Moosaa, Muhammad & Adam – the Messengers to whom Allah spoke: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In the latter part of surah al-Baqarah, Allah informs us:

تِلْكَ الرُّ‌سُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَرَ‌فَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَ‌جَاتٍ

Those Messengers! We preferred some to others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree [2:253]

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee commented at length on the contents of this ayah in his book of tafsir. What follows is the first of three sections in which he discussed the messengers to whom He spoke:

قوله تعالى : تلك الرسل فضلنا بعضهم على بعض منهم من كلم الله ورفع بعضهم درجات ، لم يبين هنا هذا الذي كلمه الله منهم وقد بين أن منهم موسى عليه وعلى نبينا الصلاة والسلام بقوله : وكلم الله موسى تكليما [ 4 \ 164 ] ، وقوله : إني اصطفيتك على الناس برسالاتي وبكلامي [ 7 \ 144 ] . ـ

Allah’s statement:

تِلْكَ الرُّ‌سُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَرَ‌فَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَ‌جَاتٍ

Those Messengers! We preferred some to others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree [2:253]

Allah does not clarify here those of them to whom He spoke, but He did explain that among them was Moosaa (peace and blessings upon him and upon our prophet) by means of His statement:

وَكَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا

And Allah spoke to Moses with [direct] speech. [4:164]

And His statement [to Moosaa]:

إِنِّي اصْطَفَيْتُكَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِرِ‌سَالَاتِي وَبِكَلَامِي

I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My words [to you]. [7:144]

قال ابن كثير : منهم من كلم الله ، يعني موسى ومحمدا صلى الله عليهما وسلم ، وكذلك آدم كما ورد في الحديث المروي في ” صحيح ابن حبان ” عن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه . ـ

Ibn Kathir said: Continue reading

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A Principle to Dispel Specious Arguments and Doubts: Imam al-Sa’di

In surah Aali ‘Imran, Allah devotes some eighty-odd ayaat to addressing the Christians, disproving their ways, and calling them to the truth. In part of this section He says:

إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَىٰ عِندَ اللَّـهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ ۖ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَ‌ابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ * الْحَقُّ مِن رَّ‌بِّكَ فَلَا تَكُن مِّنَ الْمُمْتَرِ‌ينَ

Indeed, the example of  ‘Eesaa (Jesus) to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, “Be,” and he was. * The truth is from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters. [3:59-60]

Commenting on this in his famous book tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote:

يخبر تعالى محتجا على النصارى الزاعمين بعيسى عليه السلام ما ليس له بحق، بغير برهان ولا شبهة، بل بزعمهم أنه ليس له والد استحق بذلك أن يكون ابن الله أو شريكا لله في الربوبية، وهذا ليس بشبهة فضلا أن يكون حجة، لأن خلقه كذلك من آيات الله الدالة على تفرد الله بالخلق والتدبير وأن جميع الأسباب طوع مشيئته وتبع لإرادته، فهو على نقيض قولهم أدل، وعلى أن أحدا لا يستحق المشاركة لله بوجه من الوجوه أولى، ـ

Allah informs us by way of objecting to the Christians who make claims – with neither conclusive proofs nor (even) substantial doubts – about ‘Eesaa (‘alaihi al-salaam) which contain no truth. Rather, according to their assertion, because of the fact that he does not have a father, then this requires that he is the son of Allah or a partner with Allah in terms of lordship. But this is not a substantial doubt – much less a conclusive proof – because his being created in that way is one of the demonstrative signs of Allah’s exclusive role in creation and administration and that all of the causative factors are subject to His will and submissive to His wishes. So this is fully exposing the deficiency of their claim and proving that no one is deserving of partnership with Allah in any way at all. Continue reading

“Those of determination among the messengers”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his tafsir:

قوله – تعالى – : فاصبر كما صبر أولوا العزم من الرسل . اختلف العلماء في المراد بأولي العزم من الرسل في هذه الآية الكريمة اختلافا كثيرا . ـ

Allah said:

فَاصْبِرْ‌ كَمَا صَبَرَ‌ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّ‌سُلِ

So exercise sabr, (O Muhammad), as did those of determination among the messengers [46:35]

The scholars have differed greatly concerning the intended meaning of ‘those of determination’ [uloo al-‘azm] among the messengers in this noble ayah.

وأشهر الأقوال في ذلك أنهم خمسة ، وهم الذين قدمنا ذكرهم في ” الأحزاب ” و ” الشورى ” ، وهم نوح وإبراهيم وموسى وعيسى ومحمد – عليهم الصلاة والسلام – . ـ

And the most well-known position in this matter is that they are five, and they are those who were previously mentioned in surah al-Ahzab [33:7] and surah al-Shooraa [42:13], who are Nuh, Ibrahim, Moosaa, ‘Eesaa and Muhammad (‘alaihim al-salaatu wa’l-salaam).

وعلى هذا القول فالرسل الذين أمر رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أن يصبر كما صبروا – أربعة ، فصار هو – صلى الله عليه وسلم – خامسهم . ـ

So according to this position, then the messengers which the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was commanded to exercise sabr as they has exercised sabr were four, so he (ﷺ) became their fifth. Continue reading

“A donation is not to be compared to a bribe”: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

Abu’l-Faraj Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, in part of a longer discussion on repentance, wrote the following insightful words on a great difference between our father Adam (‘alaihis salaam) and the Shaytaan.

سبحان من إذا لطف بعبده في المحن قلبها منحاً, وإذا خذل عبداً لم ينفعه كثرة اجتهاده, وعاد عليه وبالا. لُقِّنَ آدم حجَّتَه وأُلقي إليه ما تُتَقبَّلُ به توبته : ( فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّ‌بِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ).

Exalted is He who, if He is kind to His slave in tribulation He bestows a blessing upon his heart, and if He abandons a slave, then no large amount of effort will be of benefit to him, and this effort will turn upon him [i.e. he will be punished for his misguided efforts]. Adam was inspired with his plea and received what would lead to the acceptance of his tawbah (repentance), “Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance.” [2:37]

وطرد إبليس بعد طول خدمته فصار عمله هباء منثورا (قَالَ فَاخْرُ‌جْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّكَ رَ‌جِيمٌ  وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكَ اللَّعْنَةَ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ). إذا وضع عدله على عبد لم تبق له حسنة, وإذا بسط فضله على عبد لم تبق له سيئة

يُعْطِي وَيَمْنَعُ من يشاء كما يَشَا     وهِباتُهُ لَيْسَتْ تُقارِنُها الرُّشا

And Iblees was expelled (from Jannah) after he prolonged his dispute, so his deeds all came to nothing, “[Allah] said, ‘Then get out of it, for indeed, you are expelled. And indeed, upon you is the curse until the Day of Recompense.” [14:34-35]. When Allah executes His justice on a slave, then no good remains for him, and when He extends His favor to a slave, then no sins remain for him.  

Allah gives and withholds to whom He wills, as He wills
And a donation is not to be compared to a bribe

[Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif pg. 123]

See also: “All of you are astray except whomever I guide”: Explanation of Ibn Rajab

See also: Allah created His creation in darkness: Sharh al-Mubaarakfoori

See also: The purpose of Allah’s creation: Imam al-Shinqitee

The difference between sincere advising and shaming: Ibn Rajab

al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, in his monograph al-Farq bain al-Naseehah w’al-Ta’eer, devotes one section to the topic of “On the Difference between advising about one’s short-comings in order to return from that, and rebuking and scolding for one’s sins.” It reads as follows:

ومن هذا الباب أن يقال للرجل في وجهه ما يكرهه فإن كان هذا على وجه النصح فهو حسن وقد قال بعض السلف لبعض إخوانه: لا تنصحني حتى تقول في وجهي ما أكره.

And from this is that one would tell a man something that he disliked to his face, and if that was with the purpose of sincerely advising him, then that is good. And one of the Salaf said to his brother, “Do not advise me until you can say something to my face which I dislike.”

فإذا أخبر أحد أخاه بعيب ليجتنبه كان ذلك حسناً لمن أُخبر بعيب من عيوبه أن يعتذر منها إن كان له منها عذر وإن كان ذلك على وجه التوبيخ بالذنب فهو قبح مذموم.

Then if one of his brothers informs him of a short-coming in order for him to avoid it, then that is good for the one who was informed of one of his short-comings so that he can be wary of it, if it served as a warning for him. And if that [advising] was with the purpose of rebuking him for his sin, then that is distasteful and blameworthy.

وقيل لبعض السلف: أتحبُّ أن يخبرك أحد بعيوبك؟ فقال: إن كان يريد أن يوبخني فلا.

And it was said to one of the salaf, “Would you like for someone to inform you of your short-comings?” So he replied, “If he wanted to reprimand me, then no.” Continue reading

If Adam was expelled from Jannah for a single sin, then what about you?

Abu’l-Faraj Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, the famous muhaddith, haafidh and Faqeeh, wrote the following moving words in his book Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif concerning the great seriousness of one’s sins. He wrote:

قال بعض السلف : آدم أُخرج من الجنة بذنب واحدٍ, وأنتم تعملون الذنوب وتُكثرون منها, وتُريدون أن تدخلوا بها الجنة

Some of the salaf said, “Adam was expelled from Jannah for a single sin, and you perform many sins and outstrip that in number, and (yet) you want to be entered into Jannah with that?!”

تصـل الذنـوب إلى الذنــوب وترتجي     درج الجـنـــان بـهــا وفوز العــــابــد
ونــــســـيـــت أنّ الله أخــــرج آدمــاً      منهـــا إلــى الــدنيــا بـــذنـب واحــدِ

Moving from sin to sin and still you hope
for a rank in Paradise and the success like that of a devoted worshiper.

But you forgot that Allah expelled Adam
from there to the dunya for a single sin.

بــفــرد خــطيئــةٍ وبــفــرد ذنــب     من الجنـــات أُخـــرجت البــرايـا
فقـل لي كيف تــرجــو في ذخـول     إليهـــا بــالألــوف من الخــطايــا

With a single sin and with a single mistake
the creature was expelled from Paradise.

So tell me how can you hope for entrance to it,
while you have thousands of sins?

[Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif pg 118]

For those are able to read the Arabic language, this translator would strongly advise you to download this great work from Ibn Rajab in it’s entirety. Specifically, the entire section of Ibn Rajab’s discussion of Adam (‘alaihis salaam) runs from pages 113 to 123, and is full of great benefit. The free PDF is available for download here.

A promised ‘land-grant’ in Jannah: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

In his great and beneficial work, Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif feema li Mawaasim al-‘Aam min al-Wadhaa’if (roughly: ‘The subtleties of knowledge concerning the seasons of the year and their deeds), Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali brings the following in part of his larger discussion on the forgiveness of sins:

احذروا هذا العدو أخرج أباكم من الجنة, فإنّة ساعٍ في منعكم من العود إليها بكل سبيل, وعداوة بينكم وبينه قديمة, فإنّة ما أُخرج من الجنة طرد عن الخدمة إلا بسبب تكبّره على أبيكم وامتناعه من السجود له لما أُمره به. وقد أُبلس من الرحمة وأيس من العود إلى الجنة, وتحقّق خلوده في النار, فهو يجتهد على أن يُخلّد معه في النار بني آدم, بتحسين الشرك, فإن عجز قنع بما دونه من الفسوق العصيان, وقد حذركم مولاكم منه, وقد أُعذر من أنذر, فخذوا حذزكم :  يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَ‌جَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ

Beware of this enemy [i.e. al-shaytaan] who expelled your father (Adam) from Jannah, for verily he is determined on preventing you from returning to it by all means. And the enmity between you and him is ancient, for he not was expelled from Jannah nor his dispute rejected for any reason except for his exultation of himself above your father and refusing to perform sujood to him when he was ordered to do so. So he despaired of the mercy (of Allah) and gave up hope of returning to Jannah, and his eternity in the hell-fire was confirmed for him, so he strives to join others with him from among the children of Adam to dwell eternally in the hell-fire, by means of beautifying shirk. And if he is unable to do that, then he persuades them with what is less than that of wickedness and disobedience. And your Lord has cautioned you of him, and He has strongly forewarned you, so take caution! “O children of Adam! Let not Satan tempt you as he removed your parents from Paradise.” [7:27]

العجب ممن عرف ربه ثم عصاه, وعرف الشيطان ثم أطاعه : أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّ‌يَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِي وَهُمْ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ ۚ بِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلًا

And it is astonishing, the one who knows his Lord and then disobeys Him, and the one who knows the Shaytaan and then he obeys him, “Then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you? Wretched it is for the wrongdoers as an exchange.” [18:50]

رَعَى اللهُ مَن نَهْوَى وإنْ كان مَا رَعَى     حَفِـــظْنَـا لَــهُ العَـهْــدَ القَـــدِيمَ فَضَـَّيعـا
وصـــاحَبْتَ قـومــاً كُنْتُ أنهـاكَ عنهُمُ      وَحَقِّــكَ مـا أبقـيْـتَ للصلحِ مَــوْضِعــا

لما أهبط آدم إلى الأرض وُعِدَ العود إلى الجنة هو ومن آمن من ذرّيّة واتبع الرسل : يَا بَنِي آدَمَ إِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ رُ‌سُلٌ مِّنكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي ۙ فَمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَأَصْلَحَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ. فلبشر المؤمنون الجنة, وهو إقطاعهم, وقد وصل منشور الإقطاع من جبريل إلى محمد ﷺ : وَبَشِّرِ‌ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِ‌ي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ‌

And when Adam was sent down to the earth he was promised a return to Jannah, for him and for those who believe from among his offspring and follow the messengers, “O children of Adam, if there come to you messengers from among you relating to you My verses, then whoever fears Allah and reforms – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.” [7:35]. So He gave glad tidings of Jannah to the Believers, and it is their promised ‘land-grant’, and the announcement of their promised ‘land-grant’ was conveyed by Jibreel to Muhammad (ﷺ), “And give good tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds that they will have gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow.” [2:25]

إنّما خرج الإقطاع عمّن خرج عن الطاعة, فأمّا من تاب وآمن فالإقطاع مورود عليه. المؤمنون في دار الدنيا في سفر جهاد, يجاهدون فيه النفوس والهوى, فإذا انقضى سفر الجهاد عادوا إلى وطنهم الأوّل الذي كانوا فيه في صلب أبيهم. تكفّل الله للمجاهد في سبيله أن يردّه إلى وطنه بما نال أجرٍ أو غنيمة

Verily the expulsion from their promised ‘land-grant’ is only for those who are expelled from obedience (to Allah), while those who repent and believe, then the promised ‘land-grant’ is returned to them. The Believers in the abode of this dunya are in the midst of jihaad, and they struggle and strive in jihaad against themselves and desires, and if they pass away in the midst of jihaad then they return to their original homeland which they inhabited while they were still in the backbone of their father (Adam). Allah ensures for the mujaahid on His path that he will be returned to his homeland according to what he gained of reward and war-spoils.

[Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif pg. 119]

And for those who can understand the Arabic language, this entire work is available for free download here. This is a wonderful book full of benefit for those who can understand.