Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 104-113: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the eleventh installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 104-113. This passage focuses on provides a series of instructions and clarifications regarding Muslim conduct and certain statements of the disbelievers. See the series guide here for more information about this series and other installments.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقُولُوا رَاعِنَا وَقُولُوا انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُوا ۗ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

O you who believe, do not say, “Pay attention to us!” but say, “Look after us” and listen. And the disbelievers will have a painful punishment. [2:104]

يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تقولوا للرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم: راعنا، أي: راعنا سمعك، فافهم عنا وأفهمنا؛ لأن اليهود كانوا يقولونها للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يلوون ألسنتهم بها، يقصدون سبَّه ونسبته إلى الرعونة، وقولوا- أيها المؤمنون- بدلا منها: انظرنا، أي انظر إلينا وتعهَّدْنا، وهي تؤدي المعنى المطلوب نفسه واسمعوا ما يتلى عليكم من كتاب ربكم وافهموه. وللجاحدين عذاب موجع.ـ

104. O you who believe, do not say, “Pay attention to us!” to the Messenger, which means, “turn your hearing towards us, so that you understand and comprehend us.” That is because the Jews used to say that to the Prophet while twisting it with their tongues, intending to insult him and imply that he was dim-witted. Instead, O believers, say, “Look after us,” which means, “Watch over us and take care of us,” which conveys the intended message. And listen to what he recites to us from your Lord’s Book and understand it. And there is an agonizing punishment for those who refuse.

مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ

Neither the People of the Book who disbelieve nor the pagans would like for any good to be sent down to you from your Lord. But Allah selects whomever He wishes for His mercy. And Allah is the owner of great bounty. [2:105]

ما يحب الكفار من أهل الكتاب والمشركين أن يُنزَّل عليكم أدنى خير من ربكم قرآنًا أو علمًا، أو نصرًا أو بشارة. والله يختص برحمته مَن يشاء مِن عباده بالنبوة والرسالة. والله ذو العطاء الكثير الواسع.ـ

105. The disbelievers – whether the People of the Book or Pagans – would not like for even the smallest amount of good to be sent down to you from your Lord – whether that be a part of the Qur’an, or knowledge, or assistance, or good news. But Allah selects any of His slaves that He wishes for His mercy of granting them the role of Prophet and Messenger. And Allah is the owner of a great and expansive gift.

مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Whatever ayah We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring something better than it or equal to it. Don’t you know that Allah is able to do all things? [2:106]

ما نبدِّل من آية أو نُزِلها من القلوب والأذهان نأت بأنفع لكم منها، أو نأت بمثلها في التكليف والثواب، ولكلٍ حكمة. ألم تعلم- أيها النبي- أنت وأمتك أن الله قادر لا يعجزه شيء؟ـ

106. Whatever ayah We replace or remove from people’s hearts and minds, We bring something more beneficial for them, or We bring something similar in terms of obligation and reward, and all of this is for a reason. Don’t you, O Prophet, and your nation know that Allah is all-powerful and nothing is difficult for Him?

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

Don’t you know that to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth? And besides Allah there is no protector or helper for you. [2:107]

أما علمتَ- أيها النبي- أنت وأمتك أن الله تعالى هو المالك المتصرف في السموات والأرض؟ يفعل ما يشاء، ويحكم ما يريد، ويأمر عباده وينهاهم كيفما شاء، وعليهم الطاعة والقَبول. وليعلم من عصى أن ليس لأحد من دون الله من وليٍّ يتولاهم، ولا نصير يمنعهم من عذاب الله.ـ

107. Don’t you, O Prophet, and your nation know that Allah is the complete owner and ruler of the heavens and the earth? He does whatever He wills, legislates whatever He wants, and commands and forbids His slaves however He wishes, and they must obey and accept. And whoever disobeys should know that there is no protector besides Allah who can protect him and there is no helper who prevent Allah’s punishment from reaching them.

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُوا رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ

Or do you want to ask your Messenger as Moosaa had been asked before? And whoever replaces faith with disbelief has certainly gone far off the right path. [2:108]

بل أتريدون- أيها الناس- أن تطلبوا من رسولكم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أشياء بقصد العناد والمكابرة، كما طُلِبَ مثل ذلك من موسى. علموا أن من يختر الكفر ويترك الإيمان فقد خرج عن صراط الله المستقيم إلى الجهل والضَّلال.ـ

108. Or do you, O people, want to ask your messenger Muhammad to do certain things out of stubbornness and arrogance, just as similar things were asked of Moosaa? They knew that whoever chooses to disbelieve and abandon faith has left Allah’s straight path for ignorance and misguidance.

وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّـهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Many of the People of the Book would love it if they could turn you back to being disbelievers after you have believed. This is out of envy of what you have after the truth has been made clear to them. So pardon and overlook until Allah brings His command. Allah is certainly all-powerful over everything. [2:109]

تمنى كثير من أهل الكتاب أن يرجعوكم بعد إيمانكم كفارًا كما كنتم من قبلُ تعبدون الأصنام؛ بسبب الحقد الذي امتلأت به نفوسهم من بعد ما تبيَّن لهم صدق نبي الله ورسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما جاء به، فتجاوزوا عمَّا كان منهم من إساءة وخطأ، واصفحوا عن جهلهم، حتى يأتي الله بحكمه فيهم بقتالهم وقد جاء ووقع، وسيعاقبهم لسوء أفعالهم. إن الله على كل شيء قدير لا يعجزه شيء.ـ

109. Many of the People of the Book wish that they could make you go back, after to having believed, to being disbelievers just as you had been before when you were worshiping idols. That is because of the hatred that has filled their souls after the truthfulness of what Allah’s prophet and messenger Muhammad brought them became clear to them. So disregard the ill-behavior and mistakes that they do and pardon them for their ignorance until Allah brings His command to fight them – which did come and was enacted – and He will punish them for their evil actions. Allah is all-powerful over all things; nothing is challenging for Him.

وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ۚ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّـهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

And establish the prayer and give the zakah. And whatever part of good send forth for yourselves, you will find it with Allah. Allah is seeing of all that you do. [2:110]

واشتغلوا- أيها المؤمنون- بأداء الصلاة على وجهها الصحيح، وإعطاء الزكاة المفروضة. واعلموا أنَّ كل خير تقدمونه لأنفسكم تجدون ثوابه عند الله في الآخرة. إنه تعالى بصير بكل أعمالكم، وسيجازيكم عليها.ـ

110. Occupy yourselves – O believers – with performing the prayer in the correct manner and giving the required zakah. And know that for every good that you put forth for yourselves, you will find its reward with Allah in the Hereafter. Allah is all-seeing of every one of your actions, and He will reward you for them.

وَقَالُوا لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ ۗ تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ ۗ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

They say, “No one will ever enter Jannah except if he is a Jew or a Christian.” That is what they wish. Say, “Bring your proof if you are telling the truth.” [2:111]

ادَّعى كلٌّ من اليهود والنصارى أن الجنة خاصة بطائفته لا يدخلها غيرهم، تلك أوهامهم الفاسدة. قل لهم- أيها الرسول-: أحضروا دليلكم على صحة ما تدَّعون إن كنتم صادقين في دعواكم.ـ

111. Both the Jews and the Christians claim that Jannah is exclusively for their group, with no one else able to enter it. That is what they incorrectly think. Tell them, O Prophet, “Bring the evidence to prove what you claim if you are correct in your claim.”

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّـهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Rather, whoever submits his face to Allah and is a good doer will have a reward with his Lord and they shall not fear nor will they grieve. [2:112]

ليس الأمر كما زعموا أنَّ الجنة تختص بطائفة دون غيرها، وإنما يدخل الجنَّة مَن أخلص لله وحده لا شريك له، وهو متبع للرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم في كل أقواله وأعماله. فمن فعل ذلك فله ثواب عمله عند ربه في الآخرة، وهو دخول الجنة، وهم لا يخافون فيما يستقبلونه من أمر الآخرة، ولا هم يحزنون على ما فاتهم من حظوظ الدنيا.ـ

112. It is not as they claim, that Jannah is only for one faction and not others. The truth is that whoever worships Allah alone with no partners while following the Messenger Muhammad in all his statements and deeds will enter Jannah. Whoever does that will have a reward for his deeds with his Lord in the Hereafter, and that reward is entrance into Jannah. They will not fear what lies ahead of them in the hereafter, nor will they grieve over the things they missed out on in the worldly life.

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۚ فَاللَّـهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

And the Jews say, “The Christians have nothing to stand on,” and the Christians say, “The Jews have nothing to stand on,” while they recite the scripture. Likewise, those who do not know say statements similar to theirs. So Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about what they used to differ. [2:113]

وقالت اليهود: ليست النصارى على شيء من الدين الصحيح، وكذلك قالت النصارى في اليهود وهم يقرؤون التوراة والإنجيل، وفيهما وجوب الإيمان بالأنبياء جميعًا. كذلك قال الذين لا يعلمون من مشركي العرب وغيرهم مثل قولهم، أي قالوا لكل ذي دين: لست على شيء، فالله يفصل بينهم يوم القيامة فيما اختلفوا فيه مِن أمر الدين، ويجازي كلا بعمله.ـ

113. The Jews say, “The Christians are not on a true religion at all.” The Christians say the same thing about the Jews despite the fact that they recite the Tawrah and Injeel and both contain the order to believe in all of the prophets. Likewise, the Pagan Arabs and others who do not know anything say statements similar to theirs. That is, they say to anyone with a religion, “You have nothing to stand on.” Then, of the Day of Resurrection, Allah will sort between them regarding the religious issues which they used to differ about and repay them all for their deeds.

[al-Tafsir al-Muyassar pages 16-18]

See also: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar Translation Index

For more about 2:104, see: Forbidding the permissible to prevent the forbidden: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Does the term “al-Mushrikoon” include the Ahl al-Kitaab? – Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: A Primer on Abrogation: al-Zarkashi

For more on 2:111, see: “It will not be in accordance with you desires”

For more on 2:113, see: The Jews Say the Christians Have Nothing to Stand on …: Tafsir ibn Kathir

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.