Levels of Explanation Needed for the Qur’an: al-Zarkashi

In his famous handbook to the Qur’anic sciences, al-Burhan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, sheikh Badr al-Deen al-Zarkashi dedicated one chapter to discussing the different levels of explanation needed for different parts of the Qur’an. We have added a numbering system to this translation in an effort to facilitate navigating the the sections and many examples it includes:

ينقسم القرآن العظيم إلى : ما هو بين بنفسه ، بلفظ لا يحتاج إلى بيان منه ، ولا من غيره ، وهو كثير . ومنه قوله – تعالى – : التائبون العابدون ( التوبة : 112 ) الآية ، وقوله : إن المسلمين والمسلمات ( الأحزاب : 35 ) الآية ، وقوله : قد أفلح المؤمنون ( المؤمنون : 1 ) ، وقوله : واضرب لهم مثلا أصحاب القرية ( يس : 13 ) ، وقوله : ياأيها الذين أوتوا الكتاب آمنوا بما نزلنا مصدقا ( النساء : 47 ) . ـ

The Qur’an can be divided into the following categories:1. Those parts which are clear in and of themselves, with wordings that do not require any further clarification, and these are very common.

Some examples include:

Ex 1. Allah’s statement:

التَّائِبُونَ الْعَابِدُونَ الْحَامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

They are those who repent, worship, praise, fast, bow, prostrate, command the good, forbid evil, and observe the regulations of Allah. And give glad tidings to the believers [9:112]

Ex 2. and His statement:

إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّـهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّـهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

The Muslim men and Muslim women, believing men and believing women, obedient men and obedient women, truthful men and truthful women, patient men and patient women, humble men and humble women, charitable men and charitable women, fasting men and fasting women, the men who guard their private parts and the women who do so, the men who remember Allah abundantly and the women who do so – Allah has prepared forgiveness and a tremendous reward for them. [33:35]

Ex 3. and His statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

The believers have certainly succeeded [23:1]

Ex 4. and His statement:

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُم مَّثَلًا أَصْحَابَ الْقَرْيَةِ إِذْ جَاءَهَا الْمُرْسَلُونَ

And strike a parable for them of the people of a town when the messengers came to them [36:13]

Ex 5. and His statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم

O you who were given the scripture, believe in what We have sent down which affirms what you have with you … [4:47]

ـ [ ص: 322 ] وإلى ما ليس ببين بنفسه فيحتاج إلى بيان . وبيانه إما فيه في آية أخرى ، أو في السنة ، لأنها موضوعة للبيان ، قال – تعالى – : لتبين للناس ما نزل إليهم ( النحل : 44 ) . ـ

2. Those parts which are not clear on their own and therefore need some further clarification.

This further clarification may either be:

2.1 found within the Qur’an in another ayah

2.2 found in the Sunnah, which is the main place for further clarification. This is as Allah said:

وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

And We sent down the dhikr to you in order for you to clarify to the people what We have sent down to them and that they might reflect. [16:44]

والثاني : ككثير من أحكام الطهارة ، والصلاة ، والزكاة ، والصيام ، والحج ، والمعاملات ، والأنكحة ، والجنايات ، وغير ذلك ، كقوله – تعالى – : وآتوا حقه يوم حصاده ( الأنعام : 141 ) ولم يذكر كيفية الزكاة ، ولا نصابها ، ولا أوقاصها ، ولا شروطها ، ولا أحوالها ، ولا من تجب عليه ممن لا تجب عليه ، وكذا لم يبين عدد الصلاة ولا أوقاتها . ـ

This second sub-category (2.2) includes many of the rulings of purification, prayer, zakah, fasting, Hajj, business dealings, rulings related to marriage, criminal punishments, and other matters.

Ex 1. Take, for example, Allah’s statement:

وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ

and pay its due on the day of its harvest [6:141]

but it does not mention how to pay the zakah, its minimum eligibility requirement, its different levels, its conditions, the different circumstances surrounding it, or who is and isn’t required to pay it. Likewise, the number or times of the prayers have not been made clear in the Qur’an itself.

وكقوله : فمن شهد منكم الشهر فليصمه ( البقرة : 185 ) ، ولله على الناس حج البيت ( آل عمران : 97 ) ولم يبين أركانه ولا شروطه ، ولا ما يحل في الإحرام ، وما لا يحل ، ولا ما يوجب الدم ولا ما لا يوجبه ، وغير ذلك . ـ

Ex 2. And likewise with

فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ

So whoever of you witnesses the month, then let him fast it [2:185]

Ex 3. and

وَلِلَّـهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ

and pilgrimage to the House is due from the people to Allah [3:97]

but neither the pillars nor conditions for Hajj have been made clear in the Qur’an, nor what is and is not permitted while in a state of ihram, nor what requires a compensatory sacrifice and what doesn’t, and so on.

والأول قد أرشدنا النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – إليه بما ثبت في الصحيحين عن ابن مسعود لما نزل : الذين آمنوا ولم يلبسوا إيمانهم بظلم ( الأنعام : 82 ) شق ذلك على المسلمين ، فقالوا : يا رسول الله ! وأينا لا يظلم نفسه ! قال : ليس ذلك ، إنما هو الشرك ، ألم تسمعوا ما قال لقمان لابنه : يابني لا تشرك بالله إن الشرك لظلم عظيم ( لقمان : 13 ) ، فحمل النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – الظلم هاهنا على الشرك ، لمقابلته بالإيمان . واستأنس عليه بقول لقمان . ـ

But as for the first sub-category (2.1), the Prophet has directed us to this in what has been authentically transmitted in both al-Bukhari and Muslim from ibn Mas’ood, that when

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ

Those who believe and do not mix their eemaan with thulm [6:82]

was revealed, it was difficult for the Muslims, so they said, “O Messenger of Allah! Who among us does not wrong himself?” The Prophet replied, “It is not like that; rather, it is referring to al-shirk. Haven’t you heard what Luqman said to his son:

يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّـهِ ۖ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ

O my son! Do not commit shirk with Allah. Indeed, shirk is a tremendous thulm [31:13]

So the Prophet interpreted the word thulm in this instance as shirk due to how it was used in contrast to eemaan. He then demonstrated how this meaning was a viable interpretation by using Luqman’s statement as evidence for that.

وقد يكون بيانه مضمرا فيه ، كقوله – تعالى – : حتى إذا جاءوها وفتحت أبوابها ( الزمر : 73 ) فهذا يحتاج إلى بيان ؛ لأن ( حتى إذا ) لا بد لها من تمام ، وتأويله : [ ص: 323 ] حتى إذا جاءوها جاءوها وفتحت أبوابها . ومثله : ولو أن قرآنا سيرت به الجبال ( الرعد : 31 ) أي : لكان هذا القرآن على رأي النحويين . قال ابن فارس : ويسمى هذا عند العرب الكف . ـ

2.1.1 It is possible that the clarification could be implicit within the ayah itself.

Ex 1. Take, for example, Allah’s statement:

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوهَا وَفُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُهَا

until when they reached it and its gates will be opened [39:73]

This sentence requires further clarification because “until when” needs to give way to an independent clause. The full version of this is: until when they have reached it, they will have reached it and its gates will already be opened.

Ex 2. Likewise with:

وَلَوْ أَنَّ قُرْآنًا سُيِّرَتْ بِهِ الْجِبَالُ

And if there had been a qur’an with which mountains could be moved … [13:31]

i.e. “If this Qur’an …” according to the view of the scholars of grammar. ibn Faris said, “that was how the Arabs without any religion referred to it.”

