The great reward for restraining ones anger

Sahl ibn Mu’adh narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

مَنْ كَظَمَ غَيْظًا وَهُوَ يَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ يُنَفِّذَهُ دَعَاهُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلاَئِقِ حَتَّى يُخَيِّرَهُ فِي أَىِّ الْحُورِ شَاءَ

“Whoever suppresses his rage while he is able to unleash it, Allah will call him before the heads of creation on the Day of Judgement, so that he can inform Him of which of the ḥoor he would like.”
[Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi #2021, Hasan]
 
Imam al-Mubaarakfoori, in his commentary on Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote:
 
 قوله : ( من كظم غيظا ) أي اجترع غضبا كامنا فيه ، قال في النهاية كظم الغيظ تجرعه واحتمال سببه والصبر عليه انتهى ( وهو يستطيع أن ينفذه ) بتشديد الفاء أي يمضيه ، وفي حديث أبي هريرة عند ابن أبي الدنيا : وهو يقدر على إنفاذه فيجوز تخفيف الفاء والجملة حالية وجواب الشرط ( دعاه الله يوم القيامة على رءوس الخلائق ) أي شهره بين الناس وأثنى عليه وتباهى به ويقال في حقه هذا الذي صدرت منه هذه الخصلة العظيمة  . ـ
 
His statement, “Whoever suppresses his rage” – meaning he swallows his anger, making it dormant inside him. He [ibn al-Atheer] said in al-Nihaayah that suppressing ones rage is to swallow it and to bear it by means of exercising sabr over it – end quote. “While he is able to unleash it” – meaning to do it. And in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah collected by ibn Abi’l-Dunya, “And he is capable of enacting it“. So this is a conditional statement, and the for the one who fulfills the condition – “Allah will call him before the heads of creation” – meaning he will be given notoriety among the people and commended for that and boasted about. And it is said that this is his right due to what he did of this great quality [of restraining his anger].
 
 ـ ( حتى يخيره ) أي يجعله مخيرا ( في أي الحور شاء ) أي في أخذ أيهن شاء ، وهو كناية عن إدخاله الجنة المنيعة ، وإيصاله الدرجة الرفيعة ، قال الطيبي : وإنما حمد الكظم لأنه قهر للنفس الأمارة بالسوء ، ولذلك مدحهم الله تعالى بقوله : والكاظمين الغيظ والعافين عن الناس ومن نهى النفس عن هواه فإن الجنة مأواه والحور العين جزاه ، قال القاري : وهذا الثناء الجميل والجزاء الجزيل إذا ترتب على مجرد كظم الغيظ فكيف إذا انضم العفو إليه أو زاد بالإحسان عليه
 
So that he can inform Him” – meaning so that he can make a decision – “as to which of the ḥoor he would like” – meaning as to which one he would like to take, and this is a metaphor for his entering into al-Jannah securely, and attaining an elevated status. al-Tayyibi said: and He only praised suppressing [ones rage] because it is [demonstrative of] an overwhelming power over ones nafs which commands him with evil. And for that reason Allah the Exalted praised them with his statement, “and those who restrain anger and who pardon the people [- and Allah loves the doers of good] ” [3:134]. And whoever forbids the nafs from its desires, then verily al-Jannah is his abode and the ḥoor al-‘ayn is his reward. And al-Qaari said, “And this beautiful commendation and ample reward is the result of merely suppressing one’s rage, so then what about when one joins that with pardoning [the offender] or adds to that iḥsaan towards him?”
 
قوله : ( هذا حديث حسن غريب ) ، وأخرجه أحمد في مسنده وأبو داود وابن ماجه
 
And his [al-Tirmidhi’s] statement, “This hadeeth is hasan ghareeb” – it was also recorded by Aḥmad in his musnad, and by Abu Dawood and ibn Maajah.
 
[Tuḥfat al-Aḥwadhi #2021]

The prohibition of imitating the opposite gender: Imam al-Mubaarakfoori

Ibn ‘Abbaas reports that:

لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمُتَشَبِّهَاتِ بِالرِّجَالِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ وَالْمُتَشَبِّهِينَ بِالنِّسَاءِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ

The Messenger of (ﷺ) cursed the women who imitate men and the men who imitate women.

[al-Tirmidhi #2784, saheeh]

Imam al-Mubaarakfoori, in his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote about this hadeeth:

قوله : ( لعن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المتشبهات بالرجال من النساء والمتشبهين بالنساء من الرجال )  قال الطبري : المعنى لا يجوز للرجال التشبه بالنساء في اللباس والزينة التي تختص بالنساء ولا العكس .  .

