“Those of determination among the messengers”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his tafsir:

قوله – تعالى – : فاصبر كما صبر أولوا العزم من الرسل . اختلف العلماء في المراد بأولي العزم من الرسل في هذه الآية الكريمة اختلافا كثيرا . ـ

Allah said:

فَاصْبِرْ‌ كَمَا صَبَرَ‌ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّ‌سُلِ

So exercise sabr, (O Muhammad), as did those of determination among the messengers [46:35]

The scholars have differed greatly concerning the intended meaning of ‘those of determination’ [uloo al-‘azm] among the messengers in this noble ayah.

وأشهر الأقوال في ذلك أنهم خمسة ، وهم الذين قدمنا ذكرهم في ” الأحزاب ” و ” الشورى ” ، وهم نوح وإبراهيم وموسى وعيسى ومحمد – عليهم الصلاة والسلام – . ـ

And the most well-known position in this matter is that they are five, and they are those who were previously mentioned in surah al-Ahzab [33:7] and surah al-Shooraa [42:13], who are Nuh, Ibrahim, Moosaa, ‘Eesaa and Muhammad (‘alaihim al-salaatu wa’l-salaam).

وعلى هذا القول فالرسل الذين أمر رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أن يصبر كما صبروا – أربعة ، فصار هو – صلى الله عليه وسلم – خامسهم . ـ

So according to this position, then the messengers which the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was commanded to exercise sabr as they has exercised sabr were four, so he (ﷺ) became their fifth. Continue reading

Banu Israa’eel’s abuse of Moosaa: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his tafsir of surah al-Saff:

قوله تعالى : وإذ قال موسى لقومه ياقوم لم تؤذونني وقد تعلمون أني رسول الله إليكم فلما زاغوا أزاغ الله قلوبهم والله لا يهدي القوم الفاسقين . ـ

Allah’s statement [in surah al-Saff]:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ لِمَ تُؤْذُونَنِي وَقَد تَّعْلَمُونَ أَنِّي رَ‌سُولُ اللَّـهِ إِلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا زَاغُوا أَزَاغَ اللَّـهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

And (remember) when Moosaa said to his people, “O my people, why do you abuse me while you certainly know that I am the messenger of Allah to you?” And when they deviated, Allah caused their hearts to deviate. And Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people. [61:5]

قول موسى عليه السلام : لم تؤذونني ؟ لم يبين نوع هذا الإيذاء وقد جاء مثل هذا الإجمال في قوله تعالى : ياأيها الذين آمنوا لا تكونوا كالذين آذوا موسى فبرأه الله مما قالوا [ 33 \ 69 ] . ـ

Regarding the statement of Moosaa (‘alaihi al-salaam), “why do you abuse me?” Allah does not explain what type of harm this is, and the likes of this general language have also come in His statement [in surah al-Ahzaab]:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ آذَوْا مُوسَىٰ فَبَرَّ‌أَهُ اللَّـهُ مِمَّا قَالُوا

O you who have believed, do not be like those who abused Moosaa; then Allah cleared him of what they said [33:69]

وأحال عليه ابن كثير في تفسيره ، وساق حديث البخاري أنه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال : ” إن موسى – عليه السلام – كان حييا ستيرا لا يرى من جلده شيئا استحياء منه فآذاه من آذاه من بني إسرائيل ، فقالوا : ما يتستر هذا التستر إلا من عيب في جلده ، إما برص وإما أدرة وإما آفة ، وأن الله – عز وجل – أراد أن يبرئه مما قالوا فخلا يوما وحده فخلع ثيابه على حجر ، ثم اغتسل فلما فرغ أقبل على ثيابه ؛ ليأخذها ، وأن الحجر عدا بثوبه ، فأخذ موسى عصاه وطلب الحجر ، فجعل يقول : ثوبي حجر حتى انتهى إلى ملأ من بني إسرائيل فرأوه عريانا أحسن ما خلق الله – عز وجل – وبرأه مما يقولون ” . . . . إلى آخر القصة . ـ

And regarding this, Ibn Kathir presented the following in his tafsir, transmitting the hadeeth of al-Bukhari that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: Continue reading