وقد يومئ إلى المحذوف ، إما متأخر كقوله – تعالى – : أفمن شرح الله صدره للإسلام ( الزمر : 22 ) فإنه لم يجيء له جواب في اللفظ ، لكن أومأ إليه قوله : فويل للقاسية قلوبهم من ذكر الله ( الزمر : 22 ) ، وتقديره : أفمن شرح الله صدره للإسلام ، كمن قسا قلبه ؛ وإما متقدم كقوله – تعالى – : أم من هو قانت آناء الليل ( الزمر : 9 ) فإنه أومأ إلى ما قبله : وإذا مس الإنسان ضر دعا ربه منيبا إليه ( الزمر : 8 ) كأنه قال : أهذا الذي هو هكذا خير أم من هو قانت ؟ فأضمر المبتدأ . ـ

2.1.2 Or it could be that the ayah motions towards something omitted from the sentence.

2.1.2.1 The thing omitted could come after the sentence

Ex 1. such as:

أَفَمَن شَرَحَ اللَّـهُ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ

Is he whose breast Allah has opened to Islam …? [39:22]

for there is no response to this question, but the response is motioned towards in the following statement

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُم مِّن ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ

So woe to those whose hearts are hardened to the remembrance of Allah [39:22]

and the complete meaning is: Is he whose heart Allah has opened to Islam like one whose heart has been hardened?

2.1.2.2 Or it could be that the omitted section precedes the statement

Ex 1. such as:

أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ آنَاءَ اللَّيْلِ

Is one who is obedient, prostrating during the night …? [39:22]

for this motions towards what came before it:

وَإِذَا مَسَّ الْإِنسَانَ ضُرٌّ دَعَا رَبَّهُ مُنِيبًا إِلَيْهِ

But when some harm touches man, he cries to his Lord, turning in repentance [39:8]

so it is as if He said: Is this one who behaves like this better, or the one who is obedient? So the predicate was concealed.

ونظيره : مثل الجنة التي وعد المتقون ( محمد : 15 ) ومن هذه صفته : كمن هو خالد في النار ( محمد : 15 ) . ـ

Ex 2. And a parallel to this is:

مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ

The description of the Jannah that the Muttaqoon have been promised [47:15]

and in the midst of describing it, there comes:

كَمَنْ هُوَ خَالِدٌ فِي النَّارِ

Like those who will remain eternally in the fire [47:15]

وقد يكون بيانه واضحا وهو أقسام : ـ

2.1.3 And it could be that the clarification of an ayah is clear and obvious. This can be divided into several types:

أحدها : أن يكون عقبه ، كقوله – تعالى – : الله الصمد ( الإخلاص : 2 ) قال محمد بن كعب القرظي تفسيره : لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد ( الإخلاص : 3 و 4 ) . ـ

2.1.3.1 That the clarification comes immediately after the ayah

Ex 1. This is like with Allah’s statement:

اللَّـهُ الصَّمَدُ

Allah is al-Samad [112:2]

Muhammad ibn Ka’b al-Qurathi said in his explanation of this ayah:

لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ * وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

He neither begets nor is He begotten * and there is none like Him [112:3-4]

وكقوله – تعالى – : إن الإنسان خلق هلوعا ( المعارج : 19 ) قال أبو العالية : تفسيره : إذا مسه الشر جزوعا وإذا مسه الخير منوعا ( المعارج : 20 و 21 ) ، وقال ثعلب : سألني محمد بن طاهر : ما الهلع ؟ فقلت : قد فسره الله – تعالى . ـ

Ex 2. Likewise with His statement:

إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا

Indeed, man was created haloo’a [70:19]

Abu’l-‘Aliyah said: the tafsir of this is:

إِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوعًا * وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ الْخَيْرُ مَنُوعًا

When harm touches him, he is discontent * and when good touches him, he is withholding [70:20-21]

And Tha’lab said: I asked Muhammad ibn Tahir, “What is this hala’?” He said, “Allah has already explained it.”

وكقوله – تعالى – : فيه آيات بينات ( آل عمران : 97 ) فسره بقوله : مقام إبراهيم ومن دخله كان آمنا ( آل عمران : 97 ) . ـ

Ex 3. Likewise with Allah’s statement:

فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ

In it are clear ayaat [3:97]

which is explained by His statement:

مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا

the station of Ibrahim: whoever enters it is safe [3:97]

وقوله : إنكم وما تعبدون من دون الله حصب جهنم ( الأنبياء : 98 ) ومعلوم أنه لم يرد به المسيح وعزيرا والملائكة ؛ فنزلت الآية مطلقة ، اكتفاء بالدلالة [ ص: 324 ] الظاهرة ، على أنه لا يعذبهم الله ، وكان ذلك بمنزلة الاستثناء باللفظ ، فلما قال المشركون : هذا هو المسيح وعزير قد عبدا من دون الله أنزل الله : إن الذين سبقت لهم منا الحسنى أولئك عنها مبعدون ( الأنبياء : 101 ) . ـ

Ex 4. And Allah’s statement:

إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ

You disbelievers and that which you worship besides Allah are fuel for the hellfire [21:98]

however it is well-known that this is not referring to the Maseeh, or ‘Uzayr or the angels. But this ayah was revealed with general language, leaving it to other clear evidences to communicate that Allah would not punish those ones, and those other evidences serve to provide an exception to what is mentioned in this ayah. So when the Mushrikoon said, “But the Maseeh and ‘Uzayr are both worshiped besides Allah,” Allah revealed:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُم مِّنَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ أُولَـٰئِكَ عَنْهَا مُبْعَدُونَ

Those for whom We have decreed mercy – they are far removed from it [21:101]

وقوله : يريكم البرق خوفا وطمعا ( الرعد : 12 ) ففسر رؤية البرق بأنه ليس في رؤيته إلا الخوف من الصواعق والطمع في الأمطار . وفيها لطيفة ، وهى تقديم الخوف على الطمع إذ كانت الصواعق تقع من أول برقة ، ولا يحصل المطر إلا بعد تواتر البرقات ، فإن تواترها لا يكاد يكذب ، فقدم الخوف على الطمع ، ناسخا للخوف ، كمجيء الفرج بعد الشدة . ـ

Ex 5. And His statement:

هُوَ الَّذِي يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا

It is He who shows you lightning, causing fear and hope [13:12]

He explained that, in their view, seeing the lightning was only a cause for fear of the thunderclaps or hope for the rain. There is a subtle elegance in mentioning the fear before the hope because the thunderclaps happen from the outset of the lightning while the rain does not come until after the lightning increases, but when the lightning becomes abundant the storm is inevitable. So fear comes before hope, but hope wipes away the fear just as the onset of relief wipes away the difficulty one had been experiencing.

وكقوله : والله خلق كل دابة من ماء فمنهم من يمشي على بطنه الآية ( النور : 45 ) وفيها لطيفة حيث بدأ بالمشي على بطنه ، فإنها سيقت لبيان القدرة ، وهو أعجب من الذي بعده ، وكذا ما يمشي على رجلين أعجب ممن يمشي على أربع . ـ

Ex 6. And like Allah’s statement:

وَاللَّـهُ خَلَقَ كُلَّ دَابَّةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ بَطْنِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ رِجْلَيْنِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ أَرْبَعٍ

Allah created every creature from water. Some of them walk on their stomachs and some of them walk on two legs and some of them walk on four. [24:45]

This also contains a subtle elegance since beginning with walking on one’s stomach serves as an even stronger showing of Allah’s power, for walking on one’s stomach is more impressive than what comes next. Likewise, walking on two legs is more impressive than walking on four legs.

