Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 97-103: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the tenth installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 97-103. This passage focuses on the pattern of the Children of Israa’eel breaking their covenants and refusing to believe. See the series guide here for more information about this series and other installments.

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Say, “Whoever is an enemy to Jibril, it is he who brought down the Qur’an to your heart by Allah’s permission, affirming what you had with you, and as a guidance and glad tiding to the believers.” [2:97]

قل- أيها الرسول- لليهود حين قالوا: إن جبريل هو عدونا من الملائكة: من كان عدوًا لجبريل فإنه نزَّل القرآن على قلبك بإذن الله تعالى مصدِّقًا لما سبقه من كتب الله، وهاديًا إلى الحق، ومبشرًا للمصدِّقين به بكل خير في الدنيا والآخرة.ـ

97. O Messenger, when the Jews say, “Jibril is our enemy angel,” tell them, “Whoever is an enemy to Jibril, he brought down the Qur’an to your heart by Allah’s permission, affirming the previous scriptures from Allah and serving as a guidance to the truth and offering the promise of every good in this life and the next life for those who believe in it.”

مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلَّـهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His angels, His messengers, Jibril and Mikal, then Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers. [2:98]

من عادى الله وملائكته، ورسله من الملائكة أو البشر، وبخاصة المَلَكان جبريلُ وميكالُ؛ لأن اليهود زعموا أن جبريل عدوهم، وميكال وليُّهم، فأعلمهم الله أنه من عادى واحدًا منهما فقد عادى الآخر، وعادى الله أيضًا، فإن الله عدو للجاحدين ما أنزل على رسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم.ـ

98. Whoever shows enmity towards Allah, His angels, His messengers – whether they be angels or human beings -, and especially these two angels: Jibril and Mikal – for the Jews claim that Jibril is their enemy and that Mikal is their guardian – then Allah is informing them that whoever shows enmity towards one of them has shown enmity towards the other and has also shown enmity towards Allah. That is because Allah is the enemy of those who oppose what He has sent down to His messenger, Muhammad.

وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ ۖ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلَّا الْفَاسِقُونَ

And We have sent down clear signs to you. No one would disbelieve in them except for the criminals. [2:99]

ولقد أنزلنا إليك- أيها الرسول- آيات بينات واضحات تدل على أنّك رسول من الله صدقا وحقا، وما ينكر تلك الآيات إلا الخارجون عن دين الله.ـ

99. And We have sent down plain and clear signs to you, O Messenger, showing that you really and truly are a messenger from Allah. No one would reject these signs except for those who have gone outside of Allah’s religion.

أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُوا عَهْدًا نَّبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Isn’t it true that every time they took a covenant, a group of them threw it away? Actually, most of them do not believe. [2:100]

ما أقبح حال بني إسرائيل في نقضهم للعهود!! فكلما عاهدوا عهدًا طرح ذلك العهد فريق منهم، ونقضوه، فتراهم يُبْرِمون العهد اليوم وينقضونه غدًا، بل أكثرهم لا يصدِّقون بما جاء به نبي الله ورسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم.ـ

100. What a terrible state the Children of Israa’eel are in regarding how they break their covenants! Every time they took a covenant, a group of them threw that covenant off and broke it, so you would see them accept a covenant today and break it tomorrow. The truth is that most of them do not believe in what Allah’s prophet and Messenger Muhammad has brought.

وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّـهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

And when a messenger from Allah came to them, affirming what they had with them, a group of those who had been given the scriptures threw the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know. [2:101]

ولما جاءهم محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالقرآن الموافق لما معهم من التوراة طرح فريق منهم كتاب الله، وجعلوه وراء ظهورهم، شأنهم شأن الجهال الذين لا يعلمون حقيقته.ـ

101. And when Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger, came to them with the Qur’an which was in agreement with the Tawrah that they had with them, a group of them threw the Book of Allah away and placed it behind their backs. Their behavior was like that of ignorant people who do not know the truth of the scripture.

وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

And they followed what the shaytaans recited during the kingdom of Sulayman. It was not Sulayman who disbelieved but the shaytaans disbelieved. They taught people magic and what was revealed to the two angels, Harut and Marut, at Babylon. And those two did not teach anyone until they told them, “We are only a test, so do not disbelieve.” And they learned how to separate a man and his wife from them. And they did not harm anyone with this, except by Allah’s permission. And they learned what would harm them and not benefit them. And they certainly knew that whoever purchased it would not have any share of the hereafter. What an evil thing they sold their own selves for. If only they knew. [2:102]

واتبع اليهود ما تُحَدِّث الشياطينُ به السحرةَ على عهد ملك سليمان بن داود. وما كفر سليمان وما تَعَلَّم السِّحر، ولكنَّ الشياطين هم الذين كفروا بالله حين علَّموا الناس السحر؛ إفسادًا لدينهم. وكذلك اتبع اليهود السِّحر الذي أُنزل على الملَكَين هاروت وماروت، بأرض بابل في العراق؛ امتحانًا وابتلاء من الله لعباده، وما يعلِّم الملكان من أحد حتى ينصحاه ويحذِّراه من تعلم السحر، ويقولا له: لا تكفر بتعلم السِّحر وطاعة الشياطين. فيتعلم الناس من الملكين ما يُحْدِثون به الكراهية بين الزوجين حتى يتفرقا. ولا يستطيع السحرة أن يضروا به أحدًا إلا بإذن الله وقضائه. وما يتعلم السحرة إلا شرًا يضرهم ولا ينفعهم، وقد نقلته الشياطين إلى اليهود، فشاع فيهم حتى فضَّلوه على كتاب الله. ولقد علم اليهود أن من اختار السِّحر وترك الحق ما له في الآخرة من نصيب في الخير. ولبئس ما باعوا به أنفسهم من السحر والكفر عوضًا عن الإيمان ومتابعة الرسول، لو كان لهم عِلْمٌ يثمر العمل بما وُعِظوا.ـ

102. The Jews followed the magicians that the shaytaans brought about during the time of the kingdom of Sulayman, son of Dawud. It was not Sulayman who disbelieved and taught the people magic; rather, the shaytaans were the ones who disbelieved in Allah when they taught the people magic, thus corrupting their religion. This was just like how the Jews followed the magic which had been sent down to the two angels, Harut and Marut, in the land of Babylon in Iraq as a test and trial from Allah for His slaves. The angels did not teach anyone until they had advised them and warned against learning magic. They would tell the person, “Don’t disbelieve by learning magic and obeying the shaytaans.” But the people learned what would create aversion between spouses from the two angels in order to separate them. But magicians are not able to harm anyone except by Allah’s permission and decree. And the magicians didn’t learn anything but evil which would harm them and not benefit them. The shaytaans brought this to the Jews and then it became widespread among them to the point that they preferred magic over Allah’s scripture. And the Jews knew that whoever chooses magic and abandons the truth will not have any share of goodness in the hereafter. How evil is the magic and disbelief that they sold themselves for, in place of faith and following the Messenger! If only they had knowledge that would lead them to act according to the admonitions they have received.

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ خَيْرٌ ۖ لَّوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

And if only they believed and had taqwa, the reward from Allah would be better. If only they knew. [2:103]

ولو أن اليهود آمنوا وخافوا الله لأيقنوا أن ثواب الله خير لهم من السِّحر ومما اكتسبوه به، لو كانوا يعلمون ما يحصل بالإيمان والتقوى من الثواب والجزاء علما حقيقيا لآمنوا.ـ

103. And if only the Jews believed and feared Allah, then they could be certain that Allah’s reward would be better for them than the magic and what they earned by using it. If only they truly knew the reward and recompense that could be achieved through faith and taqwa, then they would believe.

[al-Tafsir al-Muyassar pages 15-16]

See also: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar Translation Index

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