Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 75-86: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the eighth installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 75-86. This passage focuses on the ways that Jews have broken their covenants with Allah and the resulting punishment. See the series guide here for more information about this series.

أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَامَ اللَّـهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Do you hope that they will believe you when a group of them has heard the Speech of Allah and then distorted it after having understood while they know? [2:75]

أيها المسلمون أنسيتم أفعال بني إسرائيل، فطمعت نفوسكم أن يصدِّق اليهودُ بدينكم؟ وقد كان علماؤهم يسمعون كلام الله من التوراة، ثم يحرفونه بِصَرْفِه إلى غير معناه الصحيح بعد ما عقلوا حقيقته، أو بتحريف ألفاظه، وهم يعلمون أنهم يحرفون كلام رب العالمين عمدًا وكذبًا.ـ

75. O Muslims, have you forgotten the actions of Banu Israa’eel? Do your souls really imagine that the Jews will believe in your religion? For their scholars have heard Allah’s Speech in the Tawrah, but they then changed it by distorting it from its true meaning after having understood its real message, or by changing its wordings. And they did this while knowing full-well that they were intentionally and wrongfully changing the Speech of the Lord of all creation.

وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَا بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ قَالُوا أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَاجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

And when they meet those who believe, they say, “We believe.” But when they are alone with one another, they say, “Would you tell them about what Allah has made clear to you? Then they would use it to argue with you in front of your Lord! Won’t you use sense?! [2:76]

هؤلاء اليهود إذا لقوا الذين آمنوا قالوا بلسانهم: آمنَّا بدينكم ورسولكم المبشَّر به في التوراة، وإذا خلا بعض هؤلاء المنافقين من اليهود إلى بعض قالوا في إنكار: أتحدِّثون المؤمنين بما بيَّن الله لكم في التوراة من أمر محمد؛ لتكون لهم الحجة عليكم عند ربكم يوم القيامة؟ أفلا تفقهون فتحذروا؟ ـ

76. When these Jews meet those who believe, they say with their tongues, “We believe in your religion and your Messenger who was foretold in the Tawrah.” But when these Jewish munafiqoon are alone with one another, they say with disapproval, “Would you tell the believers about what Allah has made clear to you in the Tawrah about Muhammad, which would then become a proof for them against you in front of your Lord on the Day of Resurrection? Don’t you have any sense? Don’t do that!”

أَوَلَا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ

Don’t they know that Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal? [2:77]

أيفعلون كلَّ هذه الجرائم، ولا يعلمون أن الله يعلم جميع ما يخفونه وما يظهرونه؟ ـ

77. Do they commit all of these crimes without knowing that Allah knows all of what they hide and all of what they do openly?

وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

And some of them are illiterate ones who do not know anything of the scripture except for false ideas, and all they can do is suppose. [2:78]

ومن اليهود جماعة يجهلون القراءة والكتابة، ولا يعلمون التوراة وما فيها من صفات نبي الله ورسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، وما عندهم من ذلك إلا أكاذيبُ وظنون فاسدة.ـ

78. There is a group of the Jews who do not know how to read or write, nor do they know the Tawrah or the descriptions of Allah’s prophet and messenger Muhammad (ﷺ) that it contains. The only part of it that they have is lies and false ideas.

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَـٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

So woe to those who write the scripture with their own hands and then say, “This is from Allah” in order to gain a small amount from that. So woe to them for what they write with their own hands and woe to them for what they earn! [2:79]

فهلاك ووعيد شديد لأحبار السوء من اليهود الذين يكتبون الكتاب بأيديهم، ثم يقولون: هذا من عند الله وهو مخالف لما أنزل الله على نبيِّه موسى عليه الصلاة والسلام؛ ليأخذوا في مقابل هذا عرض الدنيا. فلهم عقوبة مهلكة بسبب كتابتهم هذا الباطل بأيديهم، ولهم عقوبة مهلكة بسبب ما يأخذونه في المقابل من المال الحرام، كالرشوة وغيرها. ـ

79. So destruction and a threat of severe punishment to the evil Jewish leaders who wrote the scripture with their own hands and then said, “This is from Allah” despite the fact that it was at odds with what Allah had revealed to His prophet Moosaa. They did this in exchange for some benefit in this worldly life. So they will experience a terrible punishment due to their writing these false things with their own hands, and they will experience a terrible punishment for the unlawful wealth, such as bribery and other such things, that they gained in exchange for it.

وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً ۚ قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّـهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّـهُ عَهْدَهُ ۖ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّـهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

And they said, “The Hellfire will only touch us for a limited number of days.” Say, “Have you received a promise from Allah, for Allah does not break His promises? Or are you saying something about Allah that you do not know?” [2:80]

وقال بنو إسرائيل: لن تصيبنا النار في الآخرة إلا أيامًا قليلة العدد. قل لهم- أيها الرسول مبطلا دعواهم-: أعندكم عهد من الله بهذا، فإن الله لا يخلف عهده؟ بل إنكم تقولون على الله ما لا تعلمون بافترائكم الكذب. ـ

80. Banu Israa’eel said, “The Hellfire will only harm us in the hereafter for a small number of days.” Say to them, O Messenger, to refute their claims, “Do you have a promise from Allah for this? For Allah does not break His promises. No, you do not. Instead you say things about Allah that you do not know by creating lies.”

بَلَىٰ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيئَتُهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

No, rather whoever earns a sin and his sin surrounds him – those are the dwellers of the Hellfire. They will be in it forever. [2:81]

فحُكْمُ الله ثابت: أن من ارتكب الآثام حتى جَرَّته إلى الكفر، واستولت عليه ذنوبه مِن جميع جوانبه وهذا لا يكون إلا فيمن أشرك بالله، فأولئك هم المشركون والكفار هم الذين يلازمون نار جهنم ملازمة دائمةً لا تنقطع.ـ

81. Allah’s firm decree is that whoever commits sins until they lead him into disbelief and his sins overcome him from all directions – which is something that only happens to those who take others as partners with Allah, – it is these ones who are mushrikoon and disbelievers. They will be stuck in the fire of Hell eternally and forever without any end.

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

But those who believe and do righteous deeds – they will be the dwellers of Jannah. They will be in it forever. [2:82]

وحكم الله الثابتُ في مقابل هذا: أنَّ الذين صدَّقوا بالله ورسله تصديقًا خالصًا، وعملوا الأعمال المتفقة مع شريعة الله التي أوحاها إلى رسله، هؤلاء يلازمون الجنة في الآخرة ملازمةً دائمةً لا تنقطع.ـ

82. In contrast to that, it is Allah’s firm decree that those who sincerely believe in Allah and His messengers and perform deeds that follow the divine guidance that Allah revealed to His messengers – these ones will remain in Jannah for the entire hereafter, forever without any end.

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّـهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

And when We took a covenant from the Banu Israa’eel to not worship any besides Allah, and to be good to parents, and towards relatives, orphans, and the poor, and to say good words to people, and to establish the prayer, and to give the zakah. Then you turned away, all except a few of you, in rejection. [2:83]

واذكروا يا بني إسرائيل حين أخَذْنا عليكم عهدًا مؤكدًا: بأن تعبدوا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأن تحسنوا للوالدين، وللأقربين، وللأولاد الذين مات آباؤهم وهم دون بلوغ الحلم، وللمساكين، وأن تقولوا للناس أطيب الكلام، مع أداء الصلاة وإيتاء الزكاة، ثم أَعْرَضْتم ونقضتم العهد- إلا قليلا منكم ثبت عليه- وأنتم مستمرون في إعراضكم.ـ

83. And remember, Banu Israa’eel, when We took an important covenant from you that you would worship Allah alone without any partners, and that you would be good to parents, and towards relatives, and to those children whose parents died before they reached puberty, and to the needy, and that you would use the best speech with people, as well as performing the prayers and giving the zakah. Then you turned away and broke the covenant – all except a few of you who kept it – and you then persisted in your rejection.

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

And when We took your covenant to not spill your blood and to not expel yourselves from your homes. You then affirmed it and were witnesses to it. [2:84]

واذكروا- يا بني إسرائيل- حين أَخَذْنا عليكم عهدًا مؤكدًا في التوراة: يحرم سفك بعضكم دم بعض، وإخراج بعضكم بعضًا من دياركم، ثم اعترفتم بذلك، وأنتم تشهدون على صحته.ـ

84. And remember, Banu Israa’eel, when We took an important covenant from you in the Tawrah making it unlawful for you to spill one another’s blood or to expel one another from your homes. You then acknowledged this and bore witness that it was true.

ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِن يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ ۚ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ ۚ فَمَا جَزَاءُ مَن يَفْعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّـهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

But then it was you who killed yourselves and expelled a group of yourselves from their homes, working together in sin and aggression against them. But if they came to you as captives, you ransomed them, when it was forbidden for you to expel them! Do you believe in some of the Scripture and disbelieve in other parts? Then what is the repayment for those of you who do such things other than disgrace in this worldly life? And on the Day of Resurrection, you will be sent down to the most sever punishment. And Allah is not unaware of what you do. [2:85]

ثم أنتم يا هؤلاء يقتل بعضكم بعضًا، ويُخرج بعضكم بعضًا من ديارهم، ويَتَقَوَّى كل فريق منكم على إخوانه بالأعداء بغيًا وعدوانًا. وأن يأتوكم أسارى في يد الأعداء سعيتم في تحريرهم من الأسر، بدفع الفدية، مع أنه محرم عليكم إخراجهم من ديارهم. ما أقبح ما تفعلون حين تؤمنون ببعض أحكام التوراة وتكفرون ببعضها! فليس جزاء مَن يفعل ذلك منكم إلا ذُلا وفضيحة في الدنيا. ويوم القيامة يردُّهم الله إلى أفظع العذاب في النار. وما الله بغافل عما تعملون.ـ

85. Then it was you yourselves who killed one another and expelled some of your own from their homes, each group of you taking sides with enemies against their brothers out of transgression and enmity. And if prisoners of war come to you under the grip of enemies, you rush to free them from captivity by paying a ransom, despite the fact that it was forbidden for you to expel them from their homes. What is worse than what you do, that you believe in some of the Tawrah‘s rulings and disbelieve in others?! The only repayment fit for those who do this is humiliation and disgrace in this life. And on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will send you down to the most horrible punishment in the Hellfire. And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۖ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

Those are the ones who bought the life of this world with the hereafter. So the punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will they be helped. [2:86]

أولئك هم الذين آثروا الحياة الدنيا على الآخرة، فلا يخفف عنهم العذاب، وليس لهم ناصر ينصرهم مِن عذاب الله. ـ

86. Those are the ones who gave more importance to the worldly life than the hereafter. So the punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will they have any helper to protect them against Allah’s punishment.

[al-Tafsir al-Muyassar pg 11-13]

See also: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar Translation Index

See also: “And remember when We took a convenant from the Children of Israa’eel”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: On the Importance of Studying the Book of Allah and its Tafsir

See also: “A Word They Say with Their Mouths”: Tafsir al-Shawkani

See also: Remaining eternally in the Hell-fire and its causes: Imam al-Sa’di

One thought on “Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 75-86: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

  1. Pingback: “And remember when We took a convenant from the Children of Israa’eel”: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

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