وكقوله – تعالى – : فمن ما ملكت أيمانكم ( النساء : 25 ) فهذا عام في المسلم والكافر ، ثم بين أن المراد المؤمنات بقوله : من فتياتكم المؤمنات ( النساء : 25 ) فخرج تزوج الأمة الكافرة . ـ

Ex 7. And like Allah’s statement:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنكُمْ طَوْلًا أَن يَنكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُم

And for those of you who do not have the means to marry free believing women, then from those whom your right hands possess … [4:25]

this wording is able to apply to both Muslims and disbelievers, but then He makes it clear that the intended meaning here is the believing women by saying:

مِّن فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

… of the believing slave women … [4:25]

so marriage to the disbelieving slave women is not included in that.

وقوله – تعالى – : ومن كان في هذه أعمى فهو في الآخرة أعمى ( الإسراء : 72 ) فإن الأول اسم منه والثاني أفعل تفضيل ، بدليل قوله بعده : وأضل سبيلا ( الإسراء : 72 ) ولهذا قرأ أبو عمرو الأول بالإمالة لأنه اسم ، والثاني بالتصحيح ليفرق بين ما هو اسم ، وما هو أفعل منه بالإمالة وتركها . فإن قلت : فقد قال النحويون : أفعل التفضيل لا يأتي من الخلق ، فلا يقال : زيد أعمى من عمرو ؛ لأنه لا [ ص: 325 ] يتفاوت . قلت : إنما جاز في الآية لأنه من عمى القلب ، أي من كان في هذه الدنيا أعمى القلب عما يرى من القدرة الإلهية ، ولا يؤمن به فهو عما يغيب عنه من أمر الآخرة أعمى أن يؤمن به ؛ أي أشد عمى . ولا شك أن عمى البصيرة متفاوت . ـ

Ex 8. And His statement:

وَمَن كَانَ فِي هَـٰذِهِ أَعْمَىٰ فَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ أَعْمَىٰ

And whoever was blind in this life, then he will be even more blind in the next life … [17:72]

for the first use of the word “blind” is an ism describing him while the second is an superlative verb, as evidenced by the following phrase:

وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا

… and even more stray from the path [17:72]

That is why Abu ‘Amr would recite the first one with imalah because it was an ism but recite the second one normally in order to distinguish between the ism and the superlative verb by using or not using the imalah.

Now, one of the scholars of grammar might say, “Superlative verbs cannot be used for one of the creation, for we cannot say that Zayd is more blind than ‘Amr, because there is no gradation when it comes to blindness.” In that case, I would respond by saying: This is permissible in this ayah because it is referring to blindness of the heart, i.e. – whoever was blind in heart in this worldly life to the divine power he saw but still did not believe in Allah, then he is even more blind to those matters of the hereafter which were hidden from his vision than to believe in them. And furthermore, there is no doubt that there are gradation of blindness even when it comes to vision.

ومنه قوله – تعالى – : ياأيها الذين آمنوا استعينوا بالصبر والصلاة ( البقرة : 153 ) قال البيهقي في شعب الإيمان : الأشبه أن المراد بالصبر هاهنا الصبر على الشدائد ؛ لأنه أتبع مدح الصابرين بقوله : ولا تقولوا لمن يقتل في سبيل الله أموات بل أحياء ( البقرة : 154 ) إلى قوله : وبشر الصابرين الذين إذا أصابتهم مصيبة ( البقرة : 155 و 156 ) . ـ

Ex 9. Another example is Allah’s statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ

O you who believe, seek assistance through sabr and prayer [2:153]

al-Bayhaqi said in Shu’ab al-Eemaan:

The most plausible explanation is that sabr here is referring to steadfast patience in the face of difficulties. That is because Allah followed this up with praise for the patient ones in His statement:

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَن يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ أَمْوَاتٌ

And do not say, “they are dead” about those who have been killed in Allah’s way [2:154]

until His statement:

وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ * الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ

And give glad tidings to the patient ones * those who, when they are stricken with an affliction … [2:155-156]

الثَّانِي : أَنْ يَكُونَ بَيَانُهُ مُنْفَصِلًا عَنْهُ فِي السُّورَةِ مَعَهُ أَوْ فِي غَيْرِهِ ، كَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ ( الْفَاتِحَةِ : 4 ) وَبَيَانُهُ فِي سُورَةِ الِانْفِطَارِ بِقَوْلِهِ : وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ يَوْمَ لَا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَالْأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ ( الِانْفِطَارِ : 17 – 18 ) . ـ

2.1.3.2 Or it could be that the clarification of the ayah is found in a separate place, either within the same surah or in a different surah.

Ex 1. Take, for example, Allah’s statement:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

Master of the Day of Recompense [1:4]

and clarification of this comes in surah al-Infitar when Allah says:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ * ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ * يَوْمَ لَا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَالْأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ

And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is? * Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is? It is a Day on which no soul shall possess any power to do anything for another. And the authority on that day is for Allah [82:17-19]

وَقَوْلِهِ فِي سُورَتَيِ النَّمْلِ ( الْآيَةِ : 89 ) وَالْقَصَصِ ( الْآيَةِ : 84 ) : مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْهَا وَلَمْ يُبَيِّنْ فِي لَيْلٍ وَلَا نَهَارٍ ، وَبَيَّنَهُ فِي سُورَةِ الدُّخَّانِ بِقَوْلِهِ : فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُبَارَكَةٍ ( الْآيَةِ : 3 ) ثُمَّ بَيَّنَهَا فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ بِقَوْلِهِ : إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ ( الْآيَةِ : 1 ) فَالْمُبَارَكَةُ فِي الزَّمَانِ هِيَ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فِي هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ ؛ لِأَنَّ الْإِنْزَالَ وَاحِدٌ ، وَبِذَلِكَ يُرَدُّ عَلَى مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الْمُبَارَكَةَ لَيْلَةُ النِّصْفِ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ ، وَعَجَبٌ كَيْفَ غَفَلَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ ؟ ! . ـ

Ex 2. Or His statement in both surah al-Naml [27:89] and surah al-Qasas [28:84]:

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهَا

Whoever comes with a good deed, he will have better than that

But it is not made clear whether that is in the day or the night. Then Allah clarifies this in surah al-Dhukhan by saying:

فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُبَارَكَةٍ

… during a blessed night [44:3]

and then He further clarifies that that is during Laylah al-Qadr by saying:

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ

Indeed, We sent it down on Laylah al-Qadr [97:1]

so the blessed time is the Laylah al-Qadr mentioned in this surah, because it was sent down once. And this refutes those who claim that the blessed time is the night of the middle of Sha’baan, and it is really astounding how they overlooked this clarification.

وَقَدِ اسْتَنْبَطَ بَعْضُهُمْ هُنَا بَيَانًا آخَرَ ، وَهُوَ أَنَّهَا لَيْلَةُ سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ مِنْ قَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ( الْأَنْفَالِ : 41 ) وَذَلِكَ لَيْلَةَ سَبْعَ عَشْرَةَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ ؛ وَفِي ذَلِكَ كَلَامٌ . ـ

And some have gone on to make a further derivation from this, which is that Laylah al-Qadr is the 17th of Ramadan, due to Allah’s statement:

وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ

that which We sent down to Our Servant on the day of criterion – the day when the two armies met. [8:41]

which was the 17th night of Ramadan, but there is some discussion as to whether or not this is a valid derivation.

وَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 54 ) فَسَّرَهُ فِي آيَةِ الْفَتْحِ : أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ( الْآيَةِ : 29 ) . ـ

Ex 3. And Allah’s statement:

أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ

humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers [5:54]

which He explained in the ayah of surah al-Fath:

 أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ

Severe against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves [48:29]

وَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَلُؤْلُؤًا وَلِبَاسُهُمْ فِيهَا حَرِيرٌ وَهُدُوا إِلَى الطَّيِّبِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ ( الْحَجِّ : 23 وَ 24 ) وَقَدْ فَسَّرَهُ فِي سُورَةِ فَاطِرٍ : وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ ( الْآيَةِ : 34 ) . ـ

Ex 4. And His statement:

يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِن ذَهَبٍ وَلُؤْلُؤًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُهُمْ فِيهَا حَرِيرٌ * وَهُدُوا إِلَى الطَّيِّبِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ

In it they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls. And their clothing therein will be silk * And they are guided to good speech [22:23-24]

and He explained this in surah Fatir:

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

And they say, “All praise is due to Allah who has removed all grief from us. Indeed, our Lord is al-Ghafoor, al-Shakoor.” [35:34]

وَقَوْلِهِ : وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُمْ بِمَا ضَرَبَ لِلرَّحْمَنِ مَثَلًا ( الزُّخْرُفِ : 17 ) [ ص: 326 ] بَيَّنَ ذَلِكَ بِقَوْلِهِ فِي النَّحْلِ : وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُمْ بِالْأُنْثَى ( الْآيَةِ : 58 ) . ـ

Ex 5. And His statement:

وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِمَا ضَرَبَ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ مَثَلًا

And when one of them is given glad tidings of the very thing he ascribed to al-Rahman … [43:17]

He clarified this with His statement in surah al-Nahl:

وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِالْأُنثَىٰ

And when one of them is given glad tidings of a girl … [16:58]

وَذَكَرَ اللَّهُ الطَّلَاقَ مُجْمَلًا ، وَفَسَّرَهُ فِي سُورَةِ الطَّلَاقِ . وَقَالَ – تَعَالَى – : إِلَّا عَلَى أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ ( الْمُؤْمِنُونَ : 6 ) فَاسْتَثْنَى الْأَزْوَاجَ وَمِلْكَ الْيَمِينِ ، ثُمَّ حَظَرَ – تَعَالَى – الْجَمْعَ بَيْنَ الْأُخْتَيْنِ ، وَبَيْنَ الْأُمِّ وَالِابْنَةِ وَالرَّابَّةِ بِالْآيَةِ الْأُخْرَى ( النِّسَاءِ : 23 ) . ـ

Ex 6. And Allah mentioned divorce in general terms but then further explained it in surah al-Talaq.

Ex 7. And Allah [after restricting those with whom one could have intercourse with in 23:5] said:

إِلَّا عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ

… except for your wives or those whom your right hand possesses [23:6]

so He made an exception for one’s wives and slave-girls. And then He prohibited marrying two sisters at the same time, or a mother and daughter or a stepdaughter in another ayah [4:23].

وَمِنْهُ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – : إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ ( الزُّمَرِ : 3 ) فَإِنَّ ظَاهِرَهُ مُشْكِلٌ ؛ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ – سُبْحَانَهُ – قَدْ هَدَى كُفَّارًا كَثِيرًا وَمَاتُوا مُسْلِمِينَ ، وَإِنَّمَا الْمُرَادُ : لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ كَانَ فِي عِلْمِهِ أَنَّهُ قَدْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ ، وَبَيَانُهُ بِقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – فِي السُّورَةِ : أَفَمَنْ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ أَفَأَنْتَ تُنْقِذُ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ ( الزُّمَرِ : 19 ) وَقَوْلِهِ فِي سُورَةٍ أُخْرَى : إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ وَلَوْ جَاءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ آيَةٍ حَتَّى يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ ( يُونُسَ : 96 وَ 97 ) . ـ

Ex 8. And His statement:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ

Allah certainly does not guide one who is a obstinate disbelieving liar [39:3]

On the face of things, this presents a problem because Allah certainly has guided many disbelievers who went on to die as Muslims. But what is actually meant is that He does not guide those whom He knows to be deserving of the the decree of punishment. And the clarification of that comes in His statement in the same surah:

أَفَمَنْ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ أَفَأَنتَ تُنقِذُ مَن فِي النَّارِ

Is one for whom the decree of punishment merited? Then will you save him from the fire? [39:19]

and in His statement in another surah:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ * وَلَوْ جَاءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ آيَةٍ حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ

Those for whom your Lord’s decree of punishment is merited will not believe * even if every ayah were to come to them – not until they see the painful punishment [10:96-97]

وَمِنْهُ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – : أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ( الْبَقَرَةِ : 186 ) وَكَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ يَدْعُونَ فَلَا يُسْتَجَابُ لَهُمْ وَبَيَانُهُ بِقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : بَلْ إِيَّاهُ تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ مَا تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِنْ شَاءَ ( الْأَنْعَامِ : 41 ) فَبَيَّنَ أَنَّ الْإِجَابَةَ مُتَعَلِّقَةٌ بِالْمَشِيئَةِ ، عَلَى أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – قَدْ فَسَّرَ الْإِجَابَةَ بِقَوْلِهِ : مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ دَعَا اللَّهَ بِدَعْوَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيهَا قَطِيعَةُ رَحِمٍ وَلَا إِثْمٌ ، إِلَّا أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ إِحْدَى ثَلَاثِ خِصَالٍ : إِمَّا أَنْ يُعَجِّلَ دَعْوَتَهُ ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَدَّخِرَهَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَدْفَعَ عَنْهُ مِنَ السُّوءِ مِثْلَهَا . ـ

Ex 9. And also Allah’s statement:

أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ

I respond to the call of the caller when he calls [2:186]

however many people supplication but do their request is not granted. The clarification of that comes in Allah’s statement:

بَلْ إِيَّاهُ تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ مَا تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِن شَاءَ

Nay! To Him alone do you call and then He would remove that for which you called upon Him if He willed [6:41]

So He makes it clear that the response is connected to His will. And the Prophet explained the response by saying:

Any Muslim who supplicates to Allah with a supplication that does not involve the cutting of family ties or any sin, then Allah will grant him one of three things: either He will respond to it in the near future, or He will store it up for him in the hereafter, or He will prevent some similar level of harm from afflicting him.

وَمِنْهُ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – : وَمَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ حَرْثَ الدُّنْيَا نُؤْتِهِ مِنْهَا ( الشُّورَى : 20 ) وَكَثِيرٌ مِنَ [ ص: 327 ] النَّاسِ يُرِيدُ ذَلِكَ فَلَا يَحْصُلُ لَهُ ، وَبَيَانُهُ فِي قَوْلِهِ : مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعَاجِلَةَ عَجَّلْنَا لَهُ فِيهَا مَا نَشَاءُ لِمَنْ نُرِيدُ ( الْإِسْرَاءِ : 18 ) فَهُوَ كَالَّذِي قَبْلَهُ مُتَعَلِّقٌ بِالْمَشِيئَةِ . ـ

Ex 10. And His statement:

وَمَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ حَرْثَ الدُّنْيَا نُؤْتِهِ مِنْهَا

And whoever desires the harvest of this world – We will give him some of it [42:20]

But many people desire that without actually attaining it. The clarification of this comes in His statement:

مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعَاجِلَةَ عَجَّلْنَا لَهُ فِيهَا مَا نَشَاءُ لِمَنْ نُرِيدُ

Whoever desires the immediate, We shall hasten what We wish of it for whom We wish [17:18]

so just as in the previous example, this is connected to Allah’s will.

