Tafsir of the Closing of Surah al-Baqarah: Sheikh Faisal Aal Mubarak

Sheikh Faisal Aal Mubarak (d. 1376Ah/1957CE) set out to author a book of Qur’anic explanation for beginning students composed of carefully selected statements of the salaf and excerpts from Tafsir al-Tabari, Tafsir al-Baghawi and Tