“Clothed in the world but naked in the hereafter!”: Fath al-Baari

The Mother of the Believers Umm Salamah narrates that:

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم اسْتَيْقَظَ لَيْلَةً فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ مَاذَا أُنْزِلَ اللَّيْلَةَ مِنَ الْفِتْنَةِ، مَاذَا أُنْزِلَ مِنَ الْخَزَائِنِ مَنْ يُوقِظُ صَوَاحِبَ الْحُجُرَاتِ، يَا رُبَّ كَاسِيَةٍ فِي الدُّنْيَا عَارِيَةٍ فِي الآخِرَةِ ‏”‏‏

One night the Prophet (ﷺ) got up and said, “SubhanAllah! How many fitan Allah has revealed tonight and how many treasures have been sent down! Who will awaken the women sleeping in these dwellings? O Lord! How many are clothed in this world, yet naked in the hereafter!”

[al-Bukhari #1126]

Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaani, in his commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari, writes the following in part of his notes on this hadeeth:

واختلف في المراد بقوله : كاسية وعارية “

There is differing about the intended meaning of ‘clothed’ and ‘naked’.

على أوجه أحدها كاسية في الدنيا بالثياب لوجود الغنى عارية في الآخرة من الثواب لعدم العمل في الدنيا ،  .

According to the first perspective: clothed in the dunya with clothing for the purpose of ostentation and naked in the aakhirah in terms of reward due to the absence of (good) deeds in the dunya.

ثانيها كاسية بالثياب لكنها شفافة لا تستر عورتها فتعاقب في الآخرة بالعري جزاء على ذلك ،

The second perspective: clothed with clothing, however it is transparent and does not cover her ‘awrah, so she will be punished in the aakhirah with nakedness as a recompense for that.

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“The people will remain on good as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” : Fath al-Bari

Sahl ibn Sa’d narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

لاَ يَزَالُ النَّاسُ بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوا الْفِطْرَ

The people will remain on good as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast.

[al-Bukhari #1957]

Ibn Hajr, in his commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari, wrote the following comments on this hadeeth:

قوله : ( باب تعجيل الإفطار ) قال ابن عبد البر : أحاديث تعجيل الإفطار وتأخير السحور صحاح متواترة . وعند عبد الرزاق وغيره بإسناد صحيح عن عمرو بن ميمون الأودي قال : ” كان أصحاب محمد – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أسرع الناس ، إفطارا وأبطأهم سحورا ” .

His [i.e. Imam al-Bukhari’s] statement, “The chapter of hastening the breaking of the fast” – ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: The ahaadeeth of hastening the breaking of the fasting and postponing the suhoor are authentic and mutawaatir. And reported from ‘Abd al-Razzaaq and others with an authentic chain of narration from ‘Amr ibn Maymoon al-Awdi, “The companions of Muhammad (ﷺ) were the quickest of people in breaking the fast, and the slowest of people on taking the suhoor.”

قوله : ( عن أبي حازم ) هو ابن دينار .

And his statement, “narrated from Abi Haazim” – that is ibn Deenaar.

قوله : ( لا يزال الناس بخير ) في حديث أبي هريرة : ” لا يزال الدين ظاهرا ” وظهور الدين مستلزم لدوام الخير .

And his [i.e. the Prophet’s (ﷺ)] statement, “The people will remain on good” – in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah, it says, “The deen will continue to prevail” and the prevailing of the deen is a prerequisite for the continuance of good. Continue reading

A note on differing with the Kuffaar: Ibn Hajar

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that:

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَسْدِلُ شَعْرَهُ، وَكَانَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ يَفْرُقُونَ رُءُوسَهُمْ، وَكَانَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ يَسْدِلُونَ رُءُوسَهُمْ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُحِبُّ مُوَافَقَةَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فِيمَا لَمْ يُؤْمَرْ فِيهِ بِشَىْءٍ، ثُمَّ فَرَقَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَأْسَهُ‏

The Prophet (ﷺ) used to let his hair fall naturally, and the mushrikoon used to part their hair, and the Ahl al-Kitaab used to let their hair fall naturally, and the Prophet (ﷺ) liked to follow the Ahl al-Kitaab in matters for which he had not been given any instruction, but later on the Prophet (ﷺ) started parting his hair.

[Saheeh al-Bukhari #3944]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar briefly commented on this hadeeth by saying:

قوله : ( ثم فرق النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – رأسه ) بفتح الفاء والراء الخفيفة ، وقد سبق شرحه في صفة النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ، وفيه دليل على أنه – صلى الله عليه وسلم – كان يوافق أهل الكتاب إذا خالفوا عبدة الأوثان أخذا بأخف الأمرين ، فلما فتحت مكة ودخل عباد الأوثان في الإسلام رجع إلى مخالفة باقي الكفار وهم أهل الكتاب .

