Ibn Kathir’s brief remarks on the contents of Surah al-Fatihah

After completing his individual explanations of each of the verses of surah al-Fatihah, al-Hafidh Abu’l-Fidaa’ Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir made the following brief remarks about the contents of the surah as a whole:

اشتملت هذه السورة الكريمة وهي سبع آيات فضلها ، على حمد الله وتمجيده والثناء عليه ، بذكر أسمائه الحسنى المستلزمة لصفاته العليا ، وعلى ذكر المعاد وهو يوم الدين ، وعلى إرشاده عبيده إلى سؤاله والتضرع إليه ، والتبرؤ من حولهم وقوتهم ، وإلى إخلاص العبادة له وتوحيده بالألوهية تبارك وتعالى ، وتنزيهه أن يكون له شريك أو نظير أو مماثل ، وإلى سؤالهم إياه الهداية إلى الصراط المستقيم ، وهو الدين القويم ، وتثبيتهم عليه حتى يفضي بهم ذلك إلى جواز الصراط الحسي يوم القيامة ، المفضي بهم إلى جنات النعيم في جوار النبيين ، والصديقين ، والشهداء ، والصالحين . واشتملت على الترغيب في الأعمال الصالحة ، ليكونوا مع أهلها يوم القيامة ، والتحذير من مسالك الباطل ؛ لئلا يحشروا مع سالكيها يوم القيامة ، وهم المغضوب عليهم والضالون . ـ

This noble surah – while being only seven ayaat – contains many virtues. These include containing praise, glorification and extolling of Allah by mentioning His beautiful names which necessarily entail His lofty attributes.

And it contains mention of the ultimate destination, which is the Day of Recompense.

And it contains Allah’s guidance to His slaves to ask Him and supplicate to Him, and to disassociate themselves from any claim of possessing might or power.

It contains Allah’s guidance to have sincerity in worshiping Him and singling Him out in deity – exalted is He – , and declaring Him free from having any partners, equals or peers. Continue reading

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Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Imam al-Sa’di

In the beginning of his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di provided the following brief but highly beneficial explanation of surah al-Fatihah. This explanation is slightly more detailed than his previous explanation of surah al-Fatihah in his well-known complete work of tafsir, Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman:

ـ {بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ – الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ – الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ – مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ – إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ – اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ – صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ} [الفاتحة: 1 – 7] ـ

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ الرَّ‌حِيمِ * الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ الرَّ‌حِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ * إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ * اهْدِنَا الصِّرَ‌اطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَ‌اطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ‌ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. * [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds – * The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, * Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. * It is You we worship and You we ask for help. * Guide us to the straight path – * The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. [1:1-7]

أي: أبتدئ بكل اسم لله تعالى، لأن لفظ ” اسم ” مفرد مضاف، فيعم جميع أسماء الله الحسنى؛ فيكون العبد مستعينا بربه، وبكل اسم من أسمائه على ما يناسبه من المطالب، وأجل ما يستعان به على عبادة الله؛ وأجل ذلك الاستعانة على قراءة كلام الله، وتفهم معانيه، والاهتداء بهديه. ـ

Meaning: I begin with every name of Allah the Exalted, because the word “name” occurs in the singular and attached state, and it therefore includes all of Allah’s beautiful names. So the slave seeks the aid of his Lord with every one of His names according to what is appropriate for his goals, and the most lofty of things to seek His aid in is the worship of Allah. And the most lofty form of that is to seek His aid in reading the Words of Allah, understanding their meanings and being guided by their guidance.

ـ (الله) هو المألوه المستحق لإفراده بالمحبة والخوف والرجاء وأنواع العبادة كلها، لما اتصف به من صفات الكمال، وهي التي تدعو الخلق إلى عبادته والتأله له. ـ

Allah” – He is the One who is revered, the One deserving to be singled out exclusively with love, fear, hope and all varieties of acts of worship due to what He is characterized with of perfect attributes, and these are what call the creation to worship and revere Him.

ـ {الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ} [الفاتحة: 1] اسمان دالان على أنه تعالى ذو الرحمة الواسعة العظيمة التي وسعت كل شيء، وعمت كل مخلوق، وكتب الرحمة الكاملة للمتقين المتبعين لأنبيائه ورسله؛ فهؤلاء لهم الرحمة المطلقة المتصلة بالسعادة الأبدية، ومن عداهم محروم من هذه الرحمة الكاملة، لأنه الذي دفع هذه الرحمة وأباها بتكذيبه للخبر، وتوليه عن الأمر، فلا يلومن إلا نفسه. ـ

al-Rahman al-Raheem” – These two names show that He possesses the attribute of vast and tremendous Mercy which extends unto everything and encompasses every created being. And He decreed complete mercy for the muttaqoon – those who follow the His prophets and messengers. So for those ones, there is unrestricted mercy which leads them to everlasting joy, and whoever opposes them is deprived of this complete mercy because they are the ones who repel this mercy and refuse it by their denial of the message and their turning away from the command, so they only have themselves to blame. Continue reading

A Refutation of Blaming Sins on Qadr: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah says in surah al-An’aam:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا ۗ قُلْ هَلْ عِندَكُم مِّنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا ۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا تَخْرُصُونَ * قُلْ فَلِلَّهِ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ ۖ فَلَوْ شَاءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Those who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: “If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will).” Likewise belied those who were before them, till they tasted of Our Wrath. Say: “Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but assumption and you do nothing but lie.” * Say: “With Allah is the perfect proof and argument. Had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.” [6:148-149]

Commenting on this in his famous book of tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote:

هذا إخبار من الله أن المشركين سيحتجون على شركهم وتحريمهم ما أحل الله، بالقضاء والقدر، ويجعلون مشيئة الله الشاملة لكل شيء من الخير والشر حجة لهم في دفع اللوم عنهم. وقد قالوا ما أخبر الله أنهم سيقولونه، كما قال في الآية الأخرى: { وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ } الآية. ـ

This is Allah informing us that the mushrikoon will use al-Qadaa and al-Qadr [Allah’s Divine Decree and Pre-ordainment] to argue in support of their shirk and their declaring what Allah has made permissible impermissible, and that they will take Allah’s will – which encompasses everything, both good and evil – as an argument in their favor for repelling any blame against them. And they did in fact say what Allah informed us that they would say, just as He said in another ayah:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَيْءٍ نَّحْنُ وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّ‌مْنَا مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ فَهَلْ عَلَى الرُّ‌سُلِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ

And those who associate others with Allah say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have worshipped anything other than Him, neither we nor our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything through other than Him.” Thus did those do before them. So is there upon the messengers except [the duty of] clear notification? [16:35]

فأخبر تعالى أن هذة الحجة، لم تزل الأمم المكذبة تدفع بها عنهم دعوة الرسل، ويحتجون بها، فلم تجد فيهم شيئا ولم تنفعهم، فلم يزل هذا دأبهم حتى أهكلهم الله، وأذاقهم بأسه. ـ

So Allah informed us that the nations of falsehood still use this argument to repel the call of the messengers from them and they argue using this. But it does not do anything for them nor does it benefit them, so this perseverance of theirs will continue until Allah destroys them and makes them taste His punishment.

فلو كانت حجة صحيحة، لدفعت عنهم العقاب، ولما أحل الله بهم العذاب، لأنه لا يحل بأسه إلا بمن استحقه، فعلم أنها حجة فاسدة، وشبهة كاسدة، من عدة أوجه: ـ

For if this line of argument were true, then it would repel punishment from them and Allah would not allow punishment to happen to them because He does not allow punishment to happen except to those who deserve it. So it is known that this argumentation is false and that it is a doubt which falls flat for a number of reasons: Continue reading

al-Qaḍaaʼ and al-Qadr: al-Raghib al-Isfahani

Al-Rāghib al-Isfahāni (d. 502 AH) wrote the following in his famous dictionary of the Qur’an in part of his discussion on the Arabic root for Qaaaʼ [ق ض ى]:

