Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 114-123: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the twelfth installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 114-123. This passage addresses some of the claims and actions of the Jews. See the series guide here for more information about this series and other installments.

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّـهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَىٰ فِي خَرَابِهَا ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلَّا خَائِفِينَ ۚ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

And who is more unjust than those who prevent the name of Allah from being mentioned in His mosques and strive to destroy them. Those ones should only enter them in fear. In this life, they will have disgrace, and in the hereafter they will have a tremendous punishment. [2:114]

لا أحد أظلم من الذين منعوا ذِكْرَ الله في المساجد من إقام الصلاة، وتلاوة القرآن، ونحو ذلك، وجدُّوا في تخريبها بالهدم أو الإغلاق، أو بمنع المؤمنين منها. أولئك الظالمون ما كان ينبغي لهم أن يدخلوا المساجد إلا على خوف ووجل من العقوبة، لهم بذلك صَغار وفضيحة في الدنيا، ولهم في الآخرة عذاب شديد.ـ

114. No one is more unjust than those who prevent the remembrance of Allah – such as establishing the prayer, reciting the Qur’an, etc. – in the mosques and who strive to destroy them by demolishing them or closing them or by prevent the believers from coming to them. Those wrong-doers should not enter the mosques except in a state of fear and dread of the punishment. Because of this, they will face humiliation and disgrace in this world, and in the hereafter they will face a severe punishment.

وَلِلَّـهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

The east and west belong to Allah. So wherever you turn, there is Allah’s face. Allah is certainly expansive, all-knowing. [1:115]

ولله جهتا شروق الشمس وغروبها وما بينهما، فهو مالك الأرض كلها. فأي جهة توجهتم إليها في الصلاة بأمر الله لكم فإنكم مبتغون وجهه، لم تخرجوا عن ملكه وطاعته. إن الله واسع الرحمة بعباده، عليم بأفعالهم، لا يغيب عنه منها شيء.ـ

115. The directions of both the sun’s rise and its setting and all that is in between them belong to Allah, for He is the owner of the entire world. So whichever direction you turn towards in prayer, following what Allah has commanded you to, then are seeking His face, and you are never outside of His ownership and obedience. Allah has expansive mercy towards His slaves and all-knowing of their actions, with nothing at all being hidden from Him.

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّـهُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَانَهُ ۖ بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ

And they say, “Allah has taken a son.” Exalted is He! Rather, what is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. Allah are obedient to Him. [2:116]

وقالت اليهود والنصارى والمشركون: اتخذ الله لنفسه ولدًا، تنزَّه الله- سبحانه- عن هذا القول الباطل، بل كل مَن في السموات والأرض ملكه وعبيده، وهم جميعًا خاضعون له، مسخَّرون تحت تدبيره.ـ

116. The Jews, Christians, and polytheists say, “Allah has taken a son for Himself.” Allah, exalted is He, is far removed from this false statement. On the contrary, everyone in the heavens and the earth is His property and slave, and all of them are subordinate to Him, subject to His control.

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Originator of the heavens and the earth. And when He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be!” and it is. [2:117]

والله تعالى هو خالق السموات والأرض على غير مثال سبق. وإذا قدَّر أمرًا وأراد كونه فإنما يقول له: كن فيكون.ـ

117. Allah is the one who created the heavens and the earth without any previous example or model. When He decrees something and wants to it to be, He only says to it, “Be!” and it is.

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلَا يُكَلِّمُنَا اللَّـهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَا آيَةٌ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۘ تَشَابَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ

And those who don’t know say, “If only Allah would speak to us or give us a sign.” Likewise, those before them said a similar statement. Their hearts are alike. We have made the signs clear for people who are certain. [2:118]

وقال الجهلة من أهل الكتاب وغيرهم لنبي الله ورسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم على سبيل العناد: هلا يكلمنا الله مباشرة ليخبرنا أنك رسوله، أو تأتينا معجزة من الله تدل على صدقك. ومثل هذا القول قالته الأمم من قبلُ لرسلها عنادًا ومكابرة؛ بسبب تشابه قلوب السابقين واللاحقين في الكفر والضَّلال، قد أوضحنا الآيات للذين يصدِّقون تصديقًا جازمًا؛ لكونهم مؤمنين بالله تعالى، متَّبعين ما شرعه لهم.ـ

118. The ignorant people – both from the Ahl al-Kitab and others – stubbornly said to Allah’s prophet and messenger Muhammad, “Why doesn’t Allah speak to us directly to tell us that you are His messenger, or why doesn’t a miracle from Allah come to us to show that you are truthful?” And the previous nations, out of their stubbornness and arrogance, had said similar statements to their messengers. That is because the hearts of previous and later peoples were similar in their disbelief and misguidance. We have made our signs clear to those who believe with certain faith. That is because they are believers in Allah, following what He has legislated for them.

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ

We have certainly sent you with the truth as a bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the Hellfire. [2:119]

إنا أرسلناك- أيها الرسول- بالدين الحق المؤيد بالحجج والمعجزات، فبلِّغه للناس مع تبشير المؤمنين بخيري الدنيا والآخرة، وتخويف المعاندين بما ينتظرهم من عذاب الله، ولست- بعد البلاغ- مسئولا عن كفر مَن كفر بك؛ فإنهم يدخلون النار يوم القيامة، ولا يخرجون منها.ـ

119. We have certainly sent you – O Messenger – with the true religion which is supported by proofs and miracles. So convey it to mankind while giving glad tidings of good in both this life and next to the believers and striking fear in the obstinate disbelievers of the punishment of Allah that awaits them. And once you have conveyed the message, you will not be held responsible for the disbelief of those who disbelieved in you. On the Day of Resurrection, they will enter the Hellfire and never be removed for it.

وَلَن تَرْضَىٰ عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلَا النَّصَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّـهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ ۗ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۙ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّـهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

Neither the Jews nor the Christians will ever be pleased with you until you follow their religion. Say, “Allah’s guidance is the guidance.” And if you were to follow their desires after knowledge has come to you, there would be no protector nor helper for you against Allah. [1:120]

ولن ترضى عنك- أيها الرسول- اليهود ولا النصارى إلا إذا تركت دينك واتبعتَ دينهم. قل لهم: إن دين الإسلام هو الدين الصحيح. ولئن اتبعت أهواء هؤلاء بعد الذي جاءك من الوحي ما لك عند الله مِن وليٍّ ينفعك، ولا نصير ينصرك. هذا موجه إلى الأمّة عامة وإن كان خطابًا للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.ـ

120. Neither the Jews nor the Christians will ever be pleased with you – O Messenger – unless you leave your religion and follow their religion. Tell them, “The religion of Islam is the true religion.” And if you were to follow the desires of those people after the revelation has come to you, there would be no protector against Allah who could bring you any benefit, nor any helper who could help you. This speech is directed to all of the Muslims even if it is specifically addressing the Prophet.

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Those to whom We gave the scripture recite it as it should be recited – they are the ones who believe in it. And those who disbelieve in it – they are the ones who are in loss. [1:121]

الذين أعطيناهم الكتاب من اليهود والنصارى، يقرؤونه القراءة الصحيحة، ويتبعونه حق الاتباع، ويؤمنون بما جاء فيه من الإيمان برسل الله، ومنهم خاتمهم نبينا ورسولنا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، ولا يحرفون ولا يبدِّلون ما جاء فيه. هؤلاء هم الذين يؤمنون بالنبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وبما أنزل عليه، وأما الذين بدَّلوا بعض الكتاب وكتموا بعضه، فهؤلاء كفار بنبي الله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وبما أنزل عليه، ومن يكفر به فأولئك هم أشد الناس خسرانًا عند الله.ـ

121. Those Jews and Christians to whom We granted the scripture who recite it with the correct recitation and follow it in the correct way and ascribe to the belief in Allah’s Messengers – including the seal of the Messengers, our Prophet and Messenger Muhammad – that it contains and do not distort or change any part of it – those are the ones who believe in the Prophet Muhammad and what has been revealed to him. But those who change parts of the scripture and conceal others – those are the ones who disbelieve in the Prophet of Allah Muhammad and what has been revealed to him. And whoever disbelieves in him are the people in the greatest state of loss before Allah.

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

O Children of Israa’eel, remember My favor which I bestowed upon you when I favored you over all creation. [2:122]

يا ذرية يعقوب اذكروا نعمي الكثيرة عليكم، وأني فَضَّلتكم على عالَمي زمانكم بكثرة أنبيائكم، وما أُنزل عليهم من الكتب.ـ

122. O offspring of Ya’qub, remember My many favors upon you, and that I favored you over all creation of your time with the great number of prophets that you had and with the scriptures that were sent down to you.

وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَّا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

And fear a day when no soul can avail another soul in the least and when no ransom will be accepted from him nor will any intercession benefit him, nor they will be helped.  [1:123]

وخافوا أهوال يوم الحساب إذ لا تغني نفس عن نفس شيئًا، ولا يقبل الله منها فدية تنجيها من العذاب، ولا تنفعها وساطة، ولا أحد ينصرها.ـ

123. And fear the terrors of the Day of Reckoning when no soul can help another at all, nor will Allah accept any ransom from a soul to save it from the punishment, nor will any intermediary be able to benefit it, nor will there be anyone to help it.

[al-Tafsir al-Muyassar pages 18-19]

See also: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar Translation Index

See also: “And who is more unjust than…”: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: An Example of Reconciling Multiple Reports on the Reasons for Revelation: al-Suyooti

See also: Recite the Book with its true recitation

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.