What is the minimum amount of time to complete reciting the Qur’an: Sheikh bin Baaz

Sheikh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn ‘Abdillah bin Baaz, the former mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was once asked the following question:

سؤال : ما أقل مدة يختم فيها القرآن؟

Question: What is the least amount of time in which one can complete his reading of the Qur’an?

جواب : ليس فيه حد محدود إلا أن الأفضل أن لا يقرأه في أقل من ثلاث كما في حديث عبد الله بن عمرو: ((لا يفقه من قرأه في أقل من ثلاث))، فالأفضل أن يتحرى في قراءته الخشوع والترتيل والتدبر، وليس المقصود العجلة، بل المقصود أن يستفيد . ـ

Response: There is no bottom limit for this except that what is best is to not recite the Qur’an in less than three days, as had come in the hadeeth of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, “Whoever recites the Qur’an in less than three days does not understand it.” So what is best is to aim to have khushoo’, measured recitation, and contemplation during one’s reading of the Qur’an. The goal is not to be speedy. Rather, the goal is to get something out of it. Continue reading

Can one take more than one month for reading the Qur’an with contemplation?: Sheikh bin Baaz

Sheikh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn ‘Abdillah bin Baaz, the former mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was once asked the following question:

سؤال :  كم يوماً يحتاج الإنسان إلى ختم القرآن بالفهم والتدبر، وهل إذا ختم الإنسان القرآن في شهرين يكون قد تأخر في قراءته؟ ـ

Question: How many days does a person need to complete reading the Qur’an if he is reading it with contemplation and understanding? And if a person completes the Qur’an over the course of two months, has he been slow in his reciting?

جواب :  النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال لعبد الله بن عمرو: (اقرؤه في شهر)، فلم يزل زدني يا رسول الله حتى قال: (اقرؤه في أسبوع)، ثم طلب الزيادة إلى ثلاث، وكان الصحابة يقرؤنه في الأسبوع، فالأفضل في الأسبوع، وإذا تيسر الثلاثة الأيام فلا بأس، لكن مع العناية بالتدبر، والتعقل والخشوع وإذا قرأ الإنسان القرآن في شهر أو شهرين فلا حرج لكن مع التدبر وإذا رتب القراءة كل شهر يقرأ كل يوم جزءاً، فهذا حسن كما قال النبي لعبد الله بن عمرو: (اقرأه كل شهر)، فإن الحسنة بعشر أمثالها، فالمقصود أن الإنسان يتحرى في قراءته الخشوع، والتدبر، والتعقل، والاستفادة سواء قرأه في شهر، أو شهرين، أو أقل، أو أكثر، لكن يكره أن يكون أقل من ثلاث، أقل شيء ثلاثة أيام، يقرأ في ثلاثة أيام ولياليها في كل يوم وليلة عشرة أجزاء هذا أقل ما ورد. ـ

Response: The Prophet (ﷺ) said to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, “Read it in one month”, but then ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr continued saying “I can read more, O Messenger of Allah”, until the Prophet said, “Read it in one week,” but then ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr sought to increase it to three days. And the Sahabah used to read the Qur’an once a week, and what is best is to recite it once a week, but then if it is easy for you to do that in three days, that is no problem. However this should be done with care given to contemplating the Qur’an, engaging with it, and having khushoo’. Continue reading

Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 1/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah begins surah al-Mu’minoon with 11 ayaat describing the qualities of the successful believers and their ultimate reward. Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee broke his tafsir of these ayaat into seven sections, which we have translated and will publish as a series over the coming weeks. al-Shinqitee started his explanation of this passage by discussing the first two ayaat, as follows:

قوله تعالى : قد أفلح المؤمنون الذين هم في صلاتهم خاشعون ، ذكر – جل وعلا – في هذه الآيات التي ابتدأ بها أول هذه السورة علامات المؤمنين المفلحين فقال قد أفلح المؤمنون [ 23 \ 1 ] أي : فازوا وظفروا بخير الدنيا والآخرة . وفلاح المؤمنين مذكور ذكرا كثيرا في القرآن ; كقوله وبشر المؤمنين بأن لهم من الله فضلا كبيرا [ 33 \ 47 ]  ـ

Allah’s statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ * الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ

Indeed the believers have succeeded * Those who are characterized by khushoo’ in their salaah [23:1-2]

In these ayaat which begin this surah, Allah mentioned the signs of the successful believers, for He said:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Indeed the believers have succeeded

meaning: they have succeeded and achieved good in both this life and in the hereafter. And the success of the believers mentioned here is mentioned frequently throughout the Qur’an, such as Allah’s statement:

وَبَشِّرِ‌ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّـهِ فَضْلًا كَبِيرً‌ا

And give good tidings to the believers that they will have a great bounty from Allah. [33:47] Continue reading

“Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah, Subhanahu wa ta’ala, says in His Book in surah al-‘Ankaboot:

اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ ۖ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ‌ ۗ وَلَذِكْرُ‌ اللَّـهِ أَكْبَرُ‌ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ

“Recite what has been revealed to you of the Book, and establish the prayer. Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and the remembrance of Allah is greater. And Allah knows that which you do.” [29:45]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di, in his tafsir, wrote:

يأمر تعالى بتلاوة وحيه وتنزيله، وهو هذا الكتاب العظيم، ومعنى تلاوته اتباعه، بامتثال ما يأمر به، واجتناب ما ينهى عنه، والاهتداء بهداه، وتصديق أخباره، وتدبر معانيه، وتلاوة ألفاظه، فصار تلاوة لفظه جزء المعنى وبعضه، وإذا كان هذا معنى تلاوة الكتاب، علم أن إقامة الدين كله، داخلة في تلاوة الكتاب‏.‏ فيكون قوله‏:‏ ‏(‏وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ)‏ من باب عطف الخاص على العام، لفضل الصلاة وشرفها، وآثارها الجميلة، وهي ‏(‏إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ‏)‏

Allah commands the recitation of His revelation, and that is this Great Book [the Qur’an]. And the meaning of reciting it is adhering to it, complying with what it commands, avoiding what it prohibits, being guided by its guidance, affirming its contents, pondering over its meanings, as well as reciting its words. So reciting its word is just one part of this meaning. So then if this is the meaning of “reciting the Qur’an”, then one should know that the establishment and enactment on the entire deen falls within the meaning of “reciting the Qur’an”.

So then His statement, “and establish the prayer” – is an example of mentioning something specific alongside something general. And this is due to the virtue and honor of the prayer, as well as its wonderful effects, which is that “Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing“.

والفحشاء‏:‏ كل ما استعظم واستفحش من المعاصي التي تشتهيها النفوس‏.‏

And immorality (fahshah) is every excessive and indecent act of disobedience which the lower self desires.

والمنكر‏:‏ كل معصية تنكرها العقول والفطر‏.‏

And wrongdoing (munkar) is every act of disobedience which the (functioning) intellect and natural inclination (fitrah) would prevent.

ووجه كون الصلاة تنهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر، أن العبد المقيم لها، المتمم لأركانها وشروطها وخشوعها، يستنير قلبه، ويتطهر فؤاده، ويزداد إيمانه، وتقوى رغبته في الخير، وتقل أو تعدم رغبته في الشر، فبالضرورة، مداومتها والمحافظة عليها على هذا الوجه، تنهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر، فهذا من أعظم مقاصدها وثمراتها‏.‏ وثَمَّ في الصلاة مقصود أعظم من هذا وأكبر، وهو ما اشتملت عليه من ذكر اللّه، بالقلب واللسان والبدن‏.‏ فإن اللّه تعالى، إنما خلق الخلق لعبادته، وأفضل عبادة تقع منهم الصلاة، وفيها من عبوديات الجوارح كلها، ما ليس في غيرها، ولهذا قال‏:‏ (وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ‏)‏

And the way that the prayer prevents one from immorality and wrongdoing is that he slave who establishes it – the one who fulfills its pillars and conditions and establishes it with khushoo’ – then it illuminates and purifies his heart, and increases his eemaan, and increases his taqwa and his desire to do good, as well as decreasing or even eliminating his desire to do evil. And it necessarily follows that it also increases his persistence and regularity of these good qualities -which prohibit him from immorality and wrongdoing- and this is one of the greatest objectives and fruits of the prayer.

But there is an even greater objectives of the prayer, which is what it involves of the remembrance of Allah, with the heart, tongue and body. For Allah only created the creation for the purpose of His worship, and the best form of worship is the prayer, for therein all the limbs are engaged in worship, and this is not found in other forms of worship, and on this subject He said, “and the remembrance of Allah is greater“.

ويحتمل أنه لما أمر بالصلاة ومدحها، أخبر أن ذكره تعالى خارج الصلاة أكبر من الصلاة، كما هو قول جمهور المفسرين، لكن الأول أولى، لأن الصلاة أفضل من الذكر خارجها، ولأنها – كما تقدم – بنفسها من أكبر الذكر‏.‏

But this ayah could also be interpreted to mean that when Allah commanded the performance of the prayer and lauded it, He also informed us that the remembrance of Him outside of the prayer is greater than the prayer itself, as is the position of the majority of the mufassiroon. However, what I mentioned first is more correct, because the prayer is more virtuous than remembrance outside of the prayer. And that is because, as we have mentioned elsewhere, the prayer itself is one of the greatest forms of remembrance.

‏(‏وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ)‏ من خير وشر، فيجازيكم على ذلك أكمل الجزاء وأوفاه‏.‏

And Allah knows that which you do” of good and evil. And He will reward you for that with the most complete fulfillment and recompense.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahmanp. 632]

For more on the importance and benefits of al-salaah, see also: The first deed to be reckoned

See also: “Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.”: Imam al-Qurtubi’s tafsir of 7:55

See also: The outcomes of Taqwa and truthful speech: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: “Indeed the patient will be given their reward without measure”

See also: Performing the Prayers in their Proper Times: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Du’a or Dhikr after the Salaah?: Ibn Taymiyah

The first deed to be reckoned

Huraith ibn Qabeesah narrates that “I arrived in Al-Madinah and said: ‘O Allah! Facilitate me to be in a righteous gathering.'” He said: “I sat with Abu Hurayrah and said: ‘Indeed I asked Allah to provide me with a righteous gathering. So narrate a hadith to me which you heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) so that perhaps Allah would cause me to benefit from it.’ He said: ‘I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) say:

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ صَلاَتُهُ فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ فَقَدْ أَفْلَحَ وَأَنْجَحَ وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَقَدْ خَابَ وَخَسِرَ فَإِنِ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ فَرِيضَتِهِ شَيْءٌ قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ انْظُرُوا هَلْ لِعَبْدِي مِنْ تَطَوُّعٍ فَيُكَمَّلَ بِهَا مَا انْتَقَصَ مِنَ الْفَرِيضَةِ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ

Indeed the first deed by which a servant will be called to account on the Day of Resurrection is his Salaat. If it is complete, then he is successful and saved, but if it is defective, then he has failed and lost. So if something is deficient in his obligatory prayers then the Lord, Mighty and Sublime says: ‘Look! Are there any voluntary prayers for my worshipper?’ So with them, what was deficient in his obligatory prayers will be completed. Then the rest of his deeds will be treated like that.

[al-Tirmidhi #413, saheeh]

Imam al-Mubarakfoori writes in Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, his explanation of Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, about this hadith:

قوله : ” إن أول ما يحاسب به العبد ” بالرفع على نيابة الفاعل ” يوم القيامة من عمله صلاته ” أي المفروضة . قال العراقي في شرح الترمذي : لا تعارض بينه وبين الحديث الصحيح : إن أول ما يقضى بين الناس يوم القيامة في الدماء . فحديث الباب محمول على حق الله تعالى ، وحديث الصحيح محمول على حقوق الآدميين فيما بينهم . فإن قيل : فأيهما يقدم محاسبة العباد على حق الله أو محاسبتهم على حقوقهم ، فالجواب أن هذا أمر توقيفي ، وظواهر الأحاديث دالة على أن الذي يقع أولا المحاسبة على حقوق الله تعالى قبل حقوق العباد ، انتهى . وقيل الأول من ترك العبادات والثاني من فعل السيئات

His statement, “indeed the first deed by which a servant will be called to account on the Day of Resurrection is his Salaat” – meaning the obligatory ones. Al-Iraaqi said in his explanation of al-Tirmidhi, “There is no contradiction between this hadith and the aunthentic hadith “The first matter concerning which scores will be settled among the people on the Day of Resurrection will be bloodshed.” For this hadith is concerning the rights of Allah, and the other authentic hadith is concerning the rights between human beings. And if it is said, “So which of these two comes first, the accounting of the slaves for the rights of Allah, or their accounting for their mutual rights?” Then the answer is that this is a matter of revelation, and the clear hadiths show that that which occurs first is the reckoning for the rights due to Allah, the Exalted. And it is said first comes the abandoning of ‘ibaadaat and second comes the performing of sins.

  ” فإن صلحت ” بضم اللام وفتحها ، قال ابن الملك : صلاحها بأدائها صحيحة ” فقد أفلح وأنجح ” الفلاح الفوز والظفر ، والإنجاح بتقديم الجيم على الحاء يقال أنجح فلان إذا أصاب مطلوبه . قال القاري في المرقاة : فقد أفلح أي فاز بمقصوده ، وأنجح أي ظفر بمطلوبه فيكون فيه تأكيد ، وفاز بمعنى خلص من العقاب ، وأنجح أي حصل له الثواب

If it is complete” – Ibn Maalik said, “complete by its correct performance” – “then he is successful and saved“. ‘Successful’ means victorious and triumphant, and ‘Saved’ – it is said that so-and-so is saved when he gets what he seeks. Al-Qaari said in al-Mirqaah “‘he is successful’ meaning he has achieved his objectives, and ‘saved’ meaning he has won what he sought so in that he is assured. And ‘successful’ has the meaning of safe from punishment, and ‘saved’ means he got his reward.”

” وإن فسدت ” بأن لم تؤد أو أديت غير صحيحة أو غير مقبولة ” فقد خاب ” بحرمان المثوبة ” وخسر ” بوقوع العقوبة ، وقيل معنى خاب ندم وخسر أي صار محروما من الفوز والخلاص قبل العذاب  .

But if it is defective” because he did not perform them or he did not perform them correctly or they are otherwise unacceptable “then he has failed” being deprived of the reward “and lost” by incurring punishment. And it is said that the meaning of ‘failed’ is regret and loss – meaning the he became deprived of success and sincerity before punishment.

” فإن انتقص ” بمعنى نقص المتعدي ” شيئا ” أي من الفرائض ” هل لعبدي من تطوع ” أي في صحيفته سنة أو نافلة من صلاة على ما هو ظاهر من السياق قبل الفرض أو بعده أو مطلقا

“So if there is a deficiency” meaning something is lacking “of something” – meaning from the obligatory salaat. Look! Are there any voluntary prayers for my worshipper?” – meaning in the record of his sunnah or naafilah (optional) prayers according to what is apparent from the context either before the obligatory prayer, or after it, or in general.

” فيكمل ” بالتشديد ويخفف على بناء الفاعل أو المفعول وهو الأظهر وبالنصب ويرفع قاله القاري ” بها ” قال ابن الملك : أي بالتطوع وتأنيث الضمير باعتبار النافلة . وقال الطيبي : الظاهر نصب فيكمل على أنه من كلام الله تعالى جوابا للاستفهام ، ويؤيده رواية أحمد فكملوا بها فريضته ، وإنما أنث ضمير التطوع في بها نظرا إلى الصلاة  .

So it will be completed with them“. Ibn Maalik said, “meaning with the optional prayers.” [Some portions of the text deal with the Arabic grammar and hence will be excluded from this translation]

” ما انتقص من الفريضة ” فهو متعد قال العراقي في شرح الترمذي : يحتمل أن يراد به ما انتقصه من السنن والهيئات المشروعة فيها من الخشوع والأذكار والأدعية ، وأنه يحصل له ثواب ذلك في الفريضة وإن لم يفعله فيها ، وإنما فعله في التطوع ، ويحتمل أن يراد به ما انتقص أيضا من فروضها وشروطها ، ويحتمل أن يراد ما ترك من الفرائض رأسا فلم يصله فيعوض عنه من التطوع . والله سبحانه وتعالى يقبل من التطوعات الصحيحة عوضا عن الصلوات المفروضة ، انتهى

What was deficient in his obligatory [prayers]“. Al-Iraaqi said in his explanation of al-Tirmidhi:

Perhaps what is meant by that is what is deficient in terms of the sunan and legislated matters of it, such as al-khushoo’ and dhikr and supplications, and that he still gets rewarded for the obligatory prayers even if he doesn’t do these things therein, and only does them during the optional prayers. And perhaps what is intended by that is also deficiencies in the core part and pillars of the prayer, and perhaps what it is intended is the abandonment of the principle obligations, so he does not pray them, in which case he would not be compensated for that deficiency by his optional prayers. And Allah, High and Exalted is He, accepts from the correct optional prayers as compensation for the obligatory prayers.

 وقال ابن العربي : يحتمل أن يكون يكمل له ما نقص من فرض الصلاة وأعدادها بفضل التطوع ، ويحتمل ما نقصه من الخشوع والأول عندي أظهر لقوله ، ثم الزكاة كذلك وسائر الأعمال ، وليس في الزكاة إلا فرض أو فضل فكما يكمل فرض الزكاة بفضلها كذلك الصلاة وفضل الله أوسع ووعده أنفذ وعزمه أعم ، انتهى  .

And ibn al-‘Arabi said,

Perhaps what is meant is to complete what is lacking from the obligatory prayers and their numbers by virtue of the optional prayers, and perhaps what is meant is the lack of al-khushoo’ and to me that is what is most clear from his statement [in another narration ] “then the zakaat and so on for the remaining deeds,” for there is nothing of zakaat except for what is obligatory or what is extra, so just as the obligatory zakaat is perfected by giving extra, so it is with the salaah. And Allah gives the most expansive blessing and His promise is the most able to be fulfilled and His decision is the most encompassing.

”  ثم يكون سائر عمله على ذلك ” أي إن انتقص فريضة من سائر الأعمال تكمل من التطوع

Then the rest of his deeds will be treated like that” – meaning if there are deficiencies in the obligations from the remaining deeds, they will be completed by the optional deeds.

[Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi]

For more on the importance and benefits of al-salaah, see also: “Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Reserve a part of your prayer for the house

See also: Do not make your houses like graves: Sharh al-Nawawi

“Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.”: Imam al-Qurtubi’s tafsir of 7:55

Allah says in His Book:

ادْعُوا رَ‌بَّكُمْ تَضَرُّ‌عًا وَخُفْيَةً ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ

“Call upon your Lord in humility and privately; indeed, He does not like transgressors.” [7:55]

Imam al-Qurtubi, in his tafsir of this ayah, writes:

قوله تعالى ‏(‏ادعوا ربكم‏)‏ هذا أمر بالدعاء وتعبد به‏.‏ ثم قرن جل وعز بالأمر صفات تحسن معه، وهي الخشوع والاستكانة والتضرع‏.‏ ومعنى (‏خفية‏)‏ أي سرا في النفس ليبعد عن الرياء؛ وبذلك أثنى على نبيه زكريا عليه السلام إذ قال مخبرا عنه‏ (‏إذ نادى ربه نداء خفيا‏) [‏مريم‏:‏ 3‏]‏‏.‏ ونحوه قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ ‏(‏خير الذكر الخفي وخير الرزق ما يكفي‏)‏‏.‏ والشريعة مقررة أن السر فيما لم يعترض من أعمال البر أعظم أجرا من الجهر‏.‏ قال الحسن بن أبي الحسن‏:‏ لقد أدركنا أقواما ما كان على الأرض عمل يقدرون على أن يكون سرا فيكون جهرا أبدا‏.‏ ولقد كان المسلمون يجتهدون في الدعاء فلا يسمع لهم صوت، إن هو إلا الهمس بينهم وبين ربهم‏.‏ وذلك أن الله تعالى يقول‏{‏ادعوا ربكم تضرعا وخفية‏}‏‏.‏ وذكر عبدا صالحا رضي فعله فقال‏ (‏إذ نادى ربه نداء خفيا‏) [‏مريم‏:‏ 3‏]‏‏.‏ وقد استدل أصحاب أبي حنيفة بهذا على أن إخفاء (‏آمين‏)‏ أولى من الجهر بها؛ لأنه دعاء‏.‏ وقد مضى القول فيه في ‏(‏الفاتحة‏)‏‏.‏ وروى مسلم عن أبي موسى قال‏:‏ كنا مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في سفر – وفي رواية في غزاة – فجعل الناس يجهرون بالتكبير – وفي رواية فجعل رجل كلما علا ثنية قال‏:‏ لا إله إلا الله – فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ ‏(‏أيها الناس أربعوا على أنفسكم إنكم لستم تدعون أصم ولا غائبا إنكم تدعون سميعا قريبا وهو معكم‏)‏‏.‏ الحديث‏.‏

Allah’s statement “Call upon your Lord” is a command to supplicate and worship Him. Then Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, combines this command with a description of the characteristics which perfect it, and these are khushoo’, tranquility, and humility. And the meaning of “privately” is to hide it in one’s self in order to stay away from al-riyaa’ (showing off). And Allah commended His prophet Zakariyya (‘alaihis salaam) for that when he informed us, “When he called out his Lord a call in secret” [19:3]. And the companions of Abu Haneefah have used this as evidence to make the “aameen” in surah al-Faatihah silent rather than out loud, since this is a du’a. And this has already been discusses in the tafsir of surah al-Faatihah. And Muslim narrates that Abu Moosaa said,

We accompanied the Prophet (ﷺ) on a journey – in another narration ‘a battle’ – and when we climbed up a height, we proclaimed aloud: “La ilaha illallah” and “Allahu Akbar.” The Prophet (ﷺ) admonished us saying, “O people, take it easy on yourselves. He Whom you are calling is not deaf or absent. He is with you (i.e., by His Knowledge), He is Hearing and He is Near.”

 واختلف العلماء في رفع اليدين في الدعاء؛ فكرهه طائفة منهم جبير بن مطعم وسعيد بن المسيب وسعيد بن جبير‏.‏ ورأى شريح رجلا رافعا يديه فقال‏:‏ من تتناول بهما، لا أم لك‏!‏ وقال مسروق لقوم رفعوا أيديهم‏:‏ قطعها الله‏.‏ واختاروا إذا دعا الله في حاجة أن يشير بأصبعه السبابة‏.‏ ويقولون‏:‏ ذلك الإخلاص‏.‏ وكان قتادة يشير بأصبعه ولا يرفع يديه‏.‏ وكره رفع الأيدي عطاء وطاوس ومجاهد وغيرهم‏.‏ وروى جواز الرفع عن جماعة من الصحابة والتابعين، وروي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم؛ ذكره البخاري‏.‏ قال أبو موسى الأشعري‏:‏ دعا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثم رفع يديه ورأيت بياض إبطيه‏.‏ ومثله عن أنس‏.‏ وقال ابن عمر‏:‏ رفع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يديه وقال‏:‏ ‏(‏اللهم إني أبرأ إليك مما صنع خالد‏)‏‏.‏ وفي صحيح مسلم من حديث عمر بن الخطاب قال‏:‏ لما كان يوم بدر نظر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى المشركين، وهم ألف وأصحابه ثلثمائة وسبعة عشر رجلا، فاستقبل نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم القبلة مادا يديه، فجعل يهتف بربه؛ وذكر الحديث‏.‏ وروى الترمذي عنه قال‏:‏ كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا رفع يديه لم يحطهما حتى يمسح بهما وجهه‏.‏ قال‏:‏ هذا حديث صحيح غريب‏.‏ وروى ابن ماجة عن سلمان عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ ‏(‏إن ربكم حيي كريم يستحيي من عبده أن يرفع يديه إليه فيردهما صفرا أو قال خائبتين‏)‏‏.‏ احتج الأولون بما رواه مسلم عن عمارة بن رويبة ورأى بشر بن مروان على المنبر رافعا يديه فقال‏:‏ قبح الله هاتين اليدين، لقد رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما يزيد على أن يقول بيده هكذا؛ وأشار بأصبعه المسبحة‏.‏ وبما روى سعيد بن أبي عروبة عن قتادة أن أنس بن مالك حدثه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان لا يرفع يديه في شيء من الدعاء إلا عند الاستسقاء فإنه كان يرفعهما حتى يرى بياض إبطيه‏.‏ والأول أصح طرقا وأثبت من حديث سعيد بن أبي عروبة؛ فإن سعيدا كان قد تغير عقله في آخر عمره‏.‏ وقد خالفه شعبة في روايته عن قتادة عن أنس بن مالك فقال فيه‏:‏ كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرفع يديه حتى يرى بياض إبطيه‏.‏ وقد قيل‏:‏ إنه إذا نزلت بالمسلمين نازلة أن الرفع عند ذلك جميل حسن كما فعل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الاستسقاء ويوم بدر‏.‏

And there is a difference of opinion among the scholars about raising the hands in du’a. There is a group which dislikes it including Jubair ibn Mut’am, Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyid, and Sa’eed ibn Jubair. Shuraih saw a man raising his hands so he rebuked him. And Masrouq said to a group of people who were raising their hands, “May Allah cut them off!” And some choose to point their index finger when they supplicate to Allah in need, and they said, “This is ikhlaas (sincerity or devotion)”. And Qataada pointed with his finger and did not raise his hands. And ‘Ataa’ and Taawoos and Mujaahid and others all disliked raising the hands (in du’a).

And the permissibility of raising the hand is narrated from a group of the Sahaabah and Taabi’een, and it is narrated from the Prophet (ﷺ) , as mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari. Abu Moosaa al-‘Ashari said, “The Prophet (ﷺ) supplicated then raised his hands and I saw the whiteness of his armpits”. And similarly from Anas, “The Prophet (ﷺ) raised his hand and said, “O Allah, verily I am free from Khalid has done”. And in Sahih Muslim in the hadith of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab he said:

When it was the day on which the Battle of Badr was fought, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) cast a glance at the mushrikoon, and they were one thousand while his own Companions were three hundred and nineteen. The Prophet (ﷺ) turned (his face) towards the Qibla Then he stretched his hands and began his supplication to his Lord…

And al-Tirmidhi narrated that, “Whenever the Messenger of Allah would raise his hands in supplication, he would not lower them until he had wiped his face with them,” and he said, “This is a sahih gharib hadith. And Ibn Maajah narrates from Salman that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Your Lord is Kind and Most Generous, and is too kind to let His slave, if he raises his hands to Him, bring them back empty,” or he said “frustrated.”

And objections of the early generations have been related by Muslim from ‘Amaara bin Ruwaibah, who narrated that “Bashir bin Marwan was on the minbar and he raised his hands, so Bashir said, ‘May Allah curse these two hands, for I saw the Messenger of Allah do what was better than what you say with your hands’ and he pointed with his finger.” And Sa’eed ibn Abi ‘Aroobah narrated from Qataadah from Anas ibn Maalik that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) would not raise his hands for anydu’a except for al-istiqaa’ (praying for rain), and for this he raised his hands until you could see the whiteness of his armpits.

And the most authentic way and most confirmed is the hadith of Sa’eed ibn Abi ‘Aroobah, for Sa’eed had changed his mind latter in life. And there is some slightly different part of his narration from Qataadah from Anas ibn Maalik in which he said, “The Messenger of Allah raised his hands until you could see the whiteness of his armpits.” And it is said, “if the Muslims have narrated an event about the raising of hands, then that is good and fine just as the Prophet (ﷺ) did this while making al-istiqaa’ and on the day of Badr.”

قلت‏:‏ والدعاء حسن كيفما تيسر، وهو المطلوب من الإنسان لإظهار موضع الفقر والحاجة إلى الله عز وجل، والتذلل له والخضوع‏.‏ فإن شاء استقبل القبلة ورفع يديه فحسن، وإن شاء فلا؛ فقد فعل ذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حسبما ورد في الأحاديث‏.‏ وقد قال تعالى‏ (‏ادعوا ربكم تضرعا وخفية) [‏الأعراف‏:‏ 55‏]‏‏.‏ ولم يرد صفة من رفع دين وغيرها‏.‏ وقال (‏الذين يذكرون الله قياما وقعودا) ‏[آل عمران‏:‏ 191‏]‏ فمدحهم ولم يشترط حالة غير ما ذكر‏.‏ وقد دعا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في خطبته يوم الجمعة وهو غير مستقبل القبلة‏.‏

I [Imam al-Qurtubi] say: The du’a is good in whatever form is made easy, and what is sought from mankind is to demonstrate a position of poverty and need before Allah ‘Azza wa Jal, and to humble oneself in submission to Him. So if one wishes to face the Qiblah and raise the hands, then fine. And if one does not wish to do so, then he has done what is reported of the Prophet (ﷺ) in the ahaadith. And Allah has said, “call upon your Lord in humility and privately“. And raising the hands or other things were not intended by that. And He said, “those who remember Allah standing and sitting” [3:191] – so he commended them and did not stipulate their condition other than what was mentioned. And the Prophet (ﷺ) would make du’a in his khutbah on Fridays and he was not facing the Qiblah.

قوله تعالى‏ (‏إنه لا يحب المعتدين)‏ يريد في الدعاء وإن كان اللفظ عاما إلى هذا هي الإشارة‏.‏ والمعتدي هو المجاوز للحد ومرتكب الحظر‏.‏ وقد يتفاضل بحسب ما اعتدى فيه‏.‏ وروي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال‏:‏ ‏(‏سيكون قوم يعتدون في الدعاء‏)‏‏.‏ أخرجه ابن ماجة عن أبي بكر بن أبي شيبة‏.‏ حدثنا عفان حدثنا حماد بن سلمة أخبرنا سعيد الجريري عن أبي نعامة أن عبدالله بن مغفل سمع ابنه يقول‏:‏ اللهم إني أسألك القصر الأبيض عن يمين الجنة إذا دخلتها‏.‏ فقال‏:‏ أي بني، سل الله الجنة وعذ به من النار؛ فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول‏:‏ ‏(‏سيكون قوم يعتدون في الدعاء‏)‏‏.‏ والاعتداء في الدعاء على وجوه‏:‏ منها الجهر الكثير والصياح؛ كما تقدم‏.‏ ومنها أن يدعو الإنسان في أن تكون له منزلة نبي، أو يدعو في محال؛ ونحو هذا من الشطط‏.‏ ومنها أن يدعو طالبا معصية وغير ذلك‏.‏ ومنها أن يدعو بما ليس في الكتاب والسنة؛ فيتخير ألفاظا مفقرة وكلمات مسجعة قد وجدها في كراريس لا أصل لها ولا معول عليها، فيجعلها شعاره ويترك ما دعا به رسوله عليه السلام‏.‏ وكل هذا يمنع من استجابة الدعاء، كما تقدم بيانه في ‏[‏البقرة‏]‏‏.‏

Allah’s statement “indeed, He does not like transgressors” – meaning in making du’a and if the language here is general in this, then that should be taken as a sign. And the transgressor is the one who exceeds the limits and commits the prohibited actions. And he has gone to excess to the extent that he transgresses therein. And it has been narrated that Prophet (ﷺ) said, “There will be a people who transgress in du’a.” This in Ibn Maajah from Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah:

‘Abdullah bin Mughaffal heard his son say:”O Allah, I ask You for the white palace on the right-hand side of Paradise, when I enter it.” He said: “O my son, ask Allah for Paradise and seek refuge with Him from Hell, for I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: ‘There will be people who will transgress in supplication.'”

And transgression in du’a includes: broadcasting it loudly or shouting, as has been mentioned above. And it includes a man making du’a to be given the station of a prophet, or place, and this is going to extremes. And included therein is to make du’a seeking disobedience and so on. And included therein is to make du’a which is not in the Qur’an or Sunnah, such that he opts for the poor wordings and rhyming statements which he found in small booklets which have no basis or reliability to them. So he makes those catchy phrases his own and abandons the supplications of his Messenger (ﷺ). And all of these things prevent a response to the supplications, as has been mentioned previously in surah al-Baqarah.

[Jaami’ li-Ahkaam al-Qur’an 7/202-205]

See also: “When My slaves ask you about me, Indeed I am near”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: “So remember Me; I will remember you. And be grateful to Me and do not deny Me”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Du’a or Dhikr after Salaah?: Ibn Taymiyah