Concerning his statement, “The Messenger of (ﷺ) cursed the cursed the women who imitate men and the men who imitate women“, al-Tabari said: The meaning is that it is not permissible for the man to imitate the woman in clothing or adornment (i.e. make-up, jewelry, etc) which are specific to women, nor vice-versa.

قال الحافظ : وكذا في الكلام والمشي ، فأما هيئة اللباس فتختلف باختلاف عادة كل بلد فرب قوم لا يفترق زي نسائهم من رجالهم في اللبس ، لكن يمتاز النساء بالاحتجاب والاستتار ، وأما ذم التشبه بالكلام والمشي فمختص بمن تعمد ذلك ، وأما من كان ذلك من أصل خلقته فإنما يؤمر بتكلف تركه والإدمان على ذلك بالتدريج ، فإن لم يفعل وتمادى دخله الذم ، ولا سيما إن بدا منه ما يدل على الرضا به ، وأخذ هذا واضح من لفظ المتشبهين ، وأما إطلاق من أطلق كالنووي أن المخنث الخلقي لا يتجه عليه اللوم ، فمحمول على ما إذا لم يقدر على ترك التثني والتكسر في المشي والكلام بعد تعاطيه المعالجة لترك ذلك ، وإلا متى كان ترك ذلك ممكنا ولو بالتدريج . فتركه بغير عذر لحقه اللوم

And al-Haafidh [ibn Hajr] said: And likewise concerning their speech and gait (i.e. how they walk). And as for the clothing, then it differs depending on the customs of each country, so perhaps there are a people who do not differ in the dress of their women from their men. However, the women are characterized by veiling and covering. But as for the condemnation of imitating them in speech and gait, then that is specific for the one who does that intentionally. But as for the one from whom those external traits come naturally, then he is commanded to constrain that and abandon it and (to abandon) his addictions to that gradually. But if he does not do that and (instead) continues, then he enters into blame, especially if it appeared that he was content/enjoying that, and in this he is clearly taking up the word ‘imitate’.

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi #2784]

“For every period of zeal and enthusiam there is a slackening off”: Sharh al-Mubaarakfoori

Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said:

إِنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ شِرَّةً وَلِكُلِّ شِرَّةٍ فَتْرَةً فَإِنْ كَانَ صَاحِبُهَا سَدَّدَ وَقَارَبَ فَارْجُوهُ وَإِنْ أُشِيرَ إِلَيْهِ بِالأَصَابِعِ فَلاَ تَعُدُّوهُ

Everything has a period of zeal & enthusiasm, and for every period of zeal & enthusiasm there is a slackening off. So if a person is moderate and avoids extremes, then you may have hope for him, but if ‘fingers are pointed at him’, then don’t count him as anything.

[Jaami’a al-Tirmidhi #2453. Graded as ‘hasan’ by sheikh al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb #57.]

Sheikh al-Mubaarakfoori wrote the following in his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi:

 قوله : ( إن لكل شيء شرة ) بكسر الشين المعجمة وتشديد الراء أي حرصا على الشيء ونشاطا ورغبة في الخير أو الشر ( ولكل شرة فترة ) بفتح الفاء وسكون التاء أي وهنا وضعفا وسكونا ( فإن ) شرطية ( صاحبها سدد وقارب ) أي جعل صاحب الشرة عمله متوسطا وتجنب طرفي إفراط الشرة وتفريط الفترة ( فأرجوه ) أي أرجو الفلاح منه فإنه يمكنه الدوام على الوسط ، وأحب الأعمال إلى الله أدومها ( وإن أشير إليه بالأصابع ) أي اجتهد وبالغ في العمل ليصير مشهورا بالعبادة والزهد وسار مشهورا مشارا إليه ( فلا تعدوه ) أي لا تعتدوا به ولا تحسبوه من الصالحين لكونه مرائيا ، ولم يقل فلا ترجوه إشارة إلى أنه قد سقط ولم يمكنه تدارك ما فرط . ـ

His statement, “Everything has a period of zeal & enthusiasm” – meaning interest in a thing, and excitement and desire, whether good or bad – “and for every period of zeal & enthusiasm there is a slackening off” – meaning loss of vigor and weakness and settling. “So if” – a conditionality – “a person is moderate and avoids extremes” – meaning if he controls his enthusiasm and makes his actions balanced, and avoids the two extremes of the excess of zealous enthusiasm and the deficiency of slackening off – “then you may have hope for him” – meaning, hope for his success, for verily he is able to persistently continue upon moderation, and the most beloved deeds to Allaah and the most consistent. “But if fingers are pointed at him” – meaning he is striving hard and exaggerating in deeds in order to become famous for his worship and asceticism, so that he will be famous and people will point at him in awe – “then don’t count him as anything” – meaning don’t think highly of him and don’t consider him as one of the righteous, rather he is showing off to be seen by others. And he did not say, “and do not hope for him“, indicating that he has fallen and he is not able to catch what he missed. Continue reading

Neither add nor detract from the sunnah, even when it comes to sneezing

Hadrami, the freed slave of the family of al-Jaarood narrated from Naafi’ that:

 أَنَّ رَجُلاً، عَطَسَ إِلَى جَنْبِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ وَأَنَا أَقُولُ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَيْسَ هَكَذَا عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَّمَنَا أَنْ نَقُولَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ

“A man sneezed beside Ibn ‘Umar and said, ‘al-hamdulillaah w’al-salaam ‘alaa rasoolillaah. (All praise is due to Allah, and peace upon the Messenger of Allah)’. So Ibn ‘Umar said, ‘I too could say al-hamdulillaah w’al-salaam ‘alaa rasoolillaah, but this is not what the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) taught us. He taught us to say, “Al-Hamdulillah ‘alaa kulli hal (All praise is due to Allah in every circumstance).”

[al-Tirmidhi #2738, hasan]

Imam al-Mubarakfoori, in his commentary on Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote the following concerning this hadeeth:

اعلم أن العطاس نعمة من نعم الله ، فلا بد للعاطس إذا عطس أن يحمد الله تعالى . قال الحافظ ابن القيم في زاد المعاد : العاطس قد حصلت له بالعطاس نعمة ومنفعة بخروج الأبخرة المحتقنة في دماغه التي لو بقيت فيه أحدثت له أدواء عسرة ، شرع له حمد الله على هذه النعمة ، مع بقاء أعضائه على التئامها وهيئتها على هذه الزلزلة التي هي للبدن كزلزلة الأرض لها . انتهى .

Know that sneezing is a blessing from Allaah, so when the sneezer sneezes he should praise and thank Allah the Exalted. Al-Haafidh ibn al-Qayyim said in Zaad al-Ma’aad, “The one who sneezes has received a blessing and a benefit by that sneeze in the expulsion of the congestion in his head which, had it remained there, would have caused him severe illness. It is legislated for him to praise and thank Allah for this blessing, as well as his limbs remaining well and present in the midst of this great shaking which is like as earthquake to the body just as the earthquake is to the earth.” Continue reading

“Work! for everyone is facilitated for what he was created.” Sharh al-Mubaarakfoori

‘Ali narrated:

بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يَنْكُتُ فِي الأَرْضِ إِذْ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ قَالَ

“We were with the Messenger of Allah and he was scraping the ground, when he raised his head to the heavens, then said:

مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ قَدْ عُلِمَ

‘There is not one of you except that his place is known’

وَقَالَ وَكِيعٌ إِلاَّ قَدْ كُتِبَ مَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ

Waaki’ said [in his narration of the event]: ‘His place has been decreed, in the fire, or his place in Jannah.’

قَالُوا أَفَلاَ نَتَّكِلُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ

They said: ‘Shall we not rely upon this, O Messenger of Allah?’

قَالَ ‏”‏ لاَ اعْمَلُوا فَكُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ لِمَا خُلِقَ لَهُ ‏”

He said: ‘No. Work! for everyone is facilitated for what he was created.'”

[al-Tirmidhi #2135 Saheeh]

Imam al-Mubaarakfoori, in his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote the following in part of his explanation of this hadeeth:

( أفلا نتكل يا رسول الله ) الفاء معقبة لشيء محذوف تقديره فإذا كان كذلك أفلا نتكل ، وزاد في رواية : أفلا نتكل على كتابنا وندع العمل أي نعتمد على ما قدر علينا  .

‘Shall we not rely upon this, O Messenger of Allah?’” – meaning, if it is like that then shall we rely upon this? And there is the addition in (another) narration, “Shall we not depend upon what has been written for us and give up deeds?” [Bukhari #474] – meaning, we would rely on what has been decreed for us.

( قال لا ) أي لا تتكلوا ، وحاصل السؤال ألا نترك مشقة العمل فإنا سنصير إلى ما قدر علينا ، وحاصل الجواب لا مشقة لأن كل أحد ميسر لما خلق له وهو يسير على من يسره الله ،

He said, ‘No’” – meaning, do not depend on this. And the question carries the meaning of, ‘shouldn’t we abandon the difficulties of performing deeds for verily we will be aided in carrying out what has been decreed for us’, and the answer carries the meaning of, ‘there is no difficulty, because everyone is facilitated to do that for which he was created, so it is easy for whomever Allah has facilitated it for him’.

وقال الطيبي : الجواب من الأسلوب الحكيم منعهم عن ترك العمل وأمرهم بالتزام ما يجب على العبد من العبودية وزجرهم عن التصرف في الأمور المغيبة فلا يجعلوا العبادة وتركها سببا مستقلا لدخول الجنة والنار بل هي علامات فقط

Al-Tayybi said: the answer is one of wise methods of preventing them for abandoning the performance of good deeds, and commanding them to fulfill what is obligatory upon every servant in terms of worship, and rebuking them for distorting (their perception) of the affairs of the unseen. For their performance of worship or abandonment thereof is not a factor completely unrelated to entrance into jannah or the hellfire, rather it is a sign of that.

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi #2136]

“Have Taqwa of Allah, O Hafsah”: Sharh al-Mubaarakfoori

Anas ibn Maalik narrated the following:

قَالَ بَلَغَ صَفِيَّةَ أَنَّ حَفْصَةَ، قَالَتْ بِنْتُ يَهُودِيٍّ ‏.‏ فَبَكَتْ فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهِيَ تَبْكِي فَقَالَ ‏”‏ مَا يُبْكِيكِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ قَالَتْ لِي حَفْصَةُ إِنِّي بِنْتُ يَهُودِيٍّ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ إِنَّكِ لاَبْنَةُ نَبِيٍّ وَإِنَّ عَمَّكِ لَنَبِيٌّ وَإِنَّكِ لَتَحْتَ نَبِيٍّ فَفِيمَ تَفْخَرُ عَلَيْكِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏”‏ اتَّقِي اللَّهَ يَا حَفْصَةُ ‏” ـ

It reached Safiyyah that Hafsah said, ‘The daughter of a Jew’ so she wept. Then the Prophet entered upon her while she was crying, so he said, ‘What makes you cry?’ She said, ‘Hafsah said to me that I am the daughter of a Jew.’ So the Prophet said, ‘And you are the daughter of a Prophet, and your uncle is a Prophet, and you are married to a Prophet, so what is she boasting to you about?’ Then he said: ‘Have taqwa of Allah, O Hafsah!’

[Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi #3894]

Imam al-Mubaarakfoori, in his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote:

قوله … ( أن حفصة قالت ) أي : في حق صفية ( بنت يهودي ) أي : نظرا إلى أبيها ( قالت ) أي : صفية ( قالت لي حفصة ) أي : في حقي ” وإنك لابنة نبي ” أي : هارون بن عمران -عليه السلام- ” وإن عمك لنبي ” أي : موسى بن عمران -عليه السلام- ” إنك لتحت نبي ” أي : الآن ” ففيم تفخر عليك ” بفتح الخاء أي : في أي شيء تفخر حفصة عليك ”  .

His statement, “that Hafsah said” – meaning, saying the truth about SafiyyahThe daughter of a Jew” – meaning due to her father. “She said” – meaning SafiyyahHafsah said to me” – meaning saying the truth about me. “And you are the daughter of a Prophet” – meaning Haaroon ibn ‘Imran (‘alaihis salaam) – “and your uncle is a Prophet” – meaning Moosaa bin ‘Imran (‘alaihis salaam) – “and you are married to a Prophet” – meaning, currentlyso what is she boasting to you about?” – meaning, about which thing is Hafsah exalting herself over you?

Continue reading

The Jews used to hope for the supplication of the Prophet

Imam Abu ‘Eesaa al-Tirmidhi narrates the following hadeeth in his collection:

عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى، قَالَ كَانَ الْيَهُودُ يَتَعَاطَسُونَ عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَرْجُونَ أَنْ يَقُولَ لَهُمْ يَرْحَمُكُمُ اللَّهُ ‏.‏ فَيَقُولُ :‏ يَهْدِيكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَكُمْ ‏‏

Abu Moosaa narrated that the Jews used to sneeze in the presence of the Prophet (ﷺ) hoping that he would say: ‘Yarhamukumullah (May Allah have mercy upon you).’ So he said: ‘Yahdikumullahu Wa Yuslihu Baalakum (May Allah guide you and rectify your affairs).'”

[al-Tirmidhi #2739]

Imam al-Mubaarakfoori, in his commentary on Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote the following:

قوله : ( كان اليهود يتعاطسون ) أي يطلبون العطسة من أنفسهم ( يرجون ) أي يتمنون بهذا السبب ( فيقول ) أي النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ عند عطاسهم وحمدهم ( يهديكم الله ويصلح بالكم ) ولا يقول لهم يرحمكم الله ; لأن الرحمة مختصة بالمؤمنين ، بل يدعو لهم بما يصلح بالهم من الهداية والتوفيق والإيمان .

His statement, “the Jews used to sneeze” – meaning: trying to make themselves sneeze – “hoping” – meaning: wishing for this reason – “that he would say” – meaning: the Prophet (ﷺ), when they would sneeze and then say al-Hamdulillah. [But he instead said] “Yahdikumullahu Wa Yuslihu Baalakum (May Allah guide you and rectify your affairs)” and he did not say Yarhamukumullah (May Allah have mercy upon you) to them, because the Mercy (of Allah) is exclusive to the believers. So instead he supplicated for them that their affairs would be rectified through guidance and success and al-eemaan.

قوله : ( وفي الباب عن علي وأبي أيوب وسالم بن عبيد وعبد الله بن جعفر وأبي هريرة ) أما حديث علي فأخرجه الطبراني ، وأما حديث أبي أيوب وحديث سالم بن عبيد فأخرجهما الترمذي في هذا الباب ، وأما حديث عبد الله بن جعفر فأخرجه البيهقي في الشعب ، وأما حديث أبي هريرة فأخرجه البخاري عنه مرفوعا : إذا عطس أحدكم فليقل الحمد لله وليقل له أخوه أو صاحبه يرحمك الله ، فإذا قال له يرحمك الله فليقل يهديكم الله ويصلح بالكم .

His [i.e. Imam al-Tirmidhi] said, “the hadeeth also comes from ‘Ali, Abu Ayyoob, Saalim ibn ‘Ubayd, ‘Abdullaah ibn Ja’far, and Abu Hurayrah” and as for the hadeeth of ‘Ali, it it collected by al-Tabaraani. And as for the hadeeth of Abu Ayyoob and the hadeeth of Saalim ibn ‘Ubayd, they are collected by al-Tirmidhi in this chapter. And as for the hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn Ja’far, it is collected by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sha’b al-Eemaan. And as for the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah, it is collected from him in al-Bukhari raised to a statement of the Prophet:

If anyone of you sneezes, he should say ‘Al-Hamdulillah‘ (Praise be to Allah), and his (Muslim) brother or companion should say to him, ‘Yarhamukallah‘ (May Allah bestow his Mercy on you). When the latter says ‘Yarhamukallah“, the former should say, ‘Yahdikumullah wa Yuslih baalakum‘ (May Allah give you guidance and improve your condition). [al-Bukhari #6224]

قوله : ( هذا حديث حسن صحيح ) ، وأخرجه أبو داود والنسائي والحكم وصححه .

And his [i.e. Imam al-Tirmidhi] statement, “This is a hasan saheeh hadeeth“, and it was collected by Abu Dawood, al-Nasaa’i, and al-Haakim who also declared it as saheeh.

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi #2739]

See also: Giving the greeting of salam to a mixed group: ibn Hajar

See also: Overlooking the foolishness of those upon falsehood: Sharh al-Nawawi

The Black Stone was blackened by the sins of the children of Adam

Ibn ‘Abbaas narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

 نَزَلَ الْحَجَرُ الأَسْوَدُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَهُوَ أَشَدُّ بَيَاضًا مِنَ اللَّبَنِ فَسَوَّدَتْهُ خَطَايَا بَنِي آدَمَ

“The Black Stone descended from the Paradise, and it was whiter than milk, then it was blackened by the sins of the children of Adam.”

[al-Tirmidhi #877 Hasan]

Imam al-Mubaarakfoori, in his commentary on Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, comments of this hadeeth with the following words:

قوله : ( وهو أشد بياضا من اللبن ) جملة حالية ( فسودته خطايا بني آدم ) قال في المرقاة : أي صارت ذنوب بني آدم الذين يمسحون الحجر سببا لسواده ، والأظهر حمل الحديث على حقيقته إذ لا مانع نقلا ولا عقلا .  .

His statement, “and it was whiter than milk” – this is an ‘adverb of manner’ – “then it was blackened by the sins of the children of Adam” he said in al-Marqaah: Meaning, the sins of the sons of Adam who touched the stone, caused it’s blackness. The hadeeth should be taken at face value, because there is no reason – neither by virtue of a text or common sense – to do otherwise.