“Blessed is whoever is at the fire and whoever is around it” : Tafsir al-Baghawi

While recounting the story of Moosaa approaching the burning bush in surah al-Naml, Allah says:

إِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَهْلِهِ إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارً‌ا سَآتِيكُم مِّنْهَا بِخَبَرٍ‌ أَوْ آتِيكُم بِشِهَابٍ قَبَسٍ لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُونَ * فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِ‌كَ مَن فِي النَّارِ‌ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ رَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[Mention] when Moosaa said to his family, “Indeed, I have perceived a fire. I will bring you from there information or will bring you a burning torch that you may warm yourselves.” * But when he came to it, he was addressed, “Blessed is whoever is at (lit. “in”) the fire and whoever is around it. And exalted is Allah, Lord of the worlds. [27:7-8]

Commenting on the second ayah in his book of tafsir, Imam al-Baghawi wrote:

ـ ( فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَنْ بُورِكَ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ) أَيْ : بُورِكَ عَلَى مَنْ فِي النَّارِ أَوْ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ ، وَالْعَرَبُ تَقُولُ : بَارَكَهُ اللَّهُ وَبَارَكَ فِيهِ ، وَبَارَكَ عَلَيْهِ ، بِمَعْنًى وَاحِدٍ . ـ

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِ‌كَ مَن فِي النَّارِ‌ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

But when he came to it, he was addressed, ‘Blessed is whoever is at (lit. “in”) the fire and whoever is around it’ [27:8]

Meaning: Blessings upon those at (lit. “in”) the fire. And the Arabs say, “baarak Allaahu” (God bless), “baarak feehi” (blessings ‘in’ him) and “baarak ‘alaihi” (blessings on him) all with the same meaning.

وَقَالَ قَوْمٌ : الْبَرَكَةُ رَاجِعَةٌ إِلَى مُوسَى وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ ، مَعْنَاهُ : بُورِكَ فِي مَنْ طَلَبَ النَّارَ ، وَهُوَ مُوسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ ) ( وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ) وَهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ الَّذِينَ حَوْلَ النَّارِ ، وَمَعْنَاهُ : بُورِكَ فِيكَ يَا مُوسَى وَفِي الْمَلَائِكَةِ الَّذِينَ حَوْلَ النَّارِ ، وَهَذَا تَحِيَّةٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ – عَزَّ وَجَلَّ – لِمُوسَى بِالْبَرَكَةِ ، كَمَا حَيَّا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَى أَلْسِنَةِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ حِينَ دَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُوا : رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ . ـ

A people said, “the barakah (blessings) refers to Moosaa and the angels”, meaning blessings on the one who sought the fire, and that is Moosaa (‘alaihis salaam).

وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

Whoever is around it

and they are the angels who were around the fire, meaning ‘blessings on you, O Moosaa, and on the angels who were around the fire’, and this is a greeting of blessings from Allah to Moosaa, just as He greeted Ibrahim via the tongues of the angels when they entered upon him and said,

رَ‌حْمَتُ اللَّـهِ وَبَرَ‌كَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ

May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house [11:73] Continue reading

The Qur’an, the Tawrah and the Injeel: Tafsir ibn Kathir

The great mufassir Abu’l-Fidaa’ Ismaa’eel Ibn Kathir gave brief but clarifying definitions of some of the divinely-revealed scriptures in his famous tafsir when he wrote:

وكثيرا ما يقرن الله بين التوراة والقرآن ، كما في قوله تعالى ( قل من أنزل الكتاب الذي جاء به موسى نورا وهدى للناس ) إلى أن قال : ( وهذا كتاب أنزلناه مبارك ) [ الأنعام : 91 ، 92 ] ، ـ

Often times, Allah pairs (mention of) the Tawrah and the Qur’an, just as in His statement:

قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورً‌ا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَ‌اطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرً‌ا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّـهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْ‌هُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ * وَهَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَ‌كٌ