وَمِنْهُ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – : الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ( الرَّعْدِ : 28 ) وَقَالَ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى : إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ( الْأَنْفَالِ : 2 ) فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ يُسْتَشْكَلُ اجْتِمَاعُهُمَا ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَجَلَ خِلَافُ الطُّمَأْنِينَةِ ؛ وَهَذَا غَفْلَةٌ عَنِ الْمُرَادِ ؛ لِأَنَّ الِاطْمِئْنَانَ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ عَنْ ثَلَجِ الْقَلْبِ ، وَشَرْحِ الصَّدْرِ بِمَعْرِفَةِ التَّوْحِيدِ وَالْعِلْمِ ، وَمَا يَتْبَعُ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الدَّرَجَةِ الرَّفِيعَةِ وَالثَّوَابِ الْجَزِيلِ ، وَالْوَجَلُ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ عِنْدَ خَوْفِ الزَّيْغِ ، وَالذَّهَابِ عَنِ الْهُدَى ، وَمَا يَسْتَحِقُّ بِهِ الْوَعِيدَ بِتَوْجِيلِ الْقُلُوبِ كَذَلِكَ . وَقَدِ اجْتَمَعَا فِي قَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ( الزُّمَرِ : 23 ) لِأَنَّ هَؤُلَاءِ قَدْ سَكَنَتْ نُفُوسُهُمْ إِلَى مُعْتَقَدِهِمْ ، وَوَثِقُوا بِهِ ، فَانْتَفَى عَنْهُمُ الشَّكُّ وَالِارْتِيَابُ الَّذِي يَعْرِضُ إِنْ كَانَ كَلَامُهُمْ فِيمَنْ أَظْهَرَ الْإِسْلَامَ تَعَوُّذًا ، فَجُعِلَ لَهُمْ حِكْمَةٌ دُونَ الْعِلْمِ الْمُوجِبِ لِثَلَجِ الصُّدُورِ وَانْتِفَاءِ الشَّكِّ ، وَنَظَائِرُهُ كَثِيرَةٌ . ـ

Ex 11. There is also Allah’s statement:

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ

Those who believe and whose hearts find peace in the remembrance of Allah [13:28]

while in another ayah He said:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ

The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel apprehension in their hearts [8:2]

Reconciling these two ayaat seems to present a challenge because apprehension is the opposite of peace of heart, but this is only the result of being heedless to the meaning. The peace of heart only comes about through coolness of one’s heart, his chest having been opened to recognition of Allah’s sole right to be worshiped, knowledge, and the elevated level and great reward that follows from those thing, while apprehension comes about due to fear of deviating and losing one’s guidance and the threats that would be unleashed on him which make his heart fearful. So these two things have been mentioned together in Allah’s statement:

تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

The skins of the believers shiver due to it, fearing their Lord. Then their skin and hearts incline towards the remembrance of Allah. That is the guidance of Allah; He guides whom He wishes with it [39:23]

That is because these people are completely at peace with their beliefs and firmly grounded in them, so they do not experience any doubts or uncertainty. … And there are many other ayaat like this.

وَمِنْهُ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – فِي قِصَّةِ لُوطٍ : فَأَسْرِ بِأَهْلِكَ بِقِطْعٍ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ وَاتَّبِعْ أَدْبَارَهُمْ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتْ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ وَامْضُوا حَيْثُ تُؤْمَرُونَ ( الْحِجْرِ : 65 ) فَلَمْ يَسْتَثْنِ امْرَأَتَهُ فِي هَذَا الْمَوْضِعِ ، وَهِيَ مُسْتَثْنَاةٌ فِي الْمَعْنَى بِقَوْلِهِ فِي الْآيَةِ الْأُخْرَى : فَأَسْرِ بِأَهْلِكَ بِقِطْعٍ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتْ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَكَ ( هُودٍ : 81 ) فَأَظْهَرَ الِاسْتِثْنَاءَ فِي هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ . ـ

Ex 12. And also Allah’s statement in the story of Loot:

فَأَسْرِ بِأَهْلِكَ بِقِطْعٍ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ وَاتَّبِعْ أَدْبَارَهُمْ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتْ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ وَامْضُوا حَيْثُ تُؤْمَرُونَ

Then travel in a part of the night with your family, and you go behind them in the rear, and let no one amongst you look back, but go on to where you are ordered. [15:65]

but Loot’s wife is not mentioned as the exception in this passage, although she is made the exception in another ayah by Allah’s statement:

فَأَسْرِ بِأَهْلِكَ بِقِطْعٍ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتْ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَكَ

So travel with your family in a part of the night, and do not let any of you look back, except your wife [11:81]

so the exception is made clear in this ayah.

وَكَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : إِذْ دَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُوا سَلَامًا قَالَ إِنَّا مِنْكُمْ وَجِلُونَ ( الْحِجْرِ : 52 ) [ ص: 328 ] اخْتَصَرَ جَوَابَهُ لِبَيَانِهِ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ : فَقَالُوا سَلَامًا قَالَ سَلَامٌ ( الذَّارِيَاتِ : 25 ) ، وَكَقَوْلِهِ : الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ ( الْبَقَرَةِ : 178 ) الْآيَةَ ، فَإِنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ تَفْسِيرًا وَبَيَانًا لِمُجْمَلِ قَوْلِهِ : وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 45 ) لِأَنَّ هَذِهِ لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ لَمْ يُفْهَمْ مُرَادُهَا . ـ

Ex 13. And Allah’s statement:

إِذْ دَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُوا سَلَامًا قَالَ إِنَّا مِنْكُمْ وَجِلُونَ

When the angels entered upon him they said “peace.” Ibrahim said, “We certainly feel apprehensive of you.” [15:52]

Ibrahim’s response has been summarized here due to it having been made clear in full in another passage:

فَقَالُوا سَلَامًا قَالَ سَلَامٌ

They said, “peace,” and he said, “peace.” [51:25]

Ex 14. And likewise with Allah’s statement:

الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ

A free person for a free person and a slave for a slave [2:178]

until the end of the ayah. This ayah was sent down in order to clarify what had been left in general terms in Allah’s statement:

وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ

And We decreed for them in the Tawrah: a soul for a soul … [5:45]

because when this had been revealed they did not understand what was meant by it.

وَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ ( النِّسَاءِ : 23 ) هِيَ تَفْسِيرٌ لِقَوْلِهِ : وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُمْ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ ( النِّسَاءِ : 22 ) الْآيَةَ . ـ

Ex 15. Allah’s statement:

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ

Forbidden for you in marriage are … [4:23]

which is an explanation of Allah’s statement:

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ

And do not marry the women whom your forefathers married … [4:22]

وَقَوْلِهِ : لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ ( النِّسَاءِ : 7 ) الْآيَةَ ، فَإِنَّ هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ مُجْمَلَةٌ ، لَا يُعْلَمُ مِنْهَا مَنْ يَرِثُ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ بِالْفَرْضِ وَالتَّعْصِيبِ ، وَمَنْ يَرِثُ وَمَنْ لَا يَرِثُ ، ثُمَّ بَيِّنَهُ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى ، بِقَوْلِهِ : يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ( النِّسَاءِ : 11 ) الْآيَاتِ . ـ

Ex 16. And His statement:

لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ

There is a share for men and a share for women of what is left by parents and those nearest related [4:7]

This ayah is only in general terms. Based solely on this ayah, one does not know which men or which women receive fixed or relative shares of the inheritance, or who is and who isn’t eligible to inherit at all. But then He clarified these issues in any ayah by saying:

يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّـهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ

Allah commands you in relation to your children … [4:11]

and the following ayaat.