وقال بعض الشراح من علمائنا يعني الحنفية : هذا الحديث يحتمل أن يراد به المبالغة في تعظيم شأن الحجر وتفظيع أمر الخطايا والذنوب ، والمعنى أن الحجر لما فيه من الشرف والكرامة واليمن والبركة شارك جواهر الجنة فكأنه نزل منها ، وأن خطايا بني آدم تكاد تؤثر في الجماد فتجعل المبيض منه أسود فكيف بقلوبهم ، أو لأنه من حيث إنه مكفر للخطايا محاء للذنوب كأنه من الجنة ، ومن كثرة تحمله أوزار بني آدم صار كأنه ذو بياض شديد فسودته الخطايا ومما يؤيد هذا أنه كان فيه نقط بيض ثم لا زال السواد فتراكم عليها حتى عمها

And some of the explanation of our scholars – meaning the Hanafiyyah – said: this hadeeth is intended to amplify the great significance of the stone and point out the abomination of sins, and the meaning is that the stone holds honor, nobility, rightness and blessing like the jewels of al-Jannah from whence it was sent down, and that the sins of the children of Adam leave their mark on virtually everything so that they make the whiteness of a thing black – so then what about their own hearts? Or because it is an expiator of sins and a remover of wrong deeds since it is from al-Jannah, and from the abundant bearing of the burdens (i.e. sins) of the Children of Adam, it was a strong white and then it was blackened by the sins. And from what supports this is that in the white was a (black) spot, then it remained black so it accumulated until it subsumes it.

 وفي الحديث : إذا أذنب العبد نكتت في قلبه نكتة سوداء فإذا أذنب نكتت فيه نكتة أخرى وهكذا حتى يسود قلبه جميعه ويصير ممن قال فيهم كلا بل ران على قلوبهم ما كانوا يكسبون والحاصل أن الحجر بمنزلة المرآة البيضاء في غاية من الصفاء ويتغير بملاقاة ما لا يناسبه من الأشياء حتى يسود لها جميع الأجزاء وفي الجملة الصحبة لها تأثير بإجماع العقلاء ، انتهى كلام القاري .

And in the hadeeth: when the slave sins, then a black dot is dotted in his heart, and if he sins (again) then another dot is dotted in it, and so on until his entire heart is blackened and he becomes like those about whom He said, “Nay! rather, what they used to do has become like rust upon their hearts” [83:14]. And the point is that the stone is like a white mirror of extreme purity and it is altered by whatever it encounters of those things which do not suit it until it blackens every part of it.

 قال الحافظ ابن حجر : واعترض بعض الملحدين على هذا الحديث فقال كيف سودته خطايا المشركين ولم تبيضه طاعات أهل التوحيد؟ وأجيب بما قال ابن قتيبة : لو شاء الله لكان ذلك وإنما أجرى الله العادة بأن السواد يصبغ ولا ينصبغ على العكس من البياض .  .

al-Haafidh ibn Hajar said: Some heretics objected to this hadeeth by saying, “How do the sins of the mushrikeen turned it black while the obedience of the people of al-tawheed did not make it white?” I reply with what Ibn Qutaybah said, “If Allah had willed, that would have happened. But Allah has caused it to be the case that black usually changes other colors and its not changed itself, which is the opposite to what happens with white.”

وقال المحب الطبري : في بقائه أسود عبرة لمن له بصيرة . فإن الخطايا إذا أثرت في الحجر الصلد فتأثيرها في القلب أشد ،

And al-Muhibb al-Tabari said: The persistence of black is a lesson for those who have insight. For if sins can have this effect on an inanimate rock, then their effect on the heart is greater.

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi 3/525]

See also: A Clarification on Kissing the Black Stone

Good character and being good to your women

Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said

أَكْمَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِيمَانًا أَحْسَنُهُمْ خُلُقًا وَخِيَارُكُمْ خِيَارُكُمْ لِنِسَائِهِمْ خُلُقًا

The most complete of the believers in terms of eemaan is the one with the best character among them. And the best of you are those who are best to your women.

[al-Tirmidhi #1162 hasan]

Sheikh Mubarakfoori writes in his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi

قوله‏:‏ ‏(‏أكمل المؤمنين إيماناً أحسنهم خلقاً‏)‏ بضم اللام ويسكن لأن كمال الإيمان يوجب حسن الخلق والإحسان إلى كافة الإنسان ‏(‏وخياركم خياركم لنسائه‏)‏ لأنهن محل الرحمة لضعفهن‏.‏ قوله‏:‏ ‏(‏وفي الباب عن عائشة‏)‏ أخرجه الترمذي ‏(‏وابن عباس‏)‏ أخرجه ابن ماجه مرفوعاً‏:‏ خيركم خيركم لأهله وأنا خيركم لأهلي

His statement, “The most complete of the believers in faith, is the one with the best character among them” because the completeness of al-eemaan requires good character and al-ihsaan towards all of mankind. “And the best of you are those who are best to your women” because it is proper to be merciful to them in their weakness. And his [i.e. al-Tirmidhi’s] statement, “and from ‘Aa’ishah” as it came in al-Tirmidhi, “and from Ibn ‘Abbaas” as it came from Ibn Maajah with a chain going directly back to the Prophet, “The best of you are the best to their families, and I am the best to my family.”

