“When one of you sees a women who amazes him, let him go to his wife”: Sharh al-Nawawi

In Saheeh Muslim, Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah reported:

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَأَى امْرَأَةً فَأَتَى امْرَأَتَهُ زَيْنَبَ وَهْىَ تَمْعَسُ مَنِيئَةً لَهَا فَقَضَى حَاجَتَهُ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ إِلَى أَصْحَابِهِ فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ تُقْبِلُ فِي صُورَةِ شَيْطَانٍ وَتُدْبِرُ فِي صُورَةِ شَيْطَانٍ فَإِذَا أَبْصَرَ أَحَدُكُمُ امْرَأَةً فَلْيَأْتِ أَهْلَهُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يَرُدُّ مَا فِي نَفْسِهِ

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, while she was tanning a leather hide and had fulfilled his need. He then went to his Companions and told them:

The woman advances in the form of a shaytaan and retires in the form of a shaytaan, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in himself.
[Saheeh Muslim #1403]
Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following on this hadeeth:
قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن المرأة تقبل في صورة شيطان وتدبر في صورة شيطان فإذا أبصر أحدكم امرأة فليأت أهله فإن ذلك يرد ما في نفسه ) وفي الرواية الأخرى : إذا أحدكم أعجبته المرأة فوقعت في قلبه فليعمد إلى امرأته فليواقعها فإن ذلك يرد ما في نفسه . هذه الرواية الثانية مبينة للأولى .

His statement (ﷺ), “The woman advances in the form of a shaytaan and retires in the form of a shaytaan, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in himself,” and in another narration, “When one of you sees a woman that he is amazed with her, then let him go to his wife, for indeed with her (his wife) is the same as that which is with her.” This second narration is an explanation of the first one.

ومعنى الحديث : أنه يستحب لمن رأى امرأة فتحركت شهوته أن يأتي امرأته أو جاريته إن كانت له ، فليواقعها ليدفع شهوته ، وتسكن نفسه ، ويجمع قلبه على ما هو بصدده .

And the meaning of the hadeeth is: it is highly recommended (mustahabb) for the one who sees a woman and then his desire is stirred by her to go to his wife or his concubine if he has one, in order to have sexual relations with her so that he may stave off his desire and calm himself and to fulfill his heart’s present concern. Continue reading

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The original Ash’aris

Abu Moosa al-Ash’ari reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said,

إن الأشعريين إذا أرملوا في الغزو أو قل طعام عيالهم بالمدينة جمعوا ما كان عندهم في ثوب واحد ثم اقتسموه بينهم في إناء واحد بالسوية فهم مني وأنا منهم

“When the Ash’ariyoon [a tribe from Yemen] run short of food during an expedition or when they are at home in Al-Madinah, they gather all the provisions they have in a single sheet and then divide it equally among themselves. They are of me and I am of them.” [al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes about this hadith:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن الأشعريين إذا أرملوا في الغزو إلى آخره ) معنى ( أرملوا ) فني طعامهم . وفي هذا الحديث فضيلة الأشعريين ، وفضيلة الإيثار والمواساة ، وفضيلة خلط الأزواد في السفر ، وفضيلة جمعها في شيء عند قلتها في الحضر ، ثم يقسم ، وليس المراد بهذا القسمة المعروفة في كتب الفقه بشروطها ، ومنعها في الربويات ، واشتراط المواساة وغيرها ، وإنما المراد هنا إباحة بعضهم بعضا ومواساتهم بالموجود .

His statement, “When the Ash’ariyoon run short of food during an expedition…“; the meaning of “run short” is that their food supply dwindles. And this hadith includes the excellence of the Ash’ariyoon, and the excellence of the altruism and sympathetic charity, and the virtue of mixing the provision during travel, and the virtue of gathering them in something when they are small in number, then dividing them (equally). And the well-known division found in the books of fiqh involving contractual agreements is not the intended meaning here, and preventing it from becoming usurious, whether based on altruistic charity or otherwise. And the only meaning here is the permissibility of some (giving) to others in altruistic charity. Continue reading

“That is your rescue from the hell-fire”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim records in his Saheeh that Abu Moosaa reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said,

إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ دَفَعَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ يَهُودِيًّا أَوْ نَصْرَانِيًّا فَيَقُولُ هَذَا فَكَاكُكَ مِنَ النَّارِ

“On the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2767]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes the following concerning this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إذا كان يوم القيامة دفع الله تعالى إلى كل مسلم يهوديا أو نصرانيا فيقول هذا فكاكك من النار ) وفي رواية : ( لا يموت رجل مسلم إلا أدخل الله مكانه النار يهوديا أو نصرانيا ) وفي رواية ( يجيء يوم القيامة ناس من المسلمين بذنوب أمثال الجبال فيغفرها الله لهم ويضعها على اليهود والنصارى ) . .