Say, “Who revealed the Scripture that Moosaa brought as light and guidance to the people? You [Jews] make it into pages, disclosing [some of] it and concealing much. And you were taught that which you knew not – neither you nor your fathers.” Say, “Allah [revealed it].” Then leave them in their [empty] discourse, amusing themselves. * And this is a Book which We have sent down, blessed… [6:91-92] 

وقال في آخر السورة : ( ثم آتينا موسى الكتاب تماما على الذي أحسن ) ، إلى أن قال : ( وهذا كتاب أنزلناه مبارك فاتبعوه واتقوا لعلكم ترحمون ) [ الأنعام : 155 ] ، وقالت الجن : ( إنا سمعنا كتابا أنزل من بعد موسى [ مصدقا لما بين يديه ] ) [ الأحقاف : 30 ] وقال ورقة بن نوفل : هذا الناموس الذي أنزل [ الله ] على موسى . ـ

And in another surah: Continue reading

Benefits from the Story of the Mother of Moosaa: Imam al-Sa’di

In his discussion of the story of Moosaa and the benefits derived from it, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di introduced first Moosaa and then summarized and clarified some of the issues related to the mother of Moosaa and the events which occurred during his infancy by writing:

قد ذكر الله لموسى بن عمران ومعه أخوه هارون عليهما السلام سيرة طويلة، وساق قصصه في مواضع من كتابه بأساليب متنوعة واختصار أو بسط يليق بذلك المقام، وليس في قصص القرآن أعظم من قصة موسى؛ لأنه عالج فرعون وجنوده، وعالج بني إسرائيل أشد المعالجة، وهو أعظم أنبياء بني إسرائيل، وشريعته وكتابه التوراة هو مرجع أنبياء بني إسرائيل وعلمائهم وأتباعه أكثر أتباع الأنبياء غير أمة محمد وله من القوة العظيمة في إقامة دين الله والدعوة إليه والغيرة العظيمة ما ليس لغيره ـ

Regarding Moosaa ibn ‘Imraan and along with him his brother Haaroon (‘alaihima al-salaam), Allah has mentioned a long biography, and put forth his stories in multiple places in His Book by various means, both summarized and extended according to what was appropriate for that place. And there is not among the stories of the Qur’an any one greater than the story of Moosaa, because it deals with Fir’awn and his troops, and it deals with the Banu Israa’eel in the most comprehensive treatment. He is the greatest of the prophets of Banu Israa’eel, and his sharee’ah and His Book – the Tawrah – is what the prophets and the scholars of Banu Israa’eel referred back to. And his followers are the most numerous among the prophets other than the ummah of Muhammad, and he had great strength in establishing the religion of Allah and calling to it, and he had great protective jealousy over it which no one else had.

وقد ولد في وقت قد اشتد فيه فرعون على بني إسرائيل: فكان يذبح كل مولود ذكر يولد من بني إسرائيل، ويستحيي النساء للخدمة والامتهان، فلما ولدته أمه خافت عليه خوفا شديدا؛ فإن فرعون جعل على بني إسرائيل من يرقب نساءهم ومواليدهم، وكان بيتها على ضفة نهر النيل فألهمها الله أن وضعت له تابوتا إذا خافت أحدا ألقته في اليم، وربطته بحبل لئلا تجري به جرية الماء، ومن لطف الله بها أنه أوحى لها أن لا تخافي ولا تحزني، إنا رادوه إليك، وجاعلوه من المرسلين. ـ

Moosaa was born in a time during which Fir’awn had created severe difficulties for the Banu Israa’eel; he used to slaughter every new-born male that was born to the Banu Israa’eel and let the women live for servitude and as a test for them. So when Moosaa’s mother gave birth to him, she felt extremely scared for his sake, for Fir’awn used to keep a close watch over their women and their newborns. The house of the mother of Moosaa was on the bank of the Nile river, so Allah inspired her to place Moosaa in a chest and to throw it into the water and she tied a rope to it lest it float away with the current of the water. And from the kindness of Allah towards her was that He inspired to her: Continue reading

The Nine Signs given to Moosaa: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In his tafsir of surah al-Israa, Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

قوله تعالى : ولقد آتينا موسى تسع آيات بينات

Allah’s statement:

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ تِسْعَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ

“And We had certainly given Moosaa nine clear signs” [17:101]

الآية . قال بعض أهل العلم : هذه الآيات التسع ، هي : العصا ، واليد ، والسنون ، والبحر ، والطوفان ، والجراد ، والقمل ، والضفادع ، والدم ، آيات مفصلات . ـ

Some of the people of knowledge said: these nine signs are the staff, the hand, famine, the sea, flooding, locusts, lice, frogs and blood as clear signs.