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi]

The first deed to be reckoned

Huraith ibn Qabeesah narrates that “I arrived in Al-Madinah and said: ‘O Allah! Facilitate me to be in a righteous gathering.'” He said: “I sat with Abu Hurayrah and said: ‘Indeed I asked Allah to provide me with a righteous gathering. So narrate a hadith to me which you heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) so that perhaps Allah would cause me to benefit from it.’ He said: ‘I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) say:

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ صَلاَتُهُ فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ فَقَدْ أَفْلَحَ وَأَنْجَحَ وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَقَدْ خَابَ وَخَسِرَ فَإِنِ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ فَرِيضَتِهِ شَيْءٌ قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ انْظُرُوا هَلْ لِعَبْدِي مِنْ تَطَوُّعٍ فَيُكَمَّلَ بِهَا مَا انْتَقَصَ مِنَ الْفَرِيضَةِ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ

Indeed the first deed by which a servant will be called to account on the Day of Resurrection is his Salaat. If it is complete, then he is successful and saved, but if it is defective, then he has failed and lost. So if something is deficient in his obligatory prayers then the Lord, Mighty and Sublime says: ‘Look! Are there any voluntary prayers for my worshipper?’ So with them, what was deficient in his obligatory prayers will be completed. Then the rest of his deeds will be treated like that.

[al-Tirmidhi #413, saheeh]

Imam al-Mubarakfoori writes in Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, about this hadith:

قوله : ” إن أول ما يحاسب به العبد ” بالرفع على نيابة الفاعل ” يوم القيامة من عمله صلاته ” أي المفروضة . قال العراقي في شرح الترمذي : لا تعارض بينه وبين الحديث الصحيح : إن أول ما يقضى بين الناس يوم القيامة في الدماء . فحديث الباب محمول على حق الله تعالى ، وحديث الصحيح محمول على حقوق الآدميين فيما بينهم . فإن قيل : فأيهما يقدم محاسبة العباد على حق الله أو محاسبتهم على حقوقهم ، فالجواب أن هذا أمر توقيفي ، وظواهر الأحاديث دالة على أن الذي يقع أولا المحاسبة على حقوق الله تعالى قبل حقوق العباد ، انتهى . وقيل الأول من ترك العبادات والثاني من فعل السيئات

His statement, “indeed the first deed by which a servant will be called to account on the Day of Resurrection is his Salaat” – meaning the obligatory ones. Al-Iraaqi said in his explanation of al-Tirmidhi, “There is no contradiction between this hadith and the aunthentic hadith “The first matter concerning which scores will be settled among the people on the Day of Resurrection will be bloodshed.” For this hadith is concerning the rights of Allah, and the other authentic hadith is concerning the rights between human beings. And if it is said, “So which of these two comes first, the accounting of the slaves for the rights of Allah, or their accounting for their mutual rights?” Then the answer is that this is a matter of revelation, and the clear hadiths show that that which occurs first is the reckoning for the rights due to Allah, the Exalted. And it is said first comes the abandoning of ‘ibaadaat and second comes the performing of sins.

  ” فإن صلحت ” بضم اللام وفتحها ، قال ابن الملك : صلاحها بأدائها صحيحة ” فقد أفلح وأنجح ” الفلاح الفوز والظفر ، والإنجاح بتقديم الجيم على الحاء يقال أنجح فلان إذا أصاب مطلوبه . قال القاري في المرقاة : فقد أفلح أي فاز بمقصوده ، وأنجح أي ظفر بمطلوبه فيكون فيه تأكيد ، وفاز بمعنى خلص من العقاب ، وأنجح أي حصل له الثواب

If it is complete” – Ibn Maalik said, “complete by its correct performance” – “then he is successful and saved“. ‘Successful’ means victorious and triumphant, and ‘Saved’ – it is said that so-and-so is saved when he gets what he seeks. Al-Qaari said in al-Mirqaah “‘he is successful’ meaning he has achieved his objectives, and ‘saved’ meaning he has won what he sought so in that he is assured. And ‘successful’ has the meaning of safe from punishment, and ‘saved’ means he got his reward.”