والقضاء من الله تعالى أخَصُّ من القدر , لأنه الفَصلُ بين التقدير , فالقدر هو التقدير والقضاء هو الفصل والقطع ، وقد ذكر بعض العلماء أن القدر بمنزلة المعد للكيل والقضاء بمنزلة الكيل ، وهذا كما قال أبو عبيدة لعمر رضي الله عنهما لما أراد الفرار من الطاعون بالشام : أتفر من القضاء؟! قال : أفر من قضاء الله إلى قدر الله . تنبيهًا أن القدر ما لم يكون قضاء فمرجوٌّ أن يدفعه الله فإذا قضى فلا مدفع له. ويشهد بذلك قوله : وَكَانَ أَمْرً‌ا مَّقْضِيًّا وقوله : كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَ‌بِّكَ حَتْمًا مَّقْضِيًّا و قوله : وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ أي فُصِلَ تنبيهاً ‌أنه صار بحيث لا يمكن تلافيه

The Qaaaʼ of Allah is more specific than the Qadr, because it is the execution which fulfills the decree. So al-Qadr is the decree and al-Qaaaʼ is the execution and fulfillment. And it has been mentioned by some of the scholars that al-Qadr is the station of destining the measure while al-Qaaaʼ is the station of the measure (itself, i.e. its actualization). Continue reading

Idle Wishing – Tafsir al-Sa’di

In surah al-Nisaa’, Allah addresses the believers by saying:

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّ‌جَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّـهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask Allah of his bounty. Indeed Allah is ever, of all things, Knowing. [4:32]

In his short book of miscellaneous tafsir-based benefits, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di brought a point of benefit related to this ayah and then proceeded to outline its contents in light of that:

لا يمنع الله تعالى عبده شيئا إلا فتح له بابا أنفع له منه وأسهل وأولى ، قال تعالى : [وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّ‌جَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّـهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا ] <النساء 32> فمنع الله من تمني ما فضّل الله به بعض العبيد على بعض ، وأخبر أن كل عامل من الرجال والنساء له نصيب وحظ من كسبه ، فحض الصنفين على الاجتهاد في الكسب النافع ، ونهاهم عن التمني الذي ليس بنافع ، وفتح لهم أبواب الفضل والإحسان ، ودعاهم إلى سؤال ذلك بلسان الحال ولسان المقال ، وأخبرهم بكمال علمه وحكمته ، وأن من ذلك أنه لا يُنال ما عنده إلا بطاعته ، ولا تُنال المطالب العالية إلا بالسعي والاجتهاد ، والله الموفق لكل خير . ـ

Allah does not prevent a slave of his from anything except that he opens up a door for him which is more beneficial to him, easier and more appropriate. Allah said:

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّ‌جَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّـهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask Allah of his bounty. Indeed Allah is ever, of all things, Knowing. [4:32]

So Allah forbade wishing for that with which He has caused some of His slaves to exceed others. And He informed us that every doer of deeds – both male and female – has a share and a portion of their earnings due to them. Continue reading

Using truthful speech for false purposes: Imam al-Shinqitee

In his book addressing and resolving apparent contradictions and conflicts in the Qur’an, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee brought the following discussion in his chapter on surah al-An’aam:

قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ شَيْءٍ الْآيَةَ. ـ

Allah’s statement:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ مَا أَشْرَ‌كْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّ‌مْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ

Those who associated with Allah will say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have associated [anything] and neither would our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.” [6:148]

until the end of the ayah.

هَذَا الْكَلَامُ الَّذِي قَالُوهُ بِالنَّظَرِ إِلَى ذَاتِهِ كَلَامُ صِدْقٍ لَا شَكَّ فِيهِ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَوْ شَاءَ لَمْ يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمُوا شَيْئًا مِمَّا لَمْ يُحَرِّمْهُ كَالْبَحَائِرِ وَالسَّوَائِبِ. ـ

This speech which they said – when one looks at its essence – is true speech about which there is no doubt, for were Allah to will then they would not associate anything with Him and they would not prohibit anything which He did not make prohibited, such as a bahirah or a sa’ibah [see 5:103].