وقد بين جل وعلا هذه الآيات في مواضع أخر ; كقوله : فألقى عصاه فإذا هي ثعبان مبين ونزع يده فإذا هي بيضاء للناظرين [ 7 \ 107 – 108 ] ، وقوله : ولقد أخذنا آل فرعون بالسنين ونقص من الثمرات الآية [ 7 \ 130 ] ، وقوله : فأوحينا إلى موسى أن اضرب بعصاك البحر فانفلق فكان كل فرق كالطود العظيم [ 26 \ 63 ] وقوله : فأرسلنا عليهم الطوفان والجراد والقمل والضفادع والدم آيات مفصلات [ 7 \ 133 ] إلى غير ذلك من الآيات المبينة لما ذكرنا ، وجعل بعضهم الجبل بدل ” السنين ” وعليه فقد بين ذلك قوله تعالى : وإذ نتقنا الجبل فوقهم كأنه ظلة [ 7 \ 117 ] ، ونحوها من الآيات . ـ

And Allah has clarified these signs in other places, such as His statement: Continue reading

Appropriate Miracles for Each People and Era: Ibn Kathir

The great scholar and historian al-haafidh Abu’l-Fidaa’ Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir wrote the following point of benefit in his tafsir under his discussion of some of the miracles of ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary):

قال كثير من العلماء : بعث الله كل نبي من الأنبياء بمعجزة تناسب أهل زمانه ، فكان الغالب على زمان موسى ، عليه السلام ، السحر وتعظيم السحرة . فبعثه الله بمعجزة بهرت الأبصار وحيرت كل سحار ، فلما استيقنوا أنها من عند العظيم الجبار انقادوا للإسلام ، وصاروا من الأبرار .  ـ

Many of the scholars have said: Allah sent each one of the prophets with miracles which were befitting the people of their time. So what was predominant during the time of Moosaa (‘alaihi al-salaam) was sorcery and magnification of magicians, so Allah sent Moosaa with miracles which dazzled the sight and confounded every magician, so when they [the magicians] became certain that this was from al-‘Atheem al-Jabbaar (The Magnificent and Mighty), then they conformed to al-Islaam and they become amongst the most pious of people.

وأما عيسى ، عليه السلام ، فبعث في زمن الأطباء وأصحاب علم الطبيعة ، فجاءهم من الآيات بما لا سبيل لأحد إليه ، إلا أن يكون مؤيدا من الذي شرع الشريعة . فمن أين للطبيب قدرة على إحياء الجماد ، أو على مداواة الأكمه والأبرص ، وبعث من هو في قبره رهين إلى يوم التناد ؟ ـ

As for ‘Eesaa (‘alaihi al-salaam), then he was sent during an era of doctors and people studying the natural world, so he came to them with ayaat (signs, miracles) which no one could produce unless if he were aided by the One who legislated the divine legislation. For does the doctor have any power to give life to that which is inanimate, or to heal the blind or the leper, or to bring forth the one who was made subject unto the grave until the Day of Summoning?

وكذلك محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم بعثه [ الله ] في زمن الفصحاء والبلغاء ونحارير الشعراء ، فأتاهم بكتاب من الله ، عز وجل ، لو اجتمعت الإنس والجن على أن يأتوا بمثله ، أو بعشر سور من مثله ، أو بسورة من مثله لم يستطيعوا أبدا ، ولو كان بعضهم لبعض ظهيرا ، وما ذاك إلا لأن كلام الرب لا يشبهه كلام الخلق أبدا . ـ

And likewise with Muhammad (ﷺ) – Allah sent him during an era of articulate and eloquent speakers and excellent poets. So he came to them with a Book from Allah which even if mankind and Jinn-kind were to work together to bring about the likes of it, or even ten surahs like it, or even one surah like it – then would never be able to do that, even if there were aiding one another. And that is due to no other reason than that it is the Speech of the Lord which no speech of the creation will ever be able to resemble.

