Major Shirk and Minor Shirk: Imam al-Sa’di

In his concise explanation of the famous Kitaab al-Tawheed of Sheikh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab, Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di brings the following definitions of major and minor shirk:

 الشرك في توحيد الإلهية والعبادة ينافي التوحيد كل المنافاة وهو نوعان: شرك أكبر جلي، وشرك أصغر خفي. ـ

al-Shirk in regards to al-Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah – which is also known as [al-Tawheed] al-‘Ibaadah – contradicts al-tawheed in every way, and it is made up of two categories: 1) open shirk al-akbar (major shirk), and 2) concealed shirk al-ashgar (minor shirk).

فأما الشرك الأكبر: فهو أن يجعل لله ندا يدعوه كما يدعو الله أو يخافه أو يرجوه أو يحبه كحب الله، أو يصرف له نوعا من أنواع العبادة، فهذا الشرك لا يبقى مع صاحبه من التوحيد شيء، وهذا المشرك الذي حرم الله عليه الجنة ومأواه النار. ولا فرق في هذا بين أن يسمي تلك العبادة التي صرفها لغير الله عبادة، أو يسميها توسلا، أو يسميها بغير ذلك من الأسماء فكل ذلك شرك أكبر، لأن العبرة بحقائق الأشياء ومعانيها دون ألفاظها وعباراتها. ـ

So as for al-shirk al-akbar (major shirk), it is that one takes an equal with Allah and supplicates to it just as one would supplicate to Allah or he fears it or he places his hope in it or he loves it as one would love Allah, or he diverts some form of worship to it. So this shirk does not leave anything of al-tawheed remaining with the one who commits it, and he is a mushrik for whom Allah has forbidden al-Jannah and his final abode is the Hell-fire. And there is no distinction as to whether this worship which is diverted to other than Allah is called ‘ibaadah (worship), or if it is called tawassul (intermediation), or if it is called by some other name, for all of that is shirk al-akbar, because the final consideration is according to the reality of a thing and its meaning rather than its wording and terminology. Continue reading

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The meaning of al-thulm : Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

Allah says in surah al-An’aam:

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ أُولَـٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

Those who believe and do not mix their belief with thulm – for them (only) there is security and they are the guided.

[al-Qur’an 6:82]

Commenting on this ayah, al-Haafidh ibn Rajab al-Hanbali wrote:

خرّج البخاري ومسلم : من حديثِ ابن مسعود ، قال : لمّا نزلت : < الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ > ، قال أصحاب الرسول الله ﷺ : أيّنا لم يظلم نفسه ؟ فأنزل الله : < إِنَّ الشِّرْ‌كَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ > . ـ

Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported the hadeeth of ibn Mas’ood that he said, “When the ayah, ‘Those who believe and do not mix their belief with thulm‘ [6:82] was revealed, the companions of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘Which of us does not wrong himself?’ So Allah revealed the ayah, ‘Verily al-shirk is great thulm‘ [31:13].

و معنى هذا : أنّ الظلم يختلف : ـ

And this means that the meaning of al-thulm varies: Continue reading

Praying the voluntary prayers in the home: Ibn Qudaamah

The famous Hanbali jusrist, Ibn Qadaamahwrote the following on the topic of offering the optional prayers in one’s house:

والتطوع في البيت أفضل لقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” عليكم بالصلاة في بيوتكم فإن خير صلاة المرء في بيته إلا الصلاة المكتوبة ” رواه مسلم، وعن زيد بن ثابت أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ” صلاة المرء في بيته أفضل من صلاته في مسجدي هذا إلا المكتوبة ” رواه أبو داود وقال ” إذا قضى أحدكم الصلاة في مسجده فليجعل لبيته نصيبا من صلاته فإن الله جاعل في بيته من صلاته خيرا ” رواه مسلم. ولان الصلاة في البيت أقرب إلى الاخلاص، وأبعد من الرياء وهو من عمل السر وفعله في المسجد علانية والسر أفضل.

And performing the voluntary prayers in the house is preferable according to the statement of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) “So perform prayer in your houses for verily the best prayer of a person is in his house, except for the obligatory prayers“, narrated by Muslim, and on the authority of Zaid ibn Thaabit that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “the prayer of a person in his house is better than his prayer in my masjid, except for the obligatory prayers“, narrated by Abu Dawood. And he said, “When any one of you observes prayer in the mosque he should reserve a part of his prayer for his house, for Allah would make the prayer as a means of betterment in his house“, narrated by Muslim. For (optional) prayer in the house is nearer to ikhlaas, and further removed from riyaa’, and it is a secret action, and performing (optional) prayer in the masjid is public, and the secret action is better.

