from you to protect and preserve, regardless of whether that be in respect to the rights of Allah or the rights of people.

وما تضمنته هذه الآية الكريمة ، من حفظ الأمانات والعهود جاء مبينا في آيات كثيرة ; [ ص: 320 ] كقوله تعالى : إن الله يأمركم أن تؤدوا الأمانات إلى أهلها [ 4 \ 58 ] وقوله تعالى : ياأيها الذين آمنوا لا تخونوا الله والرسول وتخونوا أماناتكم وأنتم تعلمون [ 8 \ 27 ] وقوله تعالى في سأل سائل : والذين هم لأماناتهم وعهدهم راعون [ 70 \ 32 ] وقوله في العهد وأوفوا بالعهد إن العهد كان مسئولا [ 17 \ 34 ] وقوله تعالى : ياأيها الذين آمنوا أوفوا بالعقود الآية [ 5 \ 1 ] ، وقوله : ومن أوفى بما عاهد عليه الله فسيؤتيه أجرا عظيما [ 48 \ 10 ] وقوله تعالى : وأوفوا بعهد الله إذا عاهدتم [ 16 \ 91 ] وقد أوضحنا هذا في سورة الأنبياء في الكلام على قوله وداود وسليمان إذ يحكمان في الحرث الآية [ 21 \ 78 ] ، ـ

And the contents of this noble ayah regarding the safekeeping of the trusts and covenants has come clearly in a number of different ayaat. For instance, there is Allah’s statement:

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُ‌كُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا

Indeed, Allah commands you to render the trusts to whom they are due [4:58]

And His statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَخُونُوا اللَّـهَ وَالرَّ‌سُولَ وَتَخُونُوا أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

O you who have believed, do not betray Allah and the Messenger or betray your trusts while you know [8:27]

And His statement in surah Sa’ala Saa’ilun [i.e. surah al-Ma’aarij]:

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَ‌اعُونَ

And those who are attentive to their trusts and promises [70:32]

And there is Allah’s statement regarding covenants:

وَأَوْفُوا بِالْعَهْدِ ۖ إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْئُولًا

And fulfill the covenant. Indeed, the covenant shall be asked about [17:34]

And His statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ

O you who have believed, fulfill [all] contracts [5:1]

And His statement:

وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّـهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرً‌ا عَظِيمًا

And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah – He will give him a great reward [48:10]

And His statement:

وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّـهِ إِذَا عَاهَدتُّمْ

And fulfill the covenant of Allah when you have taken it [16:91]

And we have made this issue clear during our discussion of Allah’s statement in surah al-Anbiyaa’:

وَدَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ إِذْ يَحْكُمَانِ فِي الْحَرْ‌ثِ

And [mention] Dawud and Sulaiman, when they judged concerning the field … [21:78]

وقوله : راعون : جمع تصحيح للراعي ، وهو القائم على الشيء ، بحفظ أو إصلاح كراعي الغنم وراعي الرعية ، وفي الحديث ” كلكم راع وكلكم مسئول عن رعيته ” الحديث  . ـ

And Allah’s statement “raa’oon” [“keepers” – lit. shepherds] is a plural form of the word al-raa’ee, which is the one who maintains something, whether that be by guarding it or by rectifying it, such as the shepherd of sheep or a caretaker of those under one’s care. And there is the hadeeth, “All of you are shepherds and all of you will be questioned about your flock”.

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 5/320-321]

To explore more of this series, see Qualities of the Successful Believers Series Guide

See also: Every one of you is a shepherd – Sharh al-Nawawi

See also: The Fiqh of Oaths – Imam al-Sa’di

See also: “And remember when We took a convenant from the Children of Israa’eel”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

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One thought on “Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 5/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

  1. Pingback: Every one of you is a shepherd – Sharh al-Nawawi | Tulayhah

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