His statement (ﷺ), “On the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire“, and in another narration, “No Muslim would die but Allah would admit in his stead a Jew or a Christian in Hell-Fire” [Muslim #2767b], and in another narration, “There would come people amongst the Muslims on the Day of Resurrection with sins the likeness of a mountain, and Allah would forgive them and He would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians” [Muslim #2767d].

( الفكاك ) بفتح الفاء وكسرها الفتح أفصح وأشهر ، وهو : الخلاص والفداء . ومعنى هذا الحديث ما جاء في حديث أبي هريرة لكل أحد منزل في الجنة ومنزل في النار فالمؤمن إذا دخل الجنة خلفه الكافر في النار لاستحقاقه ذلك بكفره .

Your rescue” is deliverance and ransom. And the meaning of this hadeeth is what has come in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah “There is no one among you who does not have two abodes: An abode in Paradise and an abode in Hell” [1]. So when the believer enters al-Jannah, then the kaafir takes his place in the hell-fire, deserving it by virtue of his kufr (disbelief). Continue reading

Postponing a deed with the intention to perform it: Imam al-Nawawi

Abu Hurayrah narrates in Saheeh Muslim that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

مَنْ مَاتَ وَلَمْ يَغْزُ وَلَمْ يُحَدِّثْ بِهِ نَفْسَهُ مَاتَ عَلَى شُعْبَةٍ مِنْ نِفَاقٍ

Whoever died but did not fight in the way of Allah and without saying to his soul that he intends to do so, dies upon one of the branches of hypocrisy.

قَالَ ابْنُ سَهْمٍ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ فَنُرَى أَنَّ ذَلِكَ كَانَ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم

Ibn Sahm said that ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubaarak said, “So we consider that this was the case during the era of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).

[Saheeh Muslim #1910]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, mentions the following about this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( من مات ، ولم يغز ولم يحدث به نفسه مات على شعبة من نفاق ، قال عبد الله بن المبارك : فنرى أن ذلك كان على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ) قوله : ( نرى ) بضم النون ، أي : نظن ، وهذا الذي قاله ابن المبارك محتمل ،  .

His statement (ﷺ), “Whoever died but did not fight in the way of Allah and without saying to his soul that he intends to do so, dies upon one of the branches of hypocrisy.‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubaarak said, “So we consider that this was the case during the era of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).“. His [i.e. ibn al-Mubaarak] statement, “we consider” – meaning: ‘we think’, and this is that which ibn al-Mubaarak said was likely.

وقد قال غيره : إنه عام ، والمراد أن من فعل هذا فقد أشبه المنافقين المتخلفين عن الجهاد في هذا الوصف ، فإن ترك الجهاد أحد شعب النفاق .

But others have said: Verily this is general, and the intended meaning is that whoever does this, then he resembles the munaafiqoon who were averse to jihaad in this characteristic of his. For verily abandoning jihaad is one of the branches of nifaaq.

وفي هذا الحديث : أن من نوى فعل عبادة فمات قبل فعلها لا يتوجه عليه من الذم ما يتوجه على من مات ولم ينوها

And from this hadeeth is that whoever intends to perform an act of ‘ibaadah but then dies before performing it, then nothing of disgrace is due to him which is due to the one who dies without ever intending to do that.

وقد اختلف أصحابنا فيمن تمكن من الصلاة في أول وقتها فأخرها بنية أن يفعلها في أثنائه فمات قبل فعلها ، أو أخر الحج بعد التمكن إلى سنة أخرى فمات قبل فعله هل يأثم أم لا ؟ والأصح عندهم أنه يأثم في الحج دون الصلاة ؛ لأن مدة الصلاة قريبة ، فلا تنسب إلى تفريط بالتأخير ، بخلاف الحج ، وقيل : يأثم فيهما ، وقيل : لا يأثم فيهما ، وقيل يأثم في الحج الشيخ دون الشاب . والله أعلم

And there has been disagreement among our companions [i.e. in the Shaafi’i madhhab] concerning the one who is able to make [the obligatory] salaah in the early part of its time but postpones it with the intention to do it in the latter part of its time, and then dies before performing it, or concerning the one who postpones the Hajj – after he is able to do it – until another year, and then dies before performing it – are they committing a sin, or not? And the most correct position with them [i.e. in the Shaafi’i madhhab] is that he is sinning concerning the Hajj but not concerning the salaah, because the period for the salaah is close at hand, so delaying it is not attributed to negligence, in contrast to the Hajj. And it is said: he is sinning in both cases. And it is said: he is not sinning in either case. And it is said: The old man in sinning in the case of [postponing] the Hajj, but this is not the case for the young person. And Allah knows best.

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim #1910]

Overlooking the foolishness of those upon falsehood: Sharh al-Nawawi

In Saheeh Muslim, ‘Aa’isha reported that:

أُنَاسٌ مِنَ الْيَهُودِ فَقَالُوا السَّامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَبَا الْقَاسِمِ . قَالَ ” وَعَلَيْكُمْ ” . قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ قُلْتُ بَلْ عَلَيْكُمُ السَّامُ وَالذَّامُ . فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ” يَا عَائِشَةُ لاَ تَكُونِي فَاحِشَةً ” . فَقَالَتْ مَا سَمِعْتَ مَا قَالُوا فَقَالَ ” أَوَلَيْسَ قَدْ رَدَدْتُ عَلَيْهِمُ الَّذِي قَالُوا قُلْتُ وَعَلَيْكُمْ

Some Jews came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and they said, “O Abu’l-Qasim, as-Saam-u-‘Alaikum (lit. may death be upon you)’, whereupon he replied, ‘Wa ‘Alaikum‘.

A’isha reported: In response to these words of theirs, I said [to the Jews], “Rather, let there be death upon you and disgrace also!” So The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “O ‘Aa’isha, do not be foul.” She said, “Didn’t you hear what they said?” Thereupon he said, “And didn’t I return to them what they said when I said, ‘Wa ‘Alaikum‘?”.

[Muslim #2165]

Imam al-Nawawi, in part of his commentary on this incident, wrote:

وفي هذا الحديث استحباب تغافل أهل الفضل عن سفه المبطلين إذا لم تترتب عليه مفسدة . قال الشافعي رحمه الله : الْكَيِّسُ الْعَاقِلُ هُوَ الْفَطِنُ الْمُتَغَافِلُ

“And in this hadeeth is the preference for the people of good to overlook the foolishness of those upon falsehood, so long as it does not lead to evil consequences. And Imam al-Shaafi’ said, ‘The shrewd intelligent one is the clever one who displays outer disregard towards insult and injury’.”

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim #2165]

See also: The Jews used to hope for the supplication of the Prophet

See also: Forbidding the permissible to prevent the forbidden: Tafsir al-Sa’di

“People whose hearts are like the hearts of birds”: Sharh al-Nawawi

Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ أَقْوَامٌ أَفْئِدَتُهُمْ مِثْلُ أَفْئِدَةِ الطَّيْرِ

“There would enter Paradise people whose hearts are like the hearts of birds.”

[Saheeh Muslim #2840]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, wrote the following concerning this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( يدخل الجنة أقوام أفئدتهم مثل أفئدة الطير ) قيل : مثلها في رقتها وضعفها ، كالحديث الآخر : أهل اليمن أرق قلوبا وأضعف أفئدة وقيل : في الخوف والهيبة ، والطير أكثر الحيوان خوفا وفزعا ، كما قال الله تعالى : إنما يخشى الله من عباده العلماء وكأن المراد قوم غلب عليهم الخوف كما جاء عن جماعات من السلف في شدة خوفهم ، وقيل : المراد متوكلون . والله أعلم .

His statement (ﷺ), “There would enter Paradise people whose hearts are like the hearts of birds“.

It is said: the likeness of them in tenderness and softness, like another hadeeth, “The people of Yemen are the most soft-hearted and the most tender-hearted

And it is said: in fear and reverence. And birds are the most frightful and alarm-prone of animals, just as Allah said, “It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah” [35:28], as if the meaning was a people who were overcome by fear, as has been narrated about large numbers of the salaf concerning the severity of their fear.

And it is said: the meaning is al-mutawakkiloon (those who place their reliance and trust upon Allah). And Allah knows best

[Sharh al-Nawai ‘alaa Muslim #2840]

See also: Those who come to Allah with a Pure Heart: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

See also: Birds of a feather flock together

See also: The Importance of Pure Intention: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

A Clarification on Kissing the Black Stone

Imam al-Bukhari, in his Saheeh, brings the following narration in the chapter on Hajj:

عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّهُ جَاءَ إِلَى الْحَجَرِ الأَسْوَدِ فَقَبَّلَهُ، فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ حَجَرٌ لاَ تَضُرُّ وَلاَ تَنْفَعُ، وَلَوْلاَ أَنِّي رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُقَبِّلُكَ مَا قَبَّلْتُكَ

`Umar came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said “No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither harm anyone nor benefit anyone. And had I not seen Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) kissing you I would not have kissed you.”

[Saheeh al-Bukhari #1597]

al-Haafidh ibn Hajar, in his famous commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari, writes the following in his explanation:

قوله : ( لا تضر ولا تنفع ) أي إلا بإذن الله ، وقد روى الحاكم من حديث أبي سعيد أن عمر لما قال هذا قال له علي بن أبي طالب : إنه يضر وينفع ، وذكر أن الله لما أخذ المواثيق على ولد آدم كتب ذلك في رق ، وألقمه الحجر ، قال : وقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : يؤتى يوم القيامة بالحجر الأسود وله لسان ذلق يشهد لمن استلمه بالتوحيد ، وفي إسناده أبو هارون العبدي وهو ضعيف جدا ،

His statement, “You can neither harm nor benefit” – meaning, except by the permission of Allah.

And al-Haakim has narrated a hadeeth from Abu Sa’eed that when ‘Umar said this, ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib said to him,

“Verily it does harm and benefit,” and he mentioned that when Allah took the covenants from the children of Adam (i.e. mankind), He wrote that out of compassion, so the Stone is fed bit by bit by them (i.e. their sins). He said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, ‘On the Day of Resurrection, the Black Stone will be brought with an eloquent tongue, bearing witness for those who touched it while having al-Tawheed.'”

But in the isnaad there is Abu Haaroon al-‘Abdi, and he is da’eef jaddan (i.e. very weak).

وقد روى النسائي من وجه آخر ما يشعر بأن عمر رفع قوله ذلك إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، أخرجه من طريق طاوس ، عن ابن عباس قال : رأيت عمر قبل الحجر ثلاثا ، ثم قال : إنك حجر لا تضر ولا تنفع ، ولولا أني رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قبلك ما قبلتك . ثم قال : ” رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فعل مثل ذلك ” .

And al-Nasaa’i has narrated it by another route by which it is known that the statement of ‘Umar is taken from the Prophet (ﷺ). It comes by way of Taawoos, that ibn ‘Abbaas said,

I saw Umar bin Al-Khattab doing that, then he said: You are just a stone that can neither cause harm or bring benefit; were it not that I saw the Messenger of Allah kissing you I would not have kissed you.’ Then Umar said, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah doing that.'” [al-Nasaa’i #2938, Saheeh]

قال الطبري : إنما قال ذلك عمر لأن الناس كانوا حديثي عهد بعبادة الأصنام ، فخشي عمر أن يظن الجهال أن استلام الحجر من باب تعظيم بعض الأحجار كما كانت العرب تفعل في الجاهلية ، فأراد عمر أن يعلم الناس أن استلامه اتباع لفعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، لا لأن الحجر ينفع ويضر بذاته كما كانت الجاهلية تعتقده في الأوثان ،

al-Tabari said: ‘Umar only said that because the people had recently come from the era of worshiping idols, so ‘Umar feared that the ignorant ones that his touching the Stone fell under into the magnification of certain stones as the Arabs had done in the era of al-Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance). So ‘Umar wanted to teach the people that touching the Stone is following the actions of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), not because the Black Stone can bring benefit or harm in and of itself as it had been believed about idols during al-Jaahiliyyah. 

وقال المهلب : حديث عمر هذا يرد على من قال : إن الحجر يمين الله في الأرض يصافح بها عباده ، ومعاذ الله أن يكون لله جارحة ، وإنما شرع تقبيله اختيارا ليعلم بالمشاهدة طاعة من يطيع ، وذلك شبيه بقصة إبليس حيث أمر بالسجود لآدم .

And al-Muhallib said: the hadeeth of ‘Umar is a refutation of those who say, ‘Verily the Stone is the right hand of Allah on the earth and ‘shaking hands with it’ [i.e. touching it] is ‘ibaadah,” and refuge is sought with Allah from that. And kissing it was only legislated as a choice in order that the obedience of those who obey may be known and witnessed, and that resembles the story of Iblees when he was commanded to prostrate to Adam.

وقال الخطابي : معنى أنه يمين الله في الأرض أن من صافحه في الأرض كان له عند الله عهد ، وجرت العادة بأن العهد يعقده الملك بالمصافحة لمن يريد موالاته والاختصاص به ، فخاطبهم بما يعهدونه .

And al-Khattaabi said: it means that it is the right hand of Allah on the earth, that whoever touches (lit. ‘shakes hands with’) it on the earth, then there is a pact for him with Allah. And traditionally, a pact was made with a ruler by shaking hands for the one who desires his patronage, and doing that exclusively with him, so they agreed to the pact they had made.

وقال المحب الطبري : معناه أن كل ملك إذا قدم عليه الوافد قبل يمينه ، فلما كان الحاج أول ما يقدم يسن له تقبيله نزل منزلة يمين الملك ، ولله المثل الأعلى

And al-Muhibb al-Tabari said: its meaning is that whenever a guest comes before any ruler, he kisses his hand. So when the pilgrim comes, it is more befitting for him to kiss what has been sent down in place of the hand of the ruler, and Allah is above such comparisons.

 وفي قول عمر هذا التسليم للشارع في أمور الدين ، وحسن الاتباع فيما لم يكشف عن معانيها ، وهو قاعدة عظيمة في اتباع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما يفعله ولو لم يعلم الحكمة فيه ، وفيه دفع ما وقع لبعض الجهال من أن في الحجر الأسود خاصة ترجع إلى ذاته ، وفيه بيان السنن بالقول والفعل ، وأن الإمام إذا خشي على أحد من فعله فساد اعتقاد أن يبادر إلى بيان الأمر ويوضح ذلك ، وسيأتي بقية الكلام على التقبيل والاستلام بعد تسعة أبواب . .

And in the statement of ‘Umar is submission to the source of Divine Legislation in the affairs of the deen, and beautiful following (al-ittiba’) in those things which did not disclose their meanings. And this is a great foundational point in following the Prophet (ﷺ) in what he does, even if one does not know the wisdom underlying it.

And in this is a refutation of some of the ignorant ones who claim that the Black Stone has a nature  of its own. And in this is a clarification that the sunnah is by both speech and action (i.e. on the part of ‘Umar), and that if the imam fears that one of his actions would corrupt the beliefs, that he would take the steps to explain the affair and clarify that. And the rest of the statements concerning kissing and touching the Black Stone will come after nine chapters.

قال شيخنا في ” شرح الترمذي ” : فيه كراهة تقبيل ما لم يرد الشرع بتقبيله ، وأما قول الشافعي : ومهما قبل من البيت فحسن ، فلم يرد به الاستحباب ، لأن المباح من جملة الحسن عند الأصوليين

And our sheikh said in Sharh al-Tirmidhi : In this is the dislike of kissing that which the sharee’ah does not prescribe to kiss. And as for the statement of al-Shaafi’: and whomever one kisses from his household, then that is fine, rather it is recommended, because it is value-neutral (mubaah) from good things with those who study usool al-Fiqh.

  تكميل  : اعترض بعض الملحدين على الحديث الماضي ، فقال : كيف سودته خطايا المشركين ، ولم تبيضه طاعات أهل التوحيد ؟ وأجيب بما قال ابن قتيبة : لو شاء الله لكان ذلك ، وإنما أجرى الله العادة بأن السواد يصبغ ، ولا ينصبغ على العكس من البياض . وقال المحب الطبري : في بقائه أسود عبرة لمن له بصيرة ، فإن الخطايا إذا أثرت في الحجر الصلد فتأثيرها في القلب أشد . قال : وروي عن ابن عباس : إنما غيره بالسواد لئلا ينظر أهل الدنيا إلى زينة الجنة ، فإن ثبت ، فهذا هو الجواب . قلت : أخرجه الحميدي في فضائل مكة بإسناد ضعيف ، والله أعلم .

A supplement: some of the heretics have objected to the previous hadeeth [which states that the Black Stone was blackened by the sins of the sons of Adam], they say, “How can the sins of the mushrikoon blacken it, while the obedience of the people of al-Tawheed do not whiten it?” And Ibn Qutaybah responded to this by saying, “If Allah has wished for that, then it would be so, But Allah has caused it to be the case that black usually changes other colors and its not changed itself, which is the opposite to what happens with white.”

And al-Muhibb al-Tabari said, “In its remaining black is a lesson for those who have insight, for verily if the sins are able to leave a mark on a hard rock, then its marks marks on the heart are more severe.”

He said: narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas: It was only changed to black in order that the people of this world might look forward to the beauty of al-Jannah. And if this is true, then this is the answer. I [Ibn Hajar] say: this has come from al-Humaidi concerning the virtues of Mecca through a weak isnaad. And Allah knows best.

[Fath al-Baari #1520]

And Imam al-Nawawi, after mentioning some of the various fiqhi positions on the issues, commented on the same hadeeth by writing:

 وأما قول عمر – رضي الله عنه – : ( لقد علمت أنك حجر وإني لأعلم أنك حجر وأنك لا تضر ولا تنفع ) فأراد به بيان الحث على الاقتداء برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في تقبيله ، ونبه على أنه لولا الاقتداء به لما فعله ، وإنما قال : وإنك لا تضر ولا تنفع ؛ لئلا يغتر بعض قريبي العهد بالإسلام الذين كانوا ألفوا عبادة الأحجار وتعظيمها ورجاء نفعها ، وخوف الضرر بالتقصير في تعظيمها ، وكان العهد قريبا بذلك ، فخاف عمر – رضي الله عنه – أن يراه بعضهم يقبله ، ويعتني به ، فيشتبه عليه فبين أنه لا يضر ولا ينفع بذاته ، وإن كان امتثال ما شرع فيه ينفع بالجزاء والثواب فمعناه أنه لا قدرة له على نفع ولا ضر ، وأنه حجر مخلوق كباقي المخلوقات التي لا تضر ولا تنفع وأشاع عمر هذا في الموسم ؛ ليشهد في البلدان ، ويحفظه عنه أهل الموسم المختلفو الأوطان . والله أعلم .

And as for the statement of ‘Umar (raadiAllaahu ‘anhu), “I knew that you are only a stone and verily I know that you are a stone and that you are not able to harm nor benefit anyone“, then the intention by that is to clarify the eagerness to emulate the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) in kissing it, and to point out that he would not have emulated that if the Prophet (ﷺ) had not done it. And he said, “And verily you cannot harm not benefit” lest it mislead some of those who were new to Islam who were used to worshiping and magnifying stones, hoping for their benefit and fearing harm in falling short in their magnification. And is was still close to that era, so ‘Umar feared that some of them would see him kissing it, and they would be concerned about it and imitate him in it (i.e. without the correct intention), so he clarified that the stone is not able to harm nor benefit anyone in and of itself. And if one complies with what has been divinely legislated concerning it, then he it will benefit him with rewards, so the meaning is that is does not have any power over benefit or harm, and that it is a created stone like the rest of the created things which can neither harm nor benefit anyone, and ‘Umar propogated this message during the Hajj season, in order that it would be known throughout the lands, and so the people of the season would protect the various lands from that (shirk). And Allah knows best.

[Al-Minhaaj bi Sharh Saheeh Muslim #1270]

See also: The Black Stone was blackened by the sins of the children of Adam

See also: Two Qur’anic proofs that Ismaa’eel is the sacrificed son: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

The reward is according to your hardship: Sharh al-Nawawi

Al-Qaasim narrated that the Mother of Believers said:

قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ بِنُسُكَيْنِ وَأَصْدُرُ بِنُسُكٍ وَاحِدٍ

I said, “O Messenger of Allah! The people return (from Mecca) having done two acts of worship (both Hajj and‘Umrah), but I am coming back with only one.

قَالَ ‏ “‏ انْتَظِرِي فَإِذَا طَهَرْتِ فَاخْرُجِي إِلَى التَّنْعِيمِ فَأَهِلِّي مِنْهُ ثُمَّ الْقَيْنَا عِنْدَ كَذَا وَكَذَا – قَالَ أَظُنُّهُ قَالَ غَدًا – وَلَكِنَّهَا عَلَى قَدْرِ نَصَبِكِ – أَوْ قَالَ – نَفَقَتِكِ ‏”‏

He said, “You should wait and when the period of menses is over, you should go to Tan’im and put on lhram and then meet us at such and such time (and I think he said tomorrow). And it [the reward of this ‘Umrah] is according to your hardship”, or he said, “your spending.”

[Muslim #1211]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, wrote about this hadeeth:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( ولكنها على قدر نصبك أو قال : نفقتك ) هذا ظاهر في أن الثواب والفضل في العبادة يكثر بكثرة النصب والنفقة ، والمراد النصب الذي لا يذمه الشرع ، وكذا النفقة .

His (ﷺ) statement “‘And it is according to your hardship’, or he said, ‘your spending’” – It is apparent that the reward and excellence of the (act of) worship increases with an increase in hardship and spending, and the intended meaning of hardship is that which is not dispraised by the sharee’ah, and similarly with spending.

[Al-Minhaaj bi Sharh Saheeh Muslim]

Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Sharh al-Nawawi

Imam Muslim, in his Saheeh in the chapter entitled “Fasting on the Day of ‘Aashooraa'” reports the following from Ibn ‘Abbaas:

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ فَوَجَدَ الْيَهُودَ صِيَامًا يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَا هَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي تَصُومُونَهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا هَذَا يَوْمٌ عَظِيمٌ أَنْجَى اللَّهُ فِيهِ مُوسَى وَقَوْمَهُ وَغَرَّقَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَقَوْمَهُ فَصَامَهُ مُوسَى شُكْرًا فَنَحْنُ نَصُومُهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ فَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ وَأَوْلَى بِمُوسَى مِنْكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَصَامَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ ‏.‏

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) arrived in al-Madinah and found the Jews observing fast on the day of ‘Aashooraa’. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to them, “What is this day that you observe fast on it?” They said, “It is a great day when Allah delivered Moosaa and his people, and drowned the Firawn and his people, and Moosaa observed fast out of gratitude so we fast it.” Upon this the Messenger of Allah said, “We have more right, and we have a closer connection with Moosaa than you have; so Allah’s Messenger observed fast, and gave orders that it should be observed.

[Saheeh Muslim #1130]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim, brought the following explanation:

قوله : ( أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قدم المدينة فوجد اليهود يصومون عاشوراء ، وقالوا : إن موسى صامه وإنه اليوم الذي نجوا فيه من فرعون وغرق فرعون ، فصامه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وأمر بصيامه ، وقال : نحن أحق بموسى منهم )  .

His statement [in another narration], “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) arrived in al-Madinah and found the Jews observing fast on the day of ‘Aashooraa’. And they said to him, ‘Verily Moosaa fasted it, and verily it is the day on which they were saved from Firawn and Firawn was drowned.’ So the Prophet fasted it, and commanded it’s fasting. And he said, ‘We have more right to Moosaa than them.'”

قال المازري : خبر اليهود غير مقبول ، فيحتمل أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أوحي إليه بصدقهم فيما قالوه ، أو تواتر عنده النقل بذلك حتى حصل له العلم به . ـ

Al-Maaziri said: The information of the Jews is not accepted, so it is likely that the Prophet (ﷺ) received revelation of the veracity of what they said, or it was reported with such a high degree of mutually affirming transmission such that he knew of it.

قال القاضي عياض ردا على المازري : قد روى مسلم أن قريشا كانت تصومه ، فلما قدم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة صامه ، فلم يحدث له بقول اليهود حكم يحتاج إلى الكلام عليه ، وإنما هي صفة حال ، وجواب سؤال ، فقوله : ( صامه ) ليس فيه أنه ابتدأ صومه حينئذ بقولهم ، ولو كان هذا لحملناه على أنه أخبر به من أسلم من علمائهم كابن سلام وغيره ،

Al-Qaadhi ‘Iyaadh said a refutation of al-Maaziri: Muslim has narrated that the Quraish used to fast it [i.e. the day of ‘Aashooraa’], so when the Prophet (ﷺ) arrived in al-Madinah he fasted it. So it was not introduced to him by the speech of the Jews as a legislative ruling requiring a comment about it; it was only a description of the situation, and a response to the question. So his statement, “He fasted it” – this is not an initiation of  his fasting at that time due to their statement, and even if it did carry that meaning [i.e. that the Prophet instituted the fasting based on a single report], then it is likely that he was informed of it by one of those who became a Muslim from among their scholars, such as Ibn al-Salaam of other than him.

قال القاضي : وقد قال بعضهم : يحتمل أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يصومه بمكة ، ثم ترك صيامه حتى علم ما عند أهل الكتاب فيه فصامه ، قال القاضي : وما ذكرناه أولى بلفظ الحديث

Al-Qaadhi said: And some of them have said, “It is likely that he (ﷺ) used to fast [the day of ‘Aashooraa’] in Mecca, then he abandoned his fasting [on that day] until he learned that the Ahl al-Kitaab would fast it. And al-Qaadhi said: And what we have mentioned of it is according to the wording of the hadeeth.

قلت : المختار قول المازري ، ومختصر ذلك أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يصومه كما تصومه قريش في مكة ، ثم قدم المدينة فوجد اليهود يصومونه فصامه أيضا بوحي أو تواتر أو اجتهاد ، لا بمجرد أخبار آحادهم . والله أعلم

I [Imam al-Nawawi] say: The statement of al-Maaziri is selected, and the summary of that is that he (ﷺ) used to fast it [‘Aashooraa’] just as the Quraish fasted it in Mecca, then when he arrived in al-Madinah he found the Jews fasting it, so he fasted it also according to revelation or mutawaatir reports or out of independent judgement, but not merely according to a single report. And Allah knows best.

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim pg 204]

See also: The Four Stages of Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: Khutbah regarding ‘Aashooraa’: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: A brief clarification on ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

The best of the Taabi’een: Uwais al-Qarni

Imam Muslim narrates in his saheeh from Asair ibn Jabal that:

أن أهل الكوفة وفدوا إلى عمر وفيهم رجل ممن كان يسخر بأويس فقال عمر هل هاهنا أحد من القرنيين فجاء ذلك الرجل فقال عمر إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قد قال إن رجلا يأتيكم من اليمن يقال له أويس لا يدع باليمن غير أم له قد كان به بياض فدعا الله فأذهبه عنه إلا موضع الدينار أو الدرهم فمن لقيه منكم فليستغفر لكم

A delegation from Koofah came to ‘Umar. Among them was one who used to make fun of Uwais. ‘Umar inquired, “Is there anyone among you who is from Qaran?” So this man stepped forward. Then ‘Umar said, “I heard Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saying, ‘A man will come to you from Yemen named Uwais. He will have left in the Yemen only his mother. He was suffering from leucoderma [a skin condition involving loss of pigmentation in certain areas] and prayed to Allah to be cured of it. So he was cured except for a space of the size of a dinar or a dirham. Whoever of you should meet him should ask him to pray for forgiveness for him.”‘

Imam Muslim also records another narration from a different chain in the same chapter:

عن عمر بن الخطاب قال إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن خير التابعين رجل يقال له أويس وله والدة وكان به بياض فمروه فليستغفر لكم

‘Umar said: “I heard Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saying, ‘The best of the Taabi’een [the generation after the sahaabah] is a man called Uwais, he will have a mother and he will be suffering from leucoderma. Go to him and ask him to pray for forgiveness for you”.

[Saheeh Muslim #2542]

Imam al-Nawawi, in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, writes:

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( فمن لقيه منكم فليستغفر لكم ) وفي الرواية الأخرى ( قال لعمر : فإن استطعت أن يستغفر لك فافعل ) هذه منقبة ظاهرة لأويس رضي الله عنه . وفيه استحباب طلب الدعاء والاستغفار من أهل الصلاح ، وإن كان الطالب أفضل منهم .

His statement (ﷺ), “Whoever of you should meet him should ask him to pray for forgiveness for him” and in another narration, “He said to ‘Umar, ‘And if it is possible for you, ask him to ask forgiveness for you’” – this is a clear virtue of Uwais (radiAllaahu ‘anhu). And in this there is the recommendation to seek the du’a and istighfaar from righteous people, even if the seeker is better than them.

قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن خير التابعين رجل يقال له أويس إلى آخره ) هذا صريح في أنه خير التابعين ، وقد يقال : قد قال أحمد بن حنبل وغيره : أفضل التابعين سعيد بن المسيب ، والجواب أن مرادهم أن سعيدا أفضل في العلوم الشرعية كالتفسير والحديث والفقه ونحوها ، لا في الخير عند الله تعالى . وفي هذه اللفظة معجزة ظاهرة أيضا .

His statement (ﷺ), “The best of the Taabi’een is a man called Uwais…” – this is clear statement that he is the best of the taabi’een. And it has been said, “Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others have said, ‘The most virtuous of the taabi’een is Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib'” and the response to that is that Sa’eed was the most virtuous in the sciences of sharee’ah such as tafsir and hadeeth and fiqh and so on, not the best in the estimation of Allah, exalted is He. And in this wording there is a clear miracle also.

[Sharh al-Nawawi ‘alaa Muslim 16/94-95]