[al-Mughni 1/775]

See also: Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

See also: Reserve a part of your prayer for the house

See also: Allah’s commendations for those who prayer during the night

See also: “Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.”: Imam al-Qurtubi’s tafsir of 7:55

See also: Du’a or dhikr after salaah?: Ibn Taymiyah

Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar narrates that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

اجعلوا من صلاتكم في بيوتكم ولا تتخذوها قبوراً

“Observe some of your prayers in your houses and do not make them (like) graves.”

[Muslim #777]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes:

باب استحباب صلاة النافلة في بيته وجوازها في المسجد

The chapter on the desirability of optional [nawaafil] prayer in one’s house and the permissibility of it in the masjid

 وسواء في هذا الراتبة وغيرها إلا الشعائر الظاهرة وهي العيد والكسوف والاستسقاء والتراويح وكذا ما لا يتأتى في غير المسجد كتحية المسجد ويندب كونه في المسجد هي ركعتا الطواف . ـ

[And just as this applies to optional (nawaafil) prayers] this also applies routine optional prayers (al-rawaatib) and others, except for those prayers which are the outward rituals, and they are the ‘eid prayer, and al-kusoof (eclipse prayer), and al-istisqaa’ (prayer for rain), and al-taraaweeh (night prayer during Ramadhaan), and others such as those which cannot be done except in the masjid such as tahiyyah al-masjid (prayer for greeting the masjid) and those whose performance is relegated to the masjid such as two raka’aat of Tawaaf. Continue reading

Reserve a part of your prayer for the house

Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

إِذَا قَضَى أَحَدُكُمُ الصَّلاَةَ فِي مَسْجِدِهِ فَلْيَجْعَلْ لِبَيْتِهِ نَصِيبًا مِنْ صَلاَتِهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ جَاعِلٌ فِي بَيْتِهِ مِنْ صَلاَتِهِ خَيْرًا

“When any one of you observes prayer in the mosque he should reserve a part of his prayer for his house, for Allah would make the prayer as a means of betterment in his house.”

[Muslim #778]

Al-Manaawi, in explanation of al-Suyuti’s al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer, wrote the following about this hadeeth:

” إذا قضى أحدكم الصلاة في مسجده ” : يعني : أدى الفرض في محل الجماعة ، وخص المسجد لأن الغالب إقامتها فيه ، ” فليجعل لبيته ” : أي : محل سكنه ، ” نصيبا ” : أي : قِسما ، ” من صلاته ” : أي : فليجعل الفرض في المسجد والنفل في بيته لتعود بركته على البيت وأهله كما قال ” فإن الله تعالى جاعل في بيته من صلاته ” : أي : من أجلها وبسببها ، ” خيراً ” : أي كثيراً عظيماً ، لعمارة البيت بذكر الله وطاعته ، وحضور الملائكة ، واستبشارهم ، وما يحصل لأهله من ثواب وبركة .

If any one of you observes prayer in his masjid” – meaning: to perform the obligatory prayer in the place of congregation, and specifically the masjid since that is the most common place in which to perform it, – “he should reserve for his house” – meaning: his place of residence – “a part” – meaning: a portion – “of his prayer” – meaning: so he should make the obligatory prayers in the masjid and the optional prayers in his house in order to return his blessing on the house and it’s people, as he (ﷺ) said, “for Allah would make the prayer as a means” -meaning: a source and cause of it – “of betterment in his house” – meaning: in great and abundant measure, for filling the house with the remembrance of Allah and obedience to him, and the presence of the angels, and their glad tidings, and its inhabitants obtain of reward and blessings.

وفيه : أن النفل في البيت أفضل منه في المسجد ولو بالمسجد الحرام

And from this: that optional prayers in the home are better than those in the masjid, even if it is in al-masjid al-haraam.

[Fayd al-Qadeer 1/418]

See also: Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

See also: Praying the voluntary prayers in the home: ibn Qudaamah

See also: The first deed to be reckoned

See also: Indeed, the prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Du’a or Dhikr after the Salaah?: Ibn Taymiyah