Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 21-29: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

This is the second installment of our translation of al-Tafsir al-Muyassar‘s explanation of surah al-Baqarah, covering ayaat 21-29. See the series guide here for more information and previous installments.

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O mankind! Worship your Lord who created you and those before you in order that you might exercise taqwa (2:21)

نداء من الله للبشر جميعًا: أن اعبدوا الله الذي ربَّاكم بنعمه، وخافوه ولا تخالفوا دينه؛ فقد أوجدكم من العدم، وأوجد الذين من قبلكم؛ لتكونوا من المتقين الذين رضي الله عنهم ورضوا عنه. ـ

21) This is a call from Allah to mankind as a whole telling them to worship Allah who has nurtured and raised them up with His blessings and to fear Him and not go against His religion. For Allah brought you into existence out of nothing, and He brought those who were before into existence as well. This is so that you would be among those who exercise taqwa, those with whom Allah is pleased and who are pleased with Allah.

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

He who made the earth a bed for you and the sky a canopy, and He sent rain down from the sky. With it, He brought forth fruits as provision for you. So do not make any equals with Allah while you know. (2:22)

ربكم الذي جعل لكم الأرض بساطًا؛ لتسهل حياتكم عليها، والسماء محكمة البناء، وأنزل المطر من السحاب فأخرج لكم به من ألوان الثمرات وأنواع النبات رزقًا لكم، فلا تجعلوا لله نظراء في العبادة، وأنتم تعلمون تفرُّده بالخلق والرزق، واستحقاقِه العبودية.ـ

22) Your Lord is the One who made the earth spread out for you in order to make your lives easier, and who perfectly constructed the sky. And He sent down water from the clouds to thereby bring forth various kinds of fruits and produce as provision for you. So do not take any others as equals with Allah in worship while you know that He alone is responsible for all acts of creation and sustenance and that He alone deserves to be worshiped.

وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

And if you are in doubt about what we have sent down upon Our slave then produce a surah like it and call your witnesses if you are truthful (2:23)

وإن كنتم- أيها الكافرون المعاندون- في شَكٍّ من القرآن الذي نَزَّلناه على عبدنا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، وتزعمون أنه ليس من عند الله، فهاتوا سورة تماثل سورة من القرآن، واستعينوا بمن تقدرون عليه مِن أعوانكم، إن كنتم صادقين في دعواكم. ـ

23) If you – O you obstinate disbelievers – are in doubt about the Qur’an which We have sent down to Our slave Muhammad and you claim that it is not from Allah, then produce a surah similar to one of the surahs of the Qur’an and seek the aid of whatever helpers of yours you are able to find if you are truthful in your claim.

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ

Then if you are not able to do so, and you will never be able to do so, then fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones. It has been prepared for the disbelievers. (2:24)

فإن عجَزتم الآن- وستعجزون مستقبلا لا محالة- فاتقوا النار بالإيمان بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وطاعة الله تعالى. هذه النار التي حَطَبُها الناس والحجارة، أُعِدَّتْ للكافرين بالله ورسله.ـ

24) So if you are unable at present – and you will certainly be unable in the future – then protect yourselves from the fire by believing in the Prophet and obeying Allah. This fire whose fuel is men and stones has been prepared for those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers.

وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقًا قَالُوا هَـٰذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَأُتُوا بِهِ مُتَشَابِهًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds that there are gardens for them under which rivers flow. Every time they are given some fruits from it as provision they say, “This is what we were given before.” And they will be given similar things. And there will be pure spouses therein for them, and they will remain in it forever. (2:25)

وأخبر- أيها الرسول- أهل الإيمان والعمل الصالح خبرًا يملؤهم سرورًا، بأن لهم في الآخرة حدائق عجيبة، تجري الأنهار تحت قصورها العالية وأشجارها الظليلة. كلَّما رزقهم الله فيها نوعًا من الفاكهة اللذيذة قالوا: قد رَزَقَنا الله هذا النوع من قبل، فإذا ذاقوه وجدوه شيئًا جديدًا في طعمه ولذته، وإن تشابه مع سابقه في اللون والمنظر والاسم. ولهم في الجنَّات زوجات مطهَّرات من كل ألوان الدنس الحسيِّ كالبول والحيض، والمعنوي كالكذب وسوء الخُلُق. وهم في الجنة ونعيمها دائمون، لا يموتون فيها ولا يخرجون منها. ـ

25) O Messenger, inform the people of faith and good deeds of some news that will fill them with joy, that there are incredible gardens for them in the hereafter. Rivers will flow underneath elevated palaces and shading trees. Every time Allah provides them with some kind of delicious fruit in it they say, “Allah provided us with this type before”. Then when they taste it they find that it something new in terms of its taste and flavor even if it does resemble the color, appearance and name of what they had before. And in the gardens there will be wives for them purified from every kind of uncleanliness, both literal such as urine and menstrual blood and figurative such as lying and bad character. And they will be in Jannah and its enjoyment eternally, neither dying nor leaving it.

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّـهُ بِهَـٰذَا مَثَلًا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ

Allah is not shy to strike a parable of a mosquito or of something even smaller. As for those who believe, then they know that it is the truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say, “What does Allah intend by this parable?” By it He misguides many, and by it He guides many. And He does not misguide any by it except for the sinful ones. (2:26)

إن الله تعالى لا يستحيي من الحق أن يذكر شيئًا ما، قلَّ أو كثر، ولو كان تمثيلا بأصغر شيء، كالبعوضة والذباب ونحو ذلك، مما ضربه الله مثلا لِعَجْز كل ما يُعْبَد من دون الله. فأما المؤمنون فيعلمون حكمة الله في التمثيل بالصغير والكبير من خلقه، وأما الكفار فَيَسْخرون ويقولون: ما مراد الله مِن ضَرْب المثل بهذه الحشرات الحقيرة؟ ويجيبهم الله بأن المراد هو الاختبار، وتمييز المؤمن من الكافر؛ لذلك يصرف الله بهذا المثل ناسًا كثيرين عن الحق لسخريتهم منه، ويوفق به غيرهم إلى مزيد من الإيمان والهداية. والله تعالى لا يظلم أحدًا؛ لأنه لا يَصْرِف عن الحق إلا الخارجين عن طاعته. ـ

26) Allah the Exalted is not shy to mention anything in truth, whether big or small, even if it were to make a parable involving the smallest thing such as a mosquito or fly or other such things which He has used to strike a parable for the shortcomings of everything which people worship besides Allah. As for the believers, they recognize Allah’s wisdom in making parables of the things He has created whether large or small. But as for the disbelievers, they belittle such things and say, “What does Allah intend by striking a parable of these lowly insects?” Allah responds to them by saying that these are meant as a test and to set the believer apart from the disbeliever. Because of that, Allah diverts many people from the truth by means of this parable due to their belittlement of it, while He enables others to increase in their faith and guidance by means of it. And Allah does not wrong anyone, for He does not divert anyone from the truth except for those who had already diverged from obedience to Him.

لَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّـهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّـهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Those who break Allah’s covenant after ratifying it and cut off what Allah has commanded to be joined and create corruption in the earth. It is they who are the losers. (2:27)

الذين ينكثون عهد الله الذي أخذه عليهم بالتوحيد والطاعة، وقد أكَّده بإرسال الرسل، وإنزال الكتب، ويخالفون دين الله كقطع الأرحام ونشر الفساد في الأرض، أولئك هم الخاسرون في الدنيا والآخرة. ـ

27) Those who violate Allah’s covenant of Tawheed and obedience which He took from them directly and reiterated by sending the messengers and revealing the scriptures. And they oppose Allah’s religion by such things as cutting off family ties and spreading corruption across the earth. It is they who are the losers in both this life and the next.

كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were dead and He gave you life? Then you will die and then you will be brought back to life and then you will be brought back to Him. (2:28)

كيف تنكرون- أيُّها المشركون- وحدانية الله تعالى، وتشركون به غيره في العبادة مع البرهان القاطع عليها في أنفسكم؟ فلقد كنتم أمواتًا فأوجدكم ونفخ فيكم الحياة، ثم يميتكم بعد انقضاء آجالكم التي حددها لكم، ثم يعيدكم أحياء يوم البعث، ثم إليه ترجعون للحساب والجزاء. ـ

28) O Mushrikoon, how can you disbelieve in Allah’s sole right to be worshiped and instead associate others with Him in worship despite the definitive proofs in your own selves? For you had been dead and then He gave you existence and blew life into you. Then you will due once the term which has been set for you expires. Then you will be brought back to life on the Day of Resurrection. Then you will return to Him for reckoning and recompense.

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

He is the One who created all that is in the earth for you and then turned to the sky and made them seven heavens. And He is all-Knowing of every thing. (2:29)

اللهُ وحده الذي خَلَق لأجلكم كل ما في الأرض من النِّعم التي تنتفعون بها، ثم قصد إلى خلق السموات، فسوَّاهنَّ سبع سموات، وهو بكل شيء عليم. فعِلْمُه- سبحانه- محيط بجميع ما خلق. ـ

29) Allah alone created all the blessings that you enjoy in the earth for your benefit. Then He turned to creating the heavens and He made seven heavens. And He is all-Knowing of every thing, so His knowledge encompasses all that He has created.

[al-Tafsir al-Muyassar pg. 4-5]

Explore more from this book of tafsir in our al-Tafsir al-Muyassar Translation Index

See also: Three Proofs for the Resurrection of the Dead: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: Fear the Fire Whose Fuel is Men and Stones: Tafsir al-Baghawi & Tafsir al-Qurtubi

See also: Protect yourselves and your families from a fire: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

See also: Allah is Not Shy to Strike a Parable of a Mosquito: Tafsir al-Sa’di

One thought on “Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah 21-29: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar

  1. Pingback: Allah is Not Shy to Strike a Parable of a Mosquito: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

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