His statement, “but later on the Prophet (ﷺ) started parting his hair” – its explanation has already preceded in [the chapter on] the attributes of the Prophet (ﷺ). And in this is a proof  that he (ﷺ) used to agree with the the Ahl al-Kitaab when differing with the idol worshippers was the easier of the two matters. But then with the opening of Mecca and the entrance of the idol-worshippers into Islam, he returned to differing with the remaining kuffaar, who were the Ahl al-Kitaab.

[Fath al-Bari #3728]

Neither add nor detract from the sunnah, even when it comes to sneezing

Hadrami, the freed slave of the family of al-Jaarood narrated from Naafi’ that:

 أَنَّ رَجُلاً، عَطَسَ إِلَى جَنْبِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ وَأَنَا أَقُولُ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَيْسَ هَكَذَا عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَّمَنَا أَنْ نَقُولَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ

“A man sneezed beside Ibn ‘Umar and said, ‘al-hamdulillaah w’al-salaam ‘alaa rasoolillaah. (All praise is due to Allah, and peace upon the Messenger of Allah)’. So Ibn ‘Umar said, ‘I too could say al-hamdulillaah w’al-salaam ‘alaa rasoolillaah, but this is not what the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) taught us. He taught us to say, “Al-Hamdulillah ‘alaa kulli hal (All praise is due to Allah in every circumstance).”

[al-Tirmidhi #2738, hasan]

Imam al-Mubarakfoori, in his commentary on Jaami’ al-Tirmidhi, wrote the following concerning this hadeeth:

اعلم أن العطاس نعمة من نعم الله ، فلا بد للعاطس إذا عطس أن يحمد الله تعالى . قال الحافظ ابن القيم في زاد المعاد : العاطس قد حصلت له بالعطاس نعمة ومنفعة بخروج الأبخرة المحتقنة في دماغه التي لو بقيت فيه أحدثت له أدواء عسرة ، شرع له حمد الله على هذه النعمة ، مع بقاء أعضائه على التئامها وهيئتها على هذه الزلزلة التي هي للبدن كزلزلة الأرض لها . انتهى .

Know that sneezing is a blessing from Allaah, so when the sneezer sneezes he should praise and thank Allah the Exalted. Al-Haafidh ibn al-Qayyim said in Zaad al-Ma’aad, “The one who sneezes has received a blessing and a benefit by that sneeze in the expulsion of the congestion in his head which, had it remained there, would have caused him severe illness. It is legislated for him to praise and thank Allah for this blessing, as well as his limbs remaining well and present in the midst of this great shaking which is like as earthquake to the body just as the earthquake is to the earth.” Continue reading

“Mukhayreeq is the best of the Jews”

In his monumental book chronicling the entire span of human existence, al-Haafidh ibn Kathir mentions the following in his coverage of the battle of Uhud:

قال ابن إسحاق‏:‏ و كان ممن قتل يوم أحد مخيريق، وكان أحد بني ثعلبة بن الغيطون، فلما كان يوم أحد قال‏:‏ يا معشر يهود، والله لقد علمتم أن نصر محمد عليكم لحق‏.‏ قالوا‏:‏ إن اليوم يوم السبت‏.‏ قال‏:‏ لا سبت لكم، فأخذ سيفه وعدته وقال‏:‏ إن أصبت فمالي لمحمد يصنع فيه ما شاء‏.‏ ثم غدا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقاتل معه حتى قتل، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما بلغنا‏:‏ ‏(‏‏(‏مخيريق خير يهود‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏

Ibn Ishaaq said: One of those who was killed on the day of Uhud was Mukhayreeq, and he was a member of the Banu Tha’labah ibn al-Ghaytoon clan. So on the day of Uhud, he said, “O Jewish people! By Allah, you well know that aiding Muhammad is a duty upon you!” They said, “Verily today is the day of the Sabbath (a day of rest for the Jews)” He replied, “May there be no rest for you,” then he took his sword and his accoutrements and said, “If I am killed (during the battle), then my wealth goes to Muhammad, who may do with it what he wishes.” Then he went out to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and fought alongside him until he was killed. So the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said about him, “Mukhayreeq is the best of the Jews.”

قال السهيلي‏:‏ فجعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أموال مخيريق – وكانت سبع حوائط – أوقافاً بالمدينة لله‏.‏

al-Suhayli said: Then the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) made the wealth of Mukhayreeq – and it was a significant amount – as a waqf (charitable trust) for the sake of Allah in al-Madinah.

قال محمد بن كعب القرظي‏:‏ وكانت أول وقف بالمدينة‏.‏

Muhammad ibn Ka’b al-Qarthi* said: That was the first waqf in al-Madinah.

[al-Bidayah w’al-Nihayah 4/42] Continue reading

The virtues of Usaamah ibn Zayd: Fath al-Bari

In his Saheeh, Imam al-Bukhari includes a section in his Book of the Sahabah entitled ‘Mention of Usaamah ibn Zayd’: The following is one of 4 ahaadeeth included therein.

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها أَنَّ امْرَأَةً مِنْ بَنِي مَخْزُومٍ سَرَقَتْ، فَقَالُوا مَنْ يُكَلِّمُ فِيهَا النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَلَمْ يَجْتَرِئْ أَحَدٌ أَنْ يُكَلِّمَهُ، فَكَلَّمَهُ أُسَامَةُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَانَ إِذَا سَرَقَ فِيهِمُ الشَّرِيفُ تَرَكُوهُ، وَإِذَا سَرَقَ الضَّعِيفُ قَطَعُوهُ، لَوْ كَانَتْ فَاطِمَةُ لَقَطَعْتُ يَدَهَا ‏”

‘Aa’ishah said, “A woman from Bani Makhzumiya committed a theft and the people said, ‘Who can intercede with the Prophet (ﷺ) for her?’ So nobody dared speak to him (i.e. the Prophet) but Usama bin Zaid spoke to him. The Prophet said, ‘If a reputable man amongst the children of Bani Israa’eel committed a theft, they used to forgive him, but if a poor man committed a theft, they would cut his hand. But I would cut even the hand of Fatimah (i.e. the daughter of the Prophet) if she committed a theft.”

[al-Bukhari #3733]

In his expansive commentary of Saheeh al-Bukhari, Imam ibn Hajar writes the following concerning this hadeeth:

قوله : ( ذكر أسامة بن زيد ) ذكر فيه حديث المخزومية التي سرقت ، وسيأتي شرحه مستوفى في الحدود ، والغرض منه قوله في بعض طرقه : ” ومن يجترئ أن يكلمه إلا أسامة بن زيد حب رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – “

His [i.e. imam al-Bukhari’s] statement, “Mention of Usaamah ibn Zayd”, he mentions herein the hadeeth of the women from Bani Makhzumiya who committed theft – and its explanation will come in the chapter on the hudood punishments – and the purpose of including it here is its statement in one of the routes that “Nobody dare speak to him (i.e. the Prophet (ﷺ) ) except Usaamah bin Zaid, for he is the most beloved to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).

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The original Ash’aris

Abu Moosa al-Ash’ari reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,

إن الأشعريين إذا أرملوا في الغزو أو قل طعام عيالهم بالمدينة جمعوا ما كان عندهم في ثوب واحد ثم اقتسموه بينهم في إناء واحد بالسوية فهم مني وأنا منهم

“When the Ash’ariyoon [a tribe from Yemen] run short of food during an expedition or when they are at home in Al-Madinah, they gather all the provisions they have in a single sheet and then divide it equally among themselves. They are of me and I am of them.” [al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes about this hadith:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن الأشعريين إذا أرملوا في الغزو إلى آخره ) معنى ( أرملوا ) فني طعامهم . وفي هذا الحديث فضيلة الأشعريين ، وفضيلة الإيثار والمواساة ، وفضيلة خلط الأزواد في السفر ، وفضيلة جمعها في شيء عند قلتها في الحضر ، ثم يقسم ، وليس المراد بهذا القسمة المعروفة في كتب الفقه بشروطها ، ومنعها في الربويات ، واشتراط المواساة وغيرها ، وإنما المراد هنا إباحة بعضهم بعضا ومواساتهم بالموجود .

His statement, “When the Ash’ariyoon run short of food during an expedition…“; the meaning of “run short” is that their food supply dwindles. And this hadith includes the excellence of the Ash’ariyoon, and the excellence of the altruism and sympathetic charity, and the virtue of mixing the provision during travel, and the virtue of gathering them in something when they are small in number, then dividing them (equally). And the well-known division found in the books of fiqh involving contractual agreements is not the intended meaning here, and preventing it from becoming usurious, whether based on altruistic charity or otherwise. And the only meaning here is the permissibility of some (giving) to others in altruistic charity. Continue reading

“The jealous woman is not to be taken to task for what she does”: Ibn Hajar

In Saheeh al-Bukhari, Anas ibn Maalik narrates the following event:

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عِنْدَ بَعْضِ نِسَائِهِ فَأَرْسَلَتْ إِحْدَى أُمَّهَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِصَحْفَةٍ فِيهَا طَعَامٌ، فَضَرَبَتِ الَّتِي النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي بَيْتِهَا يَدَ الْخَادِمِ فَسَقَطَتِ الصَّحْفَةُ فَانْفَلَقَتْ، فَجَمَعَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِلَقَ الصَّحْفَةِ، ثُمَّ جَعَلَ يَجْمَعُ فِيهَا الطَّعَامَ الَّذِي كَانَ فِي الصَّحْفَةِ وَيَقُولُ ‏ “‏ غَارَتْ أُمُّكُمْ ‏”‏، ثُمَّ حَبَسَ الْخَادِمَ حَتَّى أُتِيَ بِصَحْفَةٍ مِنْ عِنْدِ الَّتِي هُوَ فِي بَيْتِهَا، فَدَفَعَ الصَّحْفَةَ الصَّحِيحَةَ إِلَى الَّتِي كُسِرَتْ صَحْفَتُهَا، وَأَمْسَكَ الْمَكْسُورَةَ فِي بَيْتِ الَّتِي كَسَرَتْ فِيه.‏

While the Prophet (ﷺ) was in the house of one of his wives, one of the mothers of the believers sent a meal in a dish. The wife at whose house the Prophet (ﷺ) was, struck the hand of the servant, causing the dish to fall and break. The Prophet (ﷺ) gathered the broken pieces of the dish and then started collecting on them the food which had been in the dish and said, “Your mother (i.e. my wife) felt jealous.” Then he detained the servant till a (sound) dish was brought from the wife at whose house he was. He gave the sound dish to the wife whose dish had been broken and kept the broken one at the house where it had been broken.

[al-Bukhari #5225]

In his expansive commentary of Saheeh al-Bukhari, al-Haafidh ibn Hajar writes the following in his explanation of this hadeeth:

قوله ( غارت أمكم ) الخطاب لمن حضر ، والمراد بالأم هي التي كسرت الصحفة وهي من أمهات المؤمنين كما تقدم بيانه

His statement, “Your mother felt jealous” is an address to whomever was present, and the intended meaning of ‘mother’ is she who broke the dish, and she is one of the Mothers of the Believers [i.e. one of the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ)] as had been explained previously.

وأغرب الداودي فقال : المراد بقوله ” أمكم ” سارة ، وكأن معنى الكلام عنده لا تتعجبوا مما وقع من هذه من الغيرة فقد غارت قبل ذلك أمكم حتى أخرج إبراهيم ولده إسماعيل وهو طفل مع أمه إلى واد غير ذي زرع ، وهذا وإن كان له بعض توجيه لكن المراد خلافه وأن المراد كاسرة الصحفة وعلى هذا حمله جميع من شرح هذا الحديث

And al-Dawoodi departs from this previous explanation when he says: the intended meaning of his statement, “you mother” is Sara [the wife of Ibrahim]. And it is as if the meaning of this speech, according to him, is to not be amazed by what has occurred of jealousy [here in this gathering], for your mother [i.e. Sara] had experienced jealously long before this, to the extent that Ibrahim sent his son Ismaa’eel, while he was still an infant, along with his mother [i.e. Haajar] out to a valley in which did not contain any vegetation. But even if this is part of the implication, however the (most apparent) intended meaning differs from that and definitely the intended meaning is that it refers to the one who broke the dish, and this meaning is what most of those who have explained this hadeeth have conveyed.

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Giving the greeting of salaam to a mixed group: ibn Hajar

In Riyad al-Saaleheen, Imam al-Nawawi brings the following abbreviated narration from Usama ibn Zaid:

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَرَّ عَلَى مَجْلِسٍ فِيهِ أَخْلاَطٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ – عَبْدَةِ الأَوْثَانِ وَالْيَهُودِ – فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The Prophet (ﷺ) passed by a mixed company of people which included Muslims, and Mushrikoon -both idol-worshippers and Jews – and he gave them the greeting of al-salaam ‘alaikum.

[Reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim in extended forms]

Imam al-Bukhari mentioned a longer form of this hadeeth in a chapter of his Saheeh entitled, “Chapter of giving the salaam to a group in which there is a mix of Muslims and mushrikoon.Al-Haafidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani wrote the following in his commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari:

 قال النووي : السنة إذا مر بمجلس فيه مسلم وكافر أن يسلم بلفظ التعميم ويقصد به المسلم  .

Al-Nawawi said, “The sunnah when you come across a gathering in which there is both a Muslim and a kaafir is to give them the greeting of al-salaam ‘alaikum with general wording, and intend it for the Muslim.”

قال ابن العربي : ومثله إذا مر بمجلس يجمع أهل السنة والبدعة وبمجلس فيه عدول وظلمة وبمجلس فيه محب ومبغض واستدل النووي على ذلك بحديث الباب وهو مفرع على منع ابتداء الكافر بالسلام وقد ورد النهي عنه صريحا فيما أخرجه مسلم والبخاري في ” الأدب المفرد ” من طريق سهل بن أبي صالح عن أبيه عن أبي هريرة رفعه لا تبدءوا اليهود والنصارى بالسلام واضطروهم إلى أضيق الطريق وللبخاري في ” الأدب المفرد ” والنسائي من حديث أبي بصرة – وهو بفتح الموحدة وسكون المهملة – الغفاري : أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال إني راكب غدا إلى اليهود فلا تبدءوهم بالسلام

Ibn al-‘Arabi said, “And this is like when one comes across a gathering which combines the people of the sunnah and the people of bid’ah, and a gathering in which there are just ones and unjust ones, and a gathering in which there are beloved and hated” And al-Nawawi showed that with a hadeeth which emphasized the prohibition of initiating the salaam with the kaafir, and he narrated the prohibition of that clearly from what Muslim brought and what al-Bukhari brought in al-Adab al-Mufrad via Sahl ibn Abi Saalih from his father from Abu Hurayrah, as a marfoo’ hadeeth, “Do not initate the salaam to the Jews or the Christians, and when you meet any one of them on the roads, force him to go to the narrowest part of it.” And also from al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad and from al-Nasaa’i, from the hadeeth of Abu Basrah al-Ghifaari that the Prophet said, “I will ride to the Jews tomorrow. Do not initiate the salaam to them.”

وقالت طائفة يجوز ابتداؤهم بالسلام فأخرج الطبري من طريق ابن عيينة قال يجوز ابتداء الكافر بالسلام لقوله – تعالى – : لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم في الدين وقول إبراهيم لأبيه سلام عليك .  .

And a group says that it is permissible to initiate the greeting of al-salaam ‘alaikum. Al-Tabari recorded that ibn ‘Uyaynah said, “It is allowed to initiate the salaam to the kuffaar according to Allah’s statement, ‘Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion‘ [60:8], and the statement of Ibrahim to his father, ‘salaam ‘alaik‘ [19:47].”

وأخرج ابن أبي شيبة من طريق عون بن عبد الله عن محمد بن كعب أنه سأل عمر بن عبد العزيز عن ابتداء أهل الذمة بالسلام فقال نرد عليهم ولا نبدؤهم . قال عون فقلت له فكيف تقول أنت ؟ قال ما أرى بأسا أن نبدأهم . قلت لم ؟ قال لقوله – تعالى – : فاصفح عنهم وقل سلام

And Ibn Abi Shaybah recorded from ‘Awn ibn ‘Abdullah from Muhammad ibn Ka’b that he asked ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez about initiating the salaam to the ahl al-dhimmah, so he said, “We reply to them and we do not initiate the greeting to them.” ‘Awn said, “So I said to him, ‘How can you say that?!’ He said, ‘I do not see any harm in initiating the greeting to them.’ I said, ‘Why not?’ He said, ‘Because of Allah’s statement: So turn aside from them and say, “salaam”. [43:89]'”

وقال البيهقي بعد أن ساق حديث أبي أمامة إنه كان يسلم على كل من لقيه فسئل عن ذلك فقال : إن الله جعل السلام تحية لأمتنا وأمانا لأهل ذمتنا . هذا رأي أبي أمامة ، وحديث أبي هريرة في النهي عن ابتدائهم أولى .

And al-Bayhaqi said after quoting the hadeeth of Abu Umaamah, “Verily he [Abu Umaamah] gave the greetings of al-salaam ‘alaikum to all those whom he met, so he was asked about that, so he said, ‘Verily Allah made the salaam a greeting for our ummah and a trust to our ahl al-dhimmah.'” This was the opinion of Abu Umaamah, and the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah about the prohibition of initiating the greeting takes precedence.

وأجاب عياض عن الآية وكذا عن قول إبراهيم عليه السلام لأبيه بأن القصد بذلك المتاركة والمباعدة وليس القصد فيهما التحية  .

And ‘Iyaadh responded to the ayah and other reports of the statement of Ibrahim (‘alaihis salaam) to his father by explaining the the purpose of that was taking leave [of his father] and distancing [himself from him], and the purpose of that was not to greet him.

وقد صرح بعض السلف بأن قوله – تعالى – : وقل سلام فسوف يعلمون نسخت بآية القتال

And some of the salaf have clarified that Allah’s statement, “And say, ‘salaam.’ But they are going to know” was abrogated by the ayah of fighting [see 22:39].

وقال الطبري : لا مخالفة بين حديث أسامة في سلام النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – على الكفار حيث كانوا مع المسلمين وبين حديث أبي هريرة في النهي عن السلام على الكفار ; لأن حديث أبي هريرة عام وحديث أسامة خاص فيختص من حديث أبي هريرة ما إذا كان الابتداء لغير سبب ولا حاجة من حق صحبة أو مجاورة أو مكافأة أو نحو ذلك والمراد منع ابتدائهم بالسلام المشروع فأما لو سلم عليهم بلفظ يقتضي خروجهم عنه كأن يقول السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين فهو جائز كما كتب النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – إلى هرقل وغيره : سلام على من اتبع الهدى

And al-Tabari said: There is no contradiction between the hadeeth of Usaamah about the Prophet’s  greeting of salaam to the kuffaar when they were with the Muslims and the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah about the prohibition of giving the greeting of salaam to the kuffaar. This is because the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah is general and the hadeeth of Usaamah is specific, so it specificies the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah that there is no initiation of the greeting without any reason or need from the rights of companions, neighbors, recompense, etc. And the intended meaning of the prohibition of initiating the legislated greeting of the salaam. And as for if one were to greet them with the greeting of alsalaam  with a wording that did not included them, such as saying, ‘peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah‘, then that is allowed, just as the Prophet (ﷺ) wrote to Heraclius and others with ‘Peace be upon those who follow the guidance‘.

وأخرج عبد الرزاق عن معمر عن قتادة قال السلام على أهل الكتاب إذا دخلت عليهم بيوتهم السلام على من اتبع الهدى

And ‘Abd al-Razzaaq reported via Ma’mar that Qataadah said the greetings of al-salaam to the ahl al-Kitaab when he entered their homes by saying ‘Peace be upon those who follow the guidance.”

وأخرج ابن أبي شيبة عن محمد بن سيرين مثله ومن طريق أبي مالك : إذا سلمت على المشركين فقل : السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين فيحسبون أنك سلمت عليهم وقد صرفت السلام عنهم

And Ibn Abi Shaybah reported something similar from Muhammad ibn Seereen and from the Abu Maalik that, “If you use the greeting of salaam with the mushrikoon, then say, ‘Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah‘ so they will think that you have invoked peace upon them and given them the greeting of salaam to them.”

قال القرطبي في قوله وإذا لقيتموهم في طريق فاضطروهم إلى أضيقه معناه لا تتنحوا لهم عن الطريق الضيق إكراما لهم واحتراما وعلى هذا فتكون هذه الجملة مناسبة للجملة الأولى في المعنى وليس المعنى إذا لقيتموهم في طريق واسع فألجئوهم إلى حرفه حتى يضيق عليهم لأن ذلك أذى لهم وقد نهينا عن أذاهم بغير سبب

Al-Qurtubi said about the statement of the Prophet, “when you meet any one of them on the roads, force him to go to the narrowest part of it” – it means, do not yield any space on the road to them in a narrow road as an honor to them. And concerning this there is an appropriate situation in this first [aforementioned] situation, and the meaning is not that if you meet them on a wide road that you should then force them to its edge until it constricts them, for that is harming them and we have been prohibited from harming them without reason.

[Fath al-Bari #9342]

See also: The Jews used to hope for the supplication of the Prophet

A Clarification on Kissing the Black Stone

Imam al-Bukhari, in his Saheeh, brings the following narration in the chapter on Hajj:

عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّهُ جَاءَ إِلَى الْحَجَرِ الأَسْوَدِ فَقَبَّلَهُ، فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ حَجَرٌ لاَ تَضُرُّ وَلاَ تَنْفَعُ، وَلَوْلاَ أَنِّي رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُقَبِّلُكَ مَا قَبَّلْتُكَ

`Umar came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said “No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither harm anyone nor benefit anyone. And had I not seen Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) kissing you I would not have kissed you.”

[Saheeh al-Bukhari #1597]

al-Haafidh ibn Hajar, in his famous commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari, writes the following in his explanation:

قوله : ( لا تضر ولا تنفع ) أي إلا بإذن الله ، وقد روى الحاكم من حديث أبي سعيد أن عمر لما قال هذا قال له علي بن أبي طالب : إنه يضر وينفع ، وذكر أن الله لما أخذ المواثيق على ولد آدم كتب ذلك في رق ، وألقمه الحجر ، قال : وقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : يؤتى يوم القيامة بالحجر الأسود وله لسان ذلق يشهد لمن استلمه بالتوحيد ، وفي إسناده أبو هارون العبدي وهو ضعيف جدا ،

His statement, “You can neither harm nor benefit” – meaning, except by the permission of Allah.

And al-Haakim has narrated a hadeeth from Abu Sa’eed that when ‘Umar said this, ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib said to him,

“Verily it does harm and benefit,” and he mentioned that when Allah took the covenants from the children of Adam (i.e. mankind), He wrote that out of compassion, so the Stone is fed bit by bit by them (i.e. their sins). He said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, ‘On the Day of Resurrection, the Black Stone will be brought with an eloquent tongue, bearing witness for those who touched it while having al-Tawheed.'”

But in the isnaad there is Abu Haaroon al-‘Abdi, and he is da’eef jaddan (i.e. very weak).

وقد روى النسائي من وجه آخر ما يشعر بأن عمر رفع قوله ذلك إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، أخرجه من طريق طاوس ، عن ابن عباس قال : رأيت عمر قبل الحجر ثلاثا ، ثم قال : إنك حجر لا تضر ولا تنفع ، ولولا أني رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قبلك ما قبلتك . ثم قال : ” رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فعل مثل ذلك ” .

And al-Nasaa’i has narrated it by another route by which it is known that the statement of ‘Umar is taken from the Prophet (ﷺ). It comes by way of Taawoos, that ibn ‘Abbaas said,

I saw Umar bin Al-Khattab doing that, then he said: You are just a stone that can neither cause harm or bring benefit; were it not that I saw the Messenger of Allah kissing you I would not have kissed you.’ Then Umar said, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah doing that.'” [al-Nasaa’i #2938, Saheeh]

قال الطبري : إنما قال ذلك عمر لأن الناس كانوا حديثي عهد بعبادة الأصنام ، فخشي عمر أن يظن الجهال أن استلام الحجر من باب تعظيم بعض الأحجار كما كانت العرب تفعل في الجاهلية ، فأراد عمر أن يعلم الناس أن استلامه اتباع لفعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، لا لأن الحجر ينفع ويضر بذاته كما كانت الجاهلية تعتقده في الأوثان ،

al-Tabari said: ‘Umar only said that because the people had recently come from the era of worshiping idols, so ‘Umar feared that the ignorant ones that his touching the Stone fell under into the magnification of certain stones as the Arabs had done in the era of al-Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance). So ‘Umar wanted to teach the people that touching the Stone is following the actions of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), not because the Black Stone can bring benefit or harm in and of itself as it had been believed about idols during al-Jaahiliyyah. 

وقال المهلب : حديث عمر هذا يرد على من قال : إن الحجر يمين الله في الأرض يصافح بها عباده ، ومعاذ الله أن يكون لله جارحة ، وإنما شرع تقبيله اختيارا ليعلم بالمشاهدة طاعة من يطيع ، وذلك شبيه بقصة إبليس حيث أمر بالسجود لآدم .

And al-Muhallib said: the hadeeth of ‘Umar is a refutation of those who say, ‘Verily the Stone is the right hand of Allah on the earth and ‘shaking hands with it’ [i.e. touching it] is ‘ibaadah,” and refuge is sought with Allah from that. And kissing it was only legislated as a choice in order that the obedience of those who obey may be known and witnessed, and that resembles the story of Iblees when he was commanded to prostrate to Adam.

وقال الخطابي : معنى أنه يمين الله في الأرض أن من صافحه في الأرض كان له عند الله عهد ، وجرت العادة بأن العهد يعقده الملك بالمصافحة لمن يريد موالاته والاختصاص به ، فخاطبهم بما يعهدونه .

And al-Khattaabi said: it means that it is the right hand of Allah on the earth, that whoever touches (lit. ‘shakes hands with’) it on the earth, then there is a pact for him with Allah. And traditionally, a pact was made with a ruler by shaking hands for the one who desires his patronage, and doing that exclusively with him, so they agreed to the pact they had made.

وقال المحب الطبري : معناه أن كل ملك إذا قدم عليه الوافد قبل يمينه ، فلما كان الحاج أول ما يقدم يسن له تقبيله نزل منزلة يمين الملك ، ولله المثل الأعلى

And al-Muhibb al-Tabari said: its meaning is that whenever a guest comes before any ruler, he kisses his hand. So when the pilgrim comes, it is more befitting for him to kiss what has been sent down in place of the hand of the ruler, and Allah is above such comparisons.

 وفي قول عمر هذا التسليم للشارع في أمور الدين ، وحسن الاتباع فيما لم يكشف عن معانيها ، وهو قاعدة عظيمة في اتباع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما يفعله ولو لم يعلم الحكمة فيه ، وفيه دفع ما وقع لبعض الجهال من أن في الحجر الأسود خاصة ترجع إلى ذاته ، وفيه بيان السنن بالقول والفعل ، وأن الإمام إذا خشي على أحد من فعله فساد اعتقاد أن يبادر إلى بيان الأمر ويوضح ذلك ، وسيأتي بقية الكلام على التقبيل والاستلام بعد تسعة أبواب . .

And in the statement of ‘Umar is submission to the source of Divine Legislation in the affairs of the deen, and beautiful following (al-ittiba’) in those things which did not disclose their meanings. And this is a great foundational point in following the Prophet (ﷺ) in what he does, even if one does not know the wisdom underlying it.

And in this is a refutation of some of the ignorant ones who claim that the Black Stone has a nature  of its own. And in this is a clarification that the sunnah is by both speech and action (i.e. on the part of ‘Umar), and that if the imam fears that one of his actions would corrupt the beliefs, that he would take the steps to explain the affair and clarify that. And the rest of the statements concerning kissing and touching the Black Stone will come after nine chapters.

قال شيخنا في ” شرح الترمذي ” : فيه كراهة تقبيل ما لم يرد الشرع بتقبيله ، وأما قول الشافعي : ومهما قبل من البيت فحسن ، فلم يرد به الاستحباب ، لأن المباح من جملة الحسن عند الأصوليين

And our sheikh said in Sharh al-Tirmidhi : In this is the dislike of kissing that which the sharee’ah does not prescribe to kiss. And as for the statement of al-Shaafi’: and whomever one kisses from his household, then that is fine, rather it is recommended, because it is value-neutral (mubaah) from good things with those who study usool al-Fiqh.

  تكميل  : اعترض بعض الملحدين على الحديث الماضي ، فقال : كيف سودته خطايا المشركين ، ولم تبيضه طاعات أهل التوحيد ؟ وأجيب بما قال ابن قتيبة : لو شاء الله لكان ذلك ، وإنما أجرى الله العادة بأن السواد يصبغ ، ولا ينصبغ على العكس من البياض . وقال المحب الطبري : في بقائه أسود عبرة لمن له بصيرة ، فإن الخطايا إذا أثرت في الحجر الصلد فتأثيرها في القلب أشد . قال : وروي عن ابن عباس : إنما غيره بالسواد لئلا ينظر أهل الدنيا إلى زينة الجنة ، فإن ثبت ، فهذا هو الجواب . قلت : أخرجه الحميدي في فضائل مكة بإسناد ضعيف ، والله أعلم .

A supplement: some of the heretics have objected to the previous hadeeth [which states that the Black Stone was blackened by the sins of the sons of Adam], they say, “How can the sins of the mushrikoon blacken it, while the obedience of the people of al-Tawheed do not whiten it?” And Ibn Qutaybah responded to this by saying, “If Allah has wished for that, then it would be so, But Allah has caused it to be the case that black usually changes other colors and its not changed itself, which is the opposite to what happens with white.”

And al-Muhibb al-Tabari said, “In its remaining black is a lesson for those who have insight, for verily if the sins are able to leave a mark on a hard rock, then its marks marks on the heart are more severe.”

He said: narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas: It was only changed to black in order that the people of this world might look forward to the beauty of al-Jannah. And if this is true, then this is the answer. I [Ibn Hajar] say: this has come from al-Humaidi concerning the virtues of Mecca through a weak isnaad. And Allah knows best.

[Fath al-Baari #1520]

And Imam al-Nawawi, after mentioning some of the various fiqhi positions on the issues, commented on the same hadeeth by writing:

 وأما قول عمر – رضي الله عنه – : ( لقد علمت أنك حجر وإني لأعلم أنك حجر وأنك لا تضر ولا تنفع ) فأراد به بيان الحث على الاقتداء برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في تقبيله ، ونبه على أنه لولا الاقتداء به لما فعله ، وإنما قال : وإنك لا تضر ولا تنفع ؛ لئلا يغتر بعض قريبي العهد بالإسلام الذين كانوا ألفوا عبادة الأحجار وتعظيمها ورجاء نفعها ، وخوف الضرر بالتقصير في تعظيمها ، وكان العهد قريبا بذلك ، فخاف عمر – رضي الله عنه – أن يراه بعضهم يقبله ، ويعتني به ، فيشتبه عليه فبين أنه لا يضر ولا ينفع بذاته ، وإن كان امتثال ما شرع فيه ينفع بالجزاء والثواب فمعناه أنه لا قدرة له على نفع ولا ضر ، وأنه حجر مخلوق كباقي المخلوقات التي لا تضر ولا تنفع وأشاع عمر هذا في الموسم ؛ ليشهد في البلدان ، ويحفظه عنه أهل الموسم المختلفو الأوطان . والله أعلم .

And as for the statement of ‘Umar (raadiAllaahu ‘anhu), “I knew that you are only a stone and verily I know that you are a stone and that you are not able to harm nor benefit anyone“, then the intention by that is to clarify the eagerness to emulate the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) in kissing it, and to point out that he would not have emulated that if the Prophet (ﷺ) had not done it. And he said, “And verily you cannot harm not benefit” lest it mislead some of those who were new to Islam who were used to worshiping and magnifying stones, hoping for their benefit and fearing harm in falling short in their magnification. And is was still close to that era, so ‘Umar feared that some of them would see him kissing it, and they would be concerned about it and imitate him in it (i.e. without the correct intention), so he clarified that the stone is not able to harm nor benefit anyone in and of itself. And if one complies with what has been divinely legislated concerning it, then he it will benefit him with rewards, so the meaning is that is does not have any power over benefit or harm, and that it is a created stone like the rest of the created things which can neither harm nor benefit anyone, and ‘Umar propogated this message during the Hajj season, in order that it would be known throughout the lands, and so the people of the season would protect the various lands from that (shirk). And Allah knows best.

[Al-Minhaaj bi Sharh Saheeh Muslim #1270]

See also: The Black Stone was blackened by the sins of the children of Adam

See also: Two Qur’anic proofs that Ismaa’eel is the sacrificed son: Tafsir al-Shinqitee