وَكَقَوْلِهِ : أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 1 ) فَهَذَا الِاسْتِثْنَاءُ مُجْمَلٌ ، بَيَّنَهُ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى بِقَوْلِهِ : حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 3 ) . ـ

Ex 17. And His statement:

أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ

Lawful for you to ear are the beasts of burden, except for what will be announced to you [5:1]

but this exception is only given in general terms. Allah then clarified it in another ayah by saying:

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ

Forbidden for you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine … [5:3]

وَكَقَوْلِهِ : لَيَبْلُوَنَّكُمُ اللَّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الصَّيْدِ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 94 ) الْآيَةَ ، فَهَذَا الِابْتِلَاءُ مُجْمَلٌ لَا يَعْلَمُ أَحَدٌ فِي الْحِلِّ أَمْ فِي الْحَرَمِ بَيَّنَهُ قَوْلُهُ : لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 95 ) الْآيَةَ . ـ

Ex 18. And His statement:

لَيَبْلُوَنَّكُمُ اللَّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الصَّيْدِ

Allah will certainly try you with something related to game animals … [5:94]

until the end of the ayah. This test is only mentioned in general terms here, so one would not know whether they would be tested while in the ritual state of performing pilgrimage or not, but then Allah made this clear by saying:

لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ

Do not kill game animals while you are in a state of ihram [5:95]

until the end of the ayah.

وَكَقَوْلِهِ : وَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ ( الرُّومِ : 3 ) وَهَذَا الْمُجْمَلُ بَيَّنَهُ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى بِقَوْلِهِ : هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ ( التَّوْبَةِ : 33 ) الْآيَةَ . ـ

Ex 19. Likewise, Allah’s statement:

وَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ

And after their defeat, they will be victorious [30:3]

which is in very general language, but then Allah clarified this in another ayah by saying:

هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ

He is the One who sent His messenger with guidance and the religion of truth in order that it would triumph over all other religions, even if the mushrikoon dislike that [9:33]

وَكَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ ( الْبَقَرَةِ : 40 ) قَالَ الْعُلَمَاءُ : بَيَانُ هَذَا الْعَهْدِ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – : لَئِنْ أَقَمْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَيْتُمُ الزَّكَاةَ وَآمَنْتُمْ بِرُسُلِي وَعَزَّرْتُمُوهُمْ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 12 ) الْآيَةَ ، فَهَذَا عَهْدُهُ – عَزَّ وَجَلَّ – ، وَعَهُدُهُمْ تَمَامُ الْآيَةِ فِي قَوْلِهِ : لَأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ ( الْمَائِدَةِ : 12 ) فَإِذَا وَفُّوا الْعَهْدَ الْأَوَّلَ أُعْطُوا مَا وُعِدُوا . ـ

Ex 20. And like His statement:

وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ

Fulfill My covenant; I will fulfill your covenant [2:40]

The scholars have said: the clarification of what this covenant is comes in Allah’s statement:

لَئِنْ أَقَمْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَيْتُمُ الزَّكَاةَ وَآمَنتُم بِرُسُلِي وَعَزَّرْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَقْرَضْتُمُ اللَّـهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا

If you establish prayer and give zakah and believe in My messengers and support them and loan Allah a goodly loan … [5:12]

So that is Allah’s covenant, and their covenant is the remainder of the ayah:

لَّأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَلَأُدْخِلَنَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۚ فَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ

… I will surely remove from you your misdeeds and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But whoever of you disbelieves after that has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way. [5:12]

So if the first part of the covenant is fulfilled, they will be given what they were promised.

وَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا ( الرَّعْدِ : 43 ) يَرُدُّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِقَوْلِهِ : يس وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ( يس : 1 – 3 ) . وَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : رَبَّنَا اكْشِفْ عَنَّا الْعَذَابَ إِنَّا مُؤْمِنُونَ ( الدُّخَانِ : 12 ) فَقِيلَ لَهُمْ : وَلَوْ رَحِمْنَاهُمْ وَكَشَفْنَا مَا بِهِمْ مِنْ ضُرٍّ لَلَجُّوا فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ ( الْمُؤْمِنُونَ : 75 ) [ ص: 329 ] وَقِيلَ بَلْ نَزَلَ بَعْدَهُ : إِنَّا كَاشِفُوا الْعَذَابِ ( الدُّخَانِ : 15 ) وَالتَّقْدِيرُ : إِنْ كَشَفْنَا الْعَذَابَ تَعُودُوا . ـ

Ex 21. And Allah’s statement:

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا

And those who disbelieve say, “You are not a messenger.” [13:43]

Their claim is then rebutted by Allah’s statement:

يس * وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ * إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

Ya seen * by the perfect Qur’an * You are certainly one of the messengers [36:1-3]

Ex 22. And His statement:

رَبَّنَا اكْشِفْ عَنَّا الْعَذَابَ إِنَّا مُؤْمِنُونَ

[The disbelievers say] “O our Lord, remove this punishment from us; we are believers!” [44:12]

and it will be said to them:

وَلَوْ رَحِمْنَاهُمْ وَكَشَفْنَا مَا بِهِمْ مِنْ ضُرٍّ لَلَجُّوا فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

And even if We gave them mercy and removed what was upon them of affliction, they would persist in their transgression, wandering blindly. [23:75]

And it was said, or rather it was revealed after that:

إِنَّا كَاشِفُو الْعَذَابِ قَلِيلًا ۚ إِنَّكُمْ عَائِدُونَ

We shall remove the punishment a little; you will certainly return [44:15]

the implication being: If we were to lift the punishment you would return to your old ways.

وَقَوْلِهِ : لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَذَا الْقُرْآنُ عَلَى رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيمٍ ( الزُّخْرُفِ : 31 ) فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِقَوْلِهِ : وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ( الْقَصَصِ : 68 ) . ـ

Ex 23. Allah’s statement:

لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَذَا الْقُرْآنُ عَلَى رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيمٍ

[The disbelievers say] “Why was this Qur’an not sent down upon a great man from one of the two cities?” [43:31]

then they were refuted by Allah’s statement:

وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ

And your Lord creates and chooses what He wills; the choice is not for them [28:68]

وَقَوْلِهِ : وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْجُدُوا لِلرَّحْمَنِ قَالُوا وَمَا الرَّحْمَنُ ( الْفُرْقَانِ : 60 ) بَيَانُهُ : الرَّحْمَنُ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ ( الرَّحْمَنِ : 1 وَ 2 ) . ـ

Ex 24. And their statement:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْجُدُوا لِلرَّحْمَنِ قَالُوا وَمَا الرَّحْمَنُ

And when it is said to them, “prostrate to al-Rahman,” they say, “and what is al-Rahman?” [25:60]

the clarification of this is:

الرَّحْمَنُ * عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ

al-Rahman * He taught the Qur’an * … [55:1-2]

وَقَوْلِهِ : قَدْ سَمِعْنَا لَوْ نَشَاءُ لَقُلْنَا مِثْلَ هَذَا ( الْأَنْفَالِ : 31 ) فَقِيلَ لَهُمْ : لَئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنْسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا ( الْإِسْرَاءِ : 88 ) . ـ

Ex 25. Allah’s statement:

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا قَالُوا قَدْ سَمِعْنَا لَوْ نَشَاءُ لَقُلْنَا مِثْلَ هَـٰذَا ۙ إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

And when Our verses are recited to them, they say, “We have heard. If we willed, we could say something like this. This is not but legends of the former peoples.” [8:31]

so it was said to them:

قُل لَّئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَىٰ أَن يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا

Say, “If mankind and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like of it, even if they were to help one another.” [17:88]

وَقَوْلِهِ : وَانْطَلَقَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْهُمْ أَنِ امْشُوا وَاصْبِرُوا عَلَى آلِهَتِكُمْ ( ص : 6 ) فَقِيلَ لَهُمْ فِي الْجَوَابِ : فَإِنْ يَصْبِرُوا فَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَهُمْ ( فُصِّلَتْ : 24 ) الْآيَةَ . ـ

Ex 26. Allah’s statement:

وَانطَلَقَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْهُمْ أَنِ امْشُوا وَاصْبِرُوا عَلَىٰ آلِهَتِكُمْ

And the leaders of them went forth, saying, “Be patient in defense of your gods” [38:6]

so it was said in response to them:

فَإِن يَصْبِرُوا فَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَّهُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَسْتَعْتِبُوا فَمَا هُم مِّنَ الْمُعْتَبِينَ

Then even if they are patient, the fire is the dwelling place for them. And even if they seek pardon, they will not be among those pardoned [41:24]

وَمِنْهُ : أَمْ يَقُولُونَ نَحْنُ جَمِيعٌ مُنْتَصِرٌ ( الْقَمَرِ : 44 ) فَقِيلَ لَهُمْ : مَا لَكُمْ لَا تَنَاصَرُونَ ( الصَّافَّاتِ : 25 ) . ـ

Ex 27. Another example is:

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ نَحْنُ جَمِيعٌ مُنْتَصِرٌ

Or do they say, “We are an assembly supporting each other”? [54:44]

so it will be said to them:

مَا لَكُمْ لَا تَنَاصَرُونَ

What is the matter with you, that you do not support one another? [37:25]

وَمِنْهُ : لَوْ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُوا ( آلِ عِمْرَانَ : 168 ) فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِقَوْلِهِ : لَوْ كُنْتُمْ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ لَبَرَزَ الَّذِينَ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَتْلُ إِلَى مَضَاجِعِهِمْ ( آلِ عِمْرَانَ : 154 ) . ـ

Ex 28. Another example is:

لَوْ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُوا

“If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed.” [3:168]

so this statement was refuted by Allah’s saying:

لَّوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ لَبَرَزَ الَّذِينَ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَتْلُ إِلَىٰ مَضَاجِعِهِمْ

“Even if you had been inside your houses, those decreed to be killed would have come out to their death beds.” [3:154]

وَقَوْلِهِ : أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ ( الطُّورِ : 33 ) رَدَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِقَوْلِهِ : وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ ( الْحَاقَّةِ : 44 وَ 45 ) . ـ

Ex 29. And His statement:

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ

Or do they say, “He has made it up”? [52:33]

with was refuted with Allah’s statement:

وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ * لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ

And if he had made up some sayings about Us * Then We would have seized him by the right hand [69:44-45]

وَقَوْلِهِ : مَالِ هَذَا الرَّسُولِ يَأْكُلُ الطَّعَامَ ( الْفُرْقَانِ : 7 ) فَقِيلَ لَهُمْ : وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشُونَ فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ ( الْفُرْقَانِ : 20 ) . ـ

Ex 30. And His statement:

مَالِ هَـٰذَا الرَّسُولِ يَأْكُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشِي فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ

“What is this messenger who eats food and walks in the markets” [25:7]

so it was said to them:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشُونَ فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ

And We did not send before you any of the messengers except that they ate food and walked in the markets. [25:20]

وَقَوْلِهِ : وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ( الْفُرْقَانِ : 32 ) فَقِيلَ فِي سُورَةٍ أُخْرَى : وَقُرْآنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَى مُكْثٍ ( الْإِسْرَاءِ : 106 ) . ـ

Ex 31. And His statement:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً

And those who disbelieve said, “Why wasn’t the Qur’an revealed to him all at once?” [25:32]

so it was said them in another surah:

وَقُرْآنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَى مُكْثٍ

It is a Qur’an which We have divided so that you may recite it to people over a period of time [17:106]

وَقَوْلِهِ وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَى ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ فَإِذَا هُمْ فَرِيقَانِ يَخْتَصِمُونَ ( النَّمْلِ : 45 ) تَفْسِيرُ هَذَا الِاخْتِصَامِ مَا قَالَ فِي سُورَةٍ أُخْرَى : [ ص: 330 ] قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِمَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُمْ أَتَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ صَالِحًا مُرْسَلٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ( الْأَعْرَافِ : 75 ) الْآيَةَ . ـ

Ex 32. And His statement:

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَى ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ فَإِذَا هُمْ فَرِيقَانِ يَخْتَصِمُونَ

And We had certainly sent to Thamud their brother Salih, saying, “Worship Allah,” and at once they were two parties conflicting. [27:45]

and the explanation of this conflicting is what Allah said in another surah:

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا مِن قَوْمِهِ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِمَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُمْ أَتَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ صَالِحًا مُّرْسَلٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ ۚ قَالُوا إِنَّا بِمَا أُرْسِلَ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ

The eminent ones who were arrogant among the people said to those who were weak – that is, those of them who believed -, “Do you actually know that Salih has been sent by his Lord?” They replied, “We are certainly believers in what he was sent with.” [7:75]

وَقَوْلِهِ – تَعَالَى – : لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَى فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ ( يُونُسَ : 64 ) وَفَسَّرَهَا فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ بِقَوْلِهِ : تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنْتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ ( فُصِّلَتْ : 30 ) . ـ

Ex 33. And His statement:

لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَى فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ

For them are good tidings in the worldly life and in the Hereafter. [10:64]

and He explained this in another passage by saying:

تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ

the angels will descend upon them, [saying], “Do not fear and do not grieve but receive good tidings of Paradise, which you were promised.” [41:30]

وَمِنْهُ حِكَايَةٌ عَنْ فِرْعَوْنَ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ : وَمَا أَهْدِيكُمْ إِلَّا سَبِيلَ الرَّشَادِ ( الْمُؤْمِنِ : 29 ) فَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ فِي قَوْلِهِ وَمَا أَمْرُ فِرْعَوْنَ بِرَشِيدٍ ( هُودٍ : 97 ) . ـ

Ex 34. Another example is the statement of Fir’awn – Allah curse him -:

وَمَا أَهْدِيكُمْ إِلَّا سَبِيلَ الرَّشَادِ

And I only guide you to the right way [40:29]

but this claim of his was rebutted in Allah’s statement:

وَمَا أَمْرُ فِرْعَوْنَ بِرَشِيدٍ

But Fir’awn’s way was not the right way [11:97]

وَقَوْلِهِ : يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ جَمِيعًا فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ ( الْمُجَادَلَةِ : 18 ) وَذَكَرَ هَذَا الْحَلْفَ فِي قَوْلِهِ : قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ ( الْأَنْعَامِ : 23 ) . ـ

Ex 35. And His statement:

يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ جَمِيعًا فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ

On the Day Allah will resurrect them all, and they will swear to Him … [58:18]

and He mentions this oath in His statement:

قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

They say, “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those committed shirk.” [6:23]