” وإن فسدت ” بأن لم تؤد أو أديت غير صحيحة أو غير مقبولة ” فقد خاب ” بحرمان المثوبة ” وخسر ” بوقوع العقوبة ، وقيل معنى خاب ندم وخسر أي صار محروما من الفوز والخلاص قبل العذاب  .

But if it is defective” because he did not perform them or he did not perform them correctly or they are otherwise unacceptable “then he has failed” being deprived of the reward “and lost” by incurring punishment. And it is said that the meaning of ‘failed’ is regret and loss – meaning the he became deprived of success and sincerity before punishment.

” فإن انتقص ” بمعنى نقص المتعدي ” شيئا ” أي من الفرائض ” هل لعبدي من تطوع ” أي في صحيفته سنة أو نافلة من صلاة على ما هو ظاهر من السياق قبل الفرض أو بعده أو مطلقا

“So if there is a deficiency” meaning something is lacking “of something” – meaning from the obligatory salaat. Look! Are there any voluntary prayers for my worshipper?” – meaning in the record of his sunnah or naafilah (optional) prayers according to what is apparent from the context either before the obligatory prayer, or after it, or in general.

” فيكمل ” بالتشديد ويخفف على بناء الفاعل أو المفعول وهو الأظهر وبالنصب ويرفع قاله القاري ” بها ” قال ابن الملك : أي بالتطوع وتأنيث الضمير باعتبار النافلة . وقال الطيبي : الظاهر نصب فيكمل على أنه من كلام الله تعالى جوابا للاستفهام ، ويؤيده رواية أحمد فكملوا بها فريضته ، وإنما أنث ضمير التطوع في بها نظرا إلى الصلاة  .

So it will be completed with them“. Ibn Maalik said, “meaning with the optional prayers.” [Some portions of the text deal with the Arabic grammar and hence will be excluded from this translation]

” ما انتقص من الفريضة ” فهو متعد قال العراقي في شرح الترمذي : يحتمل أن يراد به ما انتقصه من السنن والهيئات المشروعة فيها من الخشوع والأذكار والأدعية ، وأنه يحصل له ثواب ذلك في الفريضة وإن لم يفعله فيها ، وإنما فعله في التطوع ، ويحتمل أن يراد به ما انتقص أيضا من فروضها وشروطها ، ويحتمل أن يراد ما ترك من الفرائض رأسا فلم يصله فيعوض عنه من التطوع . والله سبحانه وتعالى يقبل من التطوعات الصحيحة عوضا عن الصلوات المفروضة ، انتهى

What was deficient in his obligatory [prayers]“. Al-Iraaqi said in his explanation of al-Tirmidhi:

Perhaps what is meant by that is what is deficient in terms of the sunan and legislated matters of it, such as al-khushoo’ and dhikr and supplications, and that he still gets rewarded for the obligatory prayers even if he doesn’t do these things therein, and only does them during the optional prayers. And perhaps what is intended by that is also deficiencies in the core part and pillars of the prayer, and perhaps what it is intended is the abandonment of the principle obligations, so he does not pray them, in which case he would not be compensated for that deficiency by his optional prayers. And Allah, High and Exalted is He, accepts from the correct optional prayers as compensation for the obligatory prayers.

 وقال ابن العربي : يحتمل أن يكون يكمل له ما نقص من فرض الصلاة وأعدادها بفضل التطوع ، ويحتمل ما نقصه من الخشوع والأول عندي أظهر لقوله ، ثم الزكاة كذلك وسائر الأعمال ، وليس في الزكاة إلا فرض أو فضل فكما يكمل فرض الزكاة بفضلها كذلك الصلاة وفضل الله أوسع ووعده أنفذ وعزمه أعم ، انتهى  .

And ibn al-‘Arabi said,

Perhaps what is meant is to complete what is lacking from the obligatory prayers and their numbers by virtue of the optional prayers, and perhaps what is meant is the lack of al-khushoo’ and to me that is what is most clear from his statement [in another narration ] “then the zakaat and so on for the remaining deeds,” for there is nothing of zakaat except for what is obligatory or what is extra, so just as the obligatory zakaat is perfected by giving extra, so it is with the salaah. And Allah gives the most expansive blessing and His promise is the most able to be fulfilled and His decision is the most encompassing.

”  ثم يكون سائر عمله على ذلك ” أي إن انتقص فريضة من سائر الأعمال تكمل من التطوع

Then the rest of his deeds will be treated like that” – meaning if there are deficiencies in the obligations from the remaining deeds, they will be completed by the optional deeds.

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi]

For more on the importance and benefits of al-salaah, see also: “Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Reserve a part of your prayer for the house

See also: Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi