Allusions to the Battle of Badr in the Qur’an: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

The main discussion of the Battle of Badr in the Qur’an occurs throughout surah al-Anfal, to the extent that al-Suyooti mentioned:

وأخرج سعيد بن منصور والبخاري ، وابن المنذر وأبو الشيخ ، وابن مرديه عن سعيد بن جبير قال : قلت لابن عباس : سورة “الأنفال” قال : نزلت في بدر، وفي لفظ : تلك سورة بدر . ـ

Sa’eed ibn Mansoor, al-Bukhari, ibn al-Mundhir, Abu al-Sheikh, and ibn Mardawayh all reported that Sa’eed ibn Jubayr said:

I said to ibn ‘Abbaas, “Surah al-Anfal,” and he said, “It was revealed about the Battle of Badr.”

and in the wording of one narration, he said, “That is the surah of Badr.”

[al-Durr al-Manthoor 7/5]

However, there are a number of places outside of surah al-Anfal that some of the mufassiroon say that this seminal battle has also been mentioned. In a short aside in an excellent discussion of the last ayah in surah al-Furqan, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee discussed the topic by writing:

وقال جماعة من أهل العلم : إن المراد بالعذاب اللازم لهم المعبر عن لزومه لهم ، بقوله : فسوف يكون لزاما ، أنه ما وقع من العذاب يوم بدر ، لأنهم قتل منهم سبعون وأسر سبعون ، والذين قتلوا منهم أصابهم عذاب القتل ، واتصل به عذاب البرزخ والآخرة فهو ملازم لا يفارقهم بحال ، وكون اللزام المذكور في هذه الآية العذاب الواقع يوم بدر ، نقله ابن كثير عن عبد الله بن مسعود ، وأبي بن كعب ، ومحمد بن كعب القرظي ، ومجاهد ، والضحاك ، وقتادة ، والسدي ، وغيرهم ، ثم قال : وقال الحسن البصري : فسوف يكون لزاما ، أي : يوم القيامة ولا منافاة بينهما ، انتهى من ابن كثير ، ونقله صاحب ” الدر المنثور ” عن أكثر المذكورين وغيرهم . ـ

A number of scholars have said that the punishment attached to the disbelievers – meaning the punishment which has been latched on to them – mentioned in His statement

فَسَوْفَ يَكُونُ لِزَامًا

So it is going to be inseparable [25:77]

is referring to the punishment that occurred at the Battle of Badr. That is because seventy of the disbelievers were killed and seventy more were taken as prisoners of war. Those who were killed were stricken with the punishment of being killed and then they went directly to the punishment of the Barzakh and the hereafter which is an punishment that will remain with them forever and from which they can never escape. So the “inseparable” thing mentioned in this ayah is referring to the punishment that took place on the day of the Battle of Badr. And ibn Kathir mentioned that this was the explanation of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood, Ubay ibn Ka’b, Muhammad ibn Ka’b al-Qurathi, Mujahid, al-Dhahhaak, Qatadah, al-Suddi and others. He then said:

al-Hasan al-Basri said that

فَسَوْفَ يَكُونُ لِزَامًا

So it is going to be inseparable [25:77]

is referring to the Day of Judgement. And there is no contradiction between these two explanations.

And the author of al-Durr al-Manthoor also transmitted the explanation that it refers to the Battle of Badr from most of the same people that ibn Kathir mentioned as well as some others.

وقال جماعة من أهل العلم : إن يوم بدر ذكره الله تعالى في آيات من كتابه ، قالوا هو المراد بقوله تعالى : ولنذيقنهم من العذاب الأدنى [ 32 \ 21 ] أي : يوم بدر ، دون العذاب الأكبر [ 32 \ 21 ] أي : يوم القيامة ، وأنه هو المراد بقوله : فسوف يكون لزاما ، وأنه هو المراد بالبطش والانتقام ، في قوله تعالى : يوم نبطش البطشة الكبرى إنا منتقمون [ 44 \ 16 ] وأنه هو الفرقان الفارق بين الحق والباطل في قوله تعالى : إن كنتم آمنتم بالله وما أنزلنا على عبدنا يوم الفرقان يوم التقى الجمعان [ 8 \ 41 ] وهو يوم بدر ، وأنه هو الذي فيه النصر في قوله تعالى : ولقد نصركم الله ببدر الآية [ 3 \ 123 ] وكون المراد بهذه الآيات المذكورة يوم بدر ثبت بعضه في الصحيح ، عن ابن مسعود  ـ

Several scholars have said that Allah has mentioned the Battle of Badr in a number of ayaat throughout His Book. They say that that it what is meant by Allah’s statement:

وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُم مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الْأَدْنَىٰ دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الْأَكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And we will surely let them taste the nearer punishment …

meaning the Battle of Badr

دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الْأَكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

… short of the greater punishment … [32:21]

meaning the Day of Judgement.

And they say that that is what is meant by Allah’s statement:

فَسَوْفَ يَكُونُ لِزَامًا

So it is going to be inseparable [25:77]

And that that is what is meant by the striking and retribution in Allah’s statement:

يَوْمَ نَبْطِشُ الْبَطْشَةَ الْكُبْرَىٰ إِنَّا مُنتَقِمُونَ

The Day We will strike with the greatest assault, indeed, We will take retribution. [44:16]

They also say that it is the Furqan or “Criterion” which delineates the truth from falsehood that is mentioned in Allah’s statement:

إِن كُنتُمْ آمَنتُم بِاللَّـهِ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ

… if you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our Servant on the day of criterion – the day when the two armies met. [8:41]

and that day that the two armies met both refer to the Battle of Badr.

They also say that that is the day on which the aid came which Allah mentioned in His statement:

وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّـهُ بِبَدْرٍ

And Allah had already given you victory at Badr … [3:123]

And that some of these ayaat are indeed referring to the Battle of Badr has been confirmed in an authentic hadith narration from ibn Mas’ood.

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 6/84-85]

See also: The Battles of the Prophet Mentioned in the Qur’an: ibn al-Qayyim

See also: ‘Ibad al-Rahman – Conclusion: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr

2 thoughts on “Allusions to the Battle of Badr in the Qur’an: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

  1. Pingback: ‘Ibad al-Rahman – Conclusion: ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Badr | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: The Battles of the Prophet Mentioned in the Qur’an: ibn al-Qayyim | Tulayhah

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