[Tafsir ibn Kathir 2/46]

See also: Tafsir al-Sa’di on the objective of revealing the Qur’an and its benefits

See also: The Prophet Muhammad is the fulfillment of Ibrahim’s du’a : Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: The story of ‘Eesaa, his mother, Zakariyyah and Yahya – Imam al-Sa’di

See also: And even if they see all the signs, they will not believe in them: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

See also: The Qur’an, the Tawrah and the Injeel: Tafsir ibn Kathir

“Remind them of the Days of Allah”: Tafsir al-Shawkaani

Allah says in surah Ibrahim:

وَلَقَدْ أَرْ‌سَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا أَنْ أَخْرِ‌جْ قَوْمَكَ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ‌ وَذَكِّرْ‌هُم بِأَيَّامِ اللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ‌ شَكُورٍ

And We certainly sent Moosaa with Our signs, [saying], “Bring out your people from darknesses into the light and remind them of the days of Allah.” Indeed in that are signs for everyone patient and grateful. [14:5]
Commenting on this, Imam al-Shawkaani wrote:
وذكرهم بأيام الله أي بوقائعه . ـ
‘And remind them of the days of Allah’ – meaning His events.
 –
قال ابن السكيت : العرب تقول الأيام في معنى الوقائع ، يقال فلان عالم بأيام العرب ، أي : بوقائعها . ـ
ibn al-Sakeet said:The Arabs says ‘days’ with the meaning of ‘events/happenings’.  One might say, ‘So-and-so is very knowledgeable of the days of the Arabs’ – meaning: of their happenings.
 –
وقال الزجاج ، أي : ذكرهم بنعم الله عليهم وبنقم أيام الله التي انتقم فيها من قوم نوح وعاد وثمود . ـ
And al-Zujaaj said: it means ‘remind them of the blessings of Allah upon them and of the punishment of the days of Allah which He inflicted upon the people of Nuh, ‘Aad and Thamood. Continue reading

The supplications of four prophets for or against their people: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah informs us in surah Ibrahim about the statement of His Khaleel Ibrahim:

فَمَن تَبِعَنِي فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي ۖ وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَإِنَّكَ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ

[Ibrahim said] “So whoever follows me – then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me – indeed, You are al-Ghafoor al-Raheem (Forgiving and Merciful).”

[al-Qur’an 14:36]

Commenting on this in his book of tafsir, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote:

بين تعالى في هذه الآية الكريمة أن نبيه إبراهيم قال : إن من تبعه فإنه منه ، وأنه رد أمر من لم يتبعه إلى مشيئة الله تعالى ، إن شاء الله غفر له ; لأنه هو الغفور الرحيم ، ـ

Allah clarified (some issues) about His prophet Ibrahim in this noble ayah – He said: Continue reading

We revealed to you as We revealed to those before you: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah, in surah al-Nisaa’, provides His slaves with some information about His revelations and messengers when He says:

‏‏إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَى وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُدَ زَبُورًا * وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا * رُسُلًا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Nuh and the prophets after him. And we revealed to Ibrahim, Ismaa’eel, Ishaaq, Ya’qoob, the Descendants, ‘Eesaa, Ayyub, Yunus, Haaroon, and Sulayman, and to Dawood We gave the Zaboor. And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you, – and to Moosaa Allah spoke directly. Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Ever Powerful, All­ Wise. [4:163-165]

Imam al-Sa’di, in his book of tafsir, wrote the following about these ayaat:

يخبر تعالى أنه أوحى إلى عبده ورسوله من الشرع العظيم والأخبار الصادقة ما أوحى إلى هؤلاء الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام وفي هذا عدة فوائد‏:‏

Allah informs His slaves that He has given Divine inspiration to His slave and messenger concerning the great legislation and information which is confirmed by what was divinely revealed to these prophets (‘alaihim al-salaatu w’al-salaam), and in this there are many benefits:

Continue reading