وَقَدْ قَالَ تَعَالَى: وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكُوا [6 \ 107] وَقَالَ: وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَآتَيْنَا كُلَّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا [32 \ 13] ، وَقَالَ: وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَى [6 \ 35] . ـ

And Allah has said: Continue reading

“Do not say, ‘If only…'”: Imam al-Sa’di

Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

ـ … وَإِنْ أَصَابَكَ شَىْءٌ فَلاَ تَقُلْ لَوْ أَنِّي فَعَلْتُ كَانَ كَذَا وَكَذَا ‏.‏ وَلَكِنْ قُلْ قَدَرُ اللَّهِ وَمَا شَاءَ فَعَلَ فَإِنَّ لَوْ تَفْتَحُ عَمَلَ الشَّيْطَانِ

“If something afflicts you, do not say, ‘If only I had done such-and-such…,’ rather say, ‘Allah decreed this and He does what He wishes.’ For the phrase ‘if only…’ opens up the work of the shaytaan.

[Saheeh Muslim #2664]

Commenting of the content matter of this hadeeth in his concise explanation of Kitaab al-Tawheed, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote the following points of clarification:

اعلم أن استعمال العبد للفظة: “لو” تقع على قسمين: مذموم ومحمود . ـ

Know that the slave’s use of the phrase “if only…” can fall into one of two categories: blameworthy or praiseworthy.

أما المذموم فأن يقع منه أو عليه أمر لا يحبه فيقول: لو أني فعلت كذا لكان كذا، فهذا من عمل الشيطان؛ لأن فيه محذورين: ـ

As for the blameworthy usage, it is when the slave does something or when something happens to him which he does not like and so he says, “If only I had done such-and-such then such-and-such would have happened” for this is from the work of the shaytaan, because it contains two things which are warned against: Continue reading

The purpose of Allah’s creation: Imam al-Shinqitee

Allah informs us of a very important matter in surah al-dhaariyaat when He says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.
[al-Qur’an 51:56]
In part of his commentary on this ayah, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote the following lucid clarification:
 قال مقيده عفا الله عنه وغفر له : التحقيق – إن شاء الله – في معنى هذه الآية الكريمة إلا ليعبدون ، أي إلا لآمرهم بعبادتي وأبتليهم أي أختبرهم بالتكاليف ، ثم أجازيهم على أعمالهم ، إن خيرا فخير وإن شرا فشر ، وإنما قلنا إن هذا هو التحقيق في معنى الآية ، لأنه تدل عليه آيات محكمات من كتاب الله ، فقد صرح تعالى في آيات من كتابه أنه خلقهم ليبتليهم أيهم أحسن عملا ، وأنه خلقهم ليجزيهم بأعمالهم . ـ
The writer [i.e. Sheikh Shinqitee] – may Allah pardon and forgive him – says: The true meaning – inshaAllaah – of this noble ayahexcept to worship me” i.e. except that I may command them with My worship and test them, meaning examine them with burdens, and then recompense them according to their deeds; if they are good then good [will be their reward] and if they are bad then bad [will be their reward]. And we only say that this is the true meaning of this ayah because it is supported by the definitive ayaat of the Book of Allah, so He has made it clear in the ayaat of His Book that He created them in order to test which of them is best in deed, and that He created them in order to reward them according to their actions. Continue reading

“Our eyes shed tears and our hearts grieve, but we do not say anything except what pleases our Lord”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Anas ibn Maalik narrated that the Messenger of Allah said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ وُلِدَ لِيَ اللَّيْلَةَ غُلاَمٌ فَسَمَّيْتُهُ بِاسْمِ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ دَفَعَهُ إِلَى أُمِّ سَيْفٍ امْرَأَةِ قَيْنٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ أَبُو سَيْفٍ فَانْطَلَقَ يَأْتِيهِ وَاتَّبَعْتُهُ فَانْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى أَبِي سَيْفٍ وَهُوَ يَنْفُخُ بِكِيرِهِ قَدِ امْتَلأَ الْبَيْتُ دُخَانًا فَأَسْرَعْتُ الْمَشْىَ بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ يَا أَبَا سَيْفٍ أَمْسِكْ جَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَأَمْسَكَ فَدَعَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِالصَّبِيِّ فَضَمَّهُ إِلَيْهِ وَقَالَ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَقُولَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَنَسٌ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُهُ وَهُوَ يَكِيدُ بِنَفْسِهِ بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَدَمَعَتْ عَيْنَا رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏”‏ تَدْمَعُ الْعَيْنُ وَيَحْزَنُ الْقَلْبُ وَلاَ نَقُولُ إِلاَّ مَا يَرْضَى رَبُّنَا وَاللَّهِ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ إِنَّا بِكَ لَمَحْزُونُونَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

A child was born into me this night and I named him after the name of my father Ibrahim. He then sent him to Umm Saif, the wife of a blacksmith who was called Abu Saif. He (the Holy Prophet) went to him and I followed him until we reached Abu Saif and he was blowing fire with the help of blacksmith’s bellows and the house was filled with smoke. I hastened my step and went ahead of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and said, “Abu Saif, stop it! as there comes Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).” He stopped and Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) called for the child. He embraced him and said whatever Allah wished. Anas said: I saw that the boy breathed his last in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). The eyes of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) shed tears and he said, “Ibrahim, our eyes shed tears and our hearts are filled with grief, but we do not say anything except that by which our Lord is pleased. O Ibrahim, we are grieved for you.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2315]

Imam al-Nawawi, in part of his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, writes:

قوله : ( فدمعت عينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى آخره ) فيه جواز البكاء على المريض والحزن ، وأن ذلك لا يخالف الرضا بالقدر ، بل هي رحمة جعلها الله في قلوب عباده ، وإنما المذموم الندب والنياحة ، والويل والثبور ، ونحو ذلك من القول الباطل ، ولهذا قال صلى الله عليه وسلم : ” ولا نقول إلا ما يرضي ربنا ” .

In his statement, “The eyes of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) shed tears” until the end of the hadeeth there is the permission to weep in the case of sickness and grief. And that does not contradict being content with the qadr; rather it is a rahmah that Allah has placed in the hearts of His slaves. And what is blameworthy is only lamentation, wailing, excessive weeping and acts of destruction [i.e. ripping clothes, pulling out hair, etc.], and the likes of that in terms of false speech, and it was for this reason that he (ﷺ) said, “but we do not say anything except that by which our Lord is pleased

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim #2315]

Whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart in times of trials: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

Allah says in surah al-Taghaabun:

مَا أَصَابَ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

No calamity strikes except by permission of Allah. And whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart. And Allah is Knowing of all things. [64:10]

Imam al-Qurtubi, in his work of tafsir, writes about this ayah:

قوله تعالى : ما أصاب من مصيبة إلا بإذن الله أي بإرادته وقضائه . وقال الفراء : يريد إلا بأمر الله . وقيل : إلا بعلم الله . وقيل : سبب نزولها أن الكفار قالوا : لو كان ما عليه المسلمون حقا لصانهم الله عن المصائب في الدنيا ; فبين الله تعالى أن ما أصاب من مصيبة في نفس أو مال أو قول أو فعل ، يقتضي هما أو يوجب عقابا عاجلا أو آجلا فبعلم الله وقضائه .

His statement, “No calamity strikes except by permission of Allah” – meaning by His will and decree. Al-Firaa’ said: meaning, ‘except by the command of Allah’. And it is said: ‘except by Allah’s knowledge’. And it is said: the reason for the revelation of this ayah is that the kuffaar said, ‘If they Muslims were really upon the truth, then Allah would safeguard them from calamities this dunya‘, so Allah clarified that whatever calamity occurs – whether corporeally or financially, in speech or in deed, whether it is a cause of grief or something which was necessary of punishment in this life or the hereafter – then it is according to the knowledge of Allah and His decree.

قوله تعالى : ومن يؤمن بالله أي يصدق ويعلم أنه لا يصيبه مصيبة إلا بإذن الله .

His statement, “And whoever believes in Allah” – meaning, he affirms and knows that he is not afflicted with a calamity except by the permission of Allah. Continue reading