وَقَوْلِهِ فِي قِصَّةِ نُوحٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ : أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانْتَصِرْ ( الْقَمَرِ : 10 ) بُيِّنَ فِي مَوَاضِعَ أُخَرَ : وَنَصَرْنَاهُ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ( الْأَنْبِيَاءِ : 77 ) . ـ

Ex 36. And His statement in the story of Nuh:

أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ

“I am overpowered, so help!” [54:10]

which is made clear in another passage:

وَنَصَرْنَاهُ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمَ سَوْءٍ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

And We saved him from the people who denied Our signs. Indeed, they were a people of evil, so We drowned them, all together.  [21:77]

وَقَوْلِهِ : وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلُفٌ ( الْبَقَرَةِ : 88 ) أَيْ أَوْعِيَةٌ لِلْعِلْمِ فَقِيلَ لَهُمْ : وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ( الْإِسْرَاءِ : 85 ) . ـ

Ex 37. And His statement:

وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلُفٌ

And the Jews said, “Our hearts are covers.” [compare to 2:88]

i.e. they are containers for knowledge. So it was said to them:

وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

And mankind has only been given a small piece of knowledge.” [17:85]

وَجَعَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ هَذَا قَوْلَهُ – تَعَالَى – : قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ ( الْأَعْرَافِ : 143 ) قَالَ : فَإِنَّ آيَةَ الْبَقَرَةِ وَهَى قَوْلُهُ : حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً ( الْآيَةِ : 55 ) تَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ قَوْلَهُ : ( رَبِّ أَرِنِي ) لَمْ يَكُنْ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ وَإِنَّمَا أَرَادَ بِهِ مُطَالَبَةَ قَوْمِهِ وَلَمْ يُثْبِتْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ الرُّؤْيَةَ إِلَّا وَقْتَ حُضُورِ قَوْمِهِ مَعَهُ وَسُؤَالِهِمْ ذَلِكَ . ـ

Ex 38. And one scholars considered the following to be an example:

قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ

Moosaa said, “Lord, show me Yourself so that I may look at You.” [7:143]

He said: This is explanation of the ayah in surah al-Baqarah where He said:

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى اللَّـهَ جَهْرَةً

And remember when you said, “O Moosaa, we will never believe in you until we see Allah with our own eyes!” [2:55]

using this to show that Moosaa’ statement:

رَبِّ أَرِنِي

“Lord, show me Yourself …” [7:143]

was not something of his own desire but that he only did it due to the demands of his people. Furthermore, the Torah only includes one instance of Moosaa asking to see Allah, which was the time when his people were present with him and they made that request.

وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ – تَعَالَى – : صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ ( الْفَاتِحَةِ : 7 ) بَيَّنَةُ فِي آيَةِ النِّسَاءِ بِقَوْلِهِ : مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ( الْآيَةِ : 69 ) . ـ

Ex 39. Another example of this is Allah’s statement:

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor [1:7]

which He clarified in an ayah in surah al-Nisaa’ by saying:

وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّـهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ

And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, they will be with those upon whom Allah has bestowed favor: the Prophets, truthful ones, martyrs and righteous [4:69]

فَإِنْ قِيلَ : فَهَلَّا فَسَّرَهَا آيَةُ مَرْيَمَ : أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ ( الْآيَةِ : 58 ) الْآيَةَ ! قِيلَ : لَا نُسَلِّمُ أَوَّلًا أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ فِي النَّبِيِّينَ فَقَطْ ، لِقَوْلِهِ : وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ ( مَرْيَمَ : 58 ) وَقَوْلُهُ : وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ( مَرْيَمَ : 58 ) وَهَذَا تَصْرِيحٌ [ ص: 331 ] بِالْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَغَيْرِهِمْ . كَيْفَ وَقَدْ ذُكِرَتْ مَرْيَمُ وَهِيَ صِدِّيقَةٌ عَلَى أَحَدِ الْقَوْلَيْنِ ! وَلَوْ سُلِّمَ أَنَّهَا فِي الْأَنْبِيَاءِ خَاصَّةً ، فَهُمْ بَعْضُ مَنْ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ، وَجَعَلَهُمْ فِي آيَةِ النِّسَاءِ صِنْفًا مِنَ الْمُنْعَمِ عَلَيْهِمْ ، فَكَانَتْ آيَةُ النِّسَاءِ مِنْ حَيْثُ هِيَ عَامَّةٌ أَوْلَى بِتَفْسِيرِ قَوْلِهِ : صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ ( الْفَاتِحَةِ : 7 ) وَلِأَنَّ آيَةَ مَرْيَمَ لَيْسَ فِيهَا إِلَّا الْإِخْبَارُ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْعَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ ، وَذَلِكَ هُوَ مَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ : اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ ( الْفَاتِحَةِ : 6 ) . وَالرَّغْبَةُ إِلَى اللَّهِ – تَعَالَى – فِي الثَّبَاتِ عَلَيْهَا ، هِيَ نَفْسُ الطَّاعَةِ لِلَّهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ ، فَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا هُدِيَ إِلَى الصِّرَاطِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ ، فَقَدْ هُدِيَ إِلَى الطَّاعَةِ الْمُقْتَضِيَةِ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَعَ الْمُنْعَمِ عَلَيْهِمْ . ـ

Now, if one were to ask: Why isn’t it explained by the ayah of surah Maryam:

أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا

Those were the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor among the Prophets of the descendants of Adam and of those We carried with Nuh, and of the descendants of Ibrahim and Israa’eel, and of those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Merciful were recited to them, they fell in prostration and weeping. [19:58]

Then one could respond by saying: Firstly, we do not accept the claim that this ayah [19:58] is only referring to the Prophets, due to the statements:

وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ

and of those whom We carried with Nuh

and

وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا

and of those whom We guided and chose

which is explicit in the fact that it includes both the Prophets and others. And how could one hold that position when one those mentioned in the lead-up to this ayah is Maryam, who is siddeqqah [i.e. not a prophet] according to one position on the matter.

But even if we were to accept that this ayah is talking exclusively about the Prophets, they are still only part of those upon whom Allah has bestowed favor, and in the ayah from surah al-Nisaa’ Allah made them just one category of those who have been bestowed with favor. So due to the more encompassing nature of the ayah from surah al-Nisaa’ it is more fitting to be the explanation of:

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor [1:7]

Furthermore, the ayah of surah Maryam only serves to inform us that Allah has bestowed favor on them [rather than why He has bestowed favor on them], while the ayah of surah al-Nisaa’ is the essence of His statement:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the straight path [1:6]

This is an earnest desire for Allah to make them firmly planted on it, which is the very essence of obedience to Allah and His Messenger. For if a slave is guided to the straight path then he has been guided to acts of obedience required for him to be among those upon whom Allah has bestowed His favor.

وَظَهَرَ بِهَذَا أَنَّ آيَةَ النِّسَاءِ أَمَسُّ بِتَفْسِيرِ سُورَةِ الْحَمْدِ مِنَ الْآيَةِ الَّتِي فِي سُورَةِ مَرْيَمَ . ـ

So it becomes clear after all of this that the ayah of surah al-Nisaa’ is more fitting to be the explanation of surah al-Fatihah than is the ayah of surah Maryam.

[al-Burhan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an 2/322-332]

See also: Supposed Contradictions in the Qur’an: ibn ‘Uthaymeen

See also: Supposed Contradictions between the Qur’an and Hadeeth: Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool

See also: A Primer on Abrogation: al-Zarkashi

See also: What the Salaf Meant by “Abrogation”: Ibn al-Qayyim

See also: Three Types of Sunnah in Relation to the Qur’an: ibn al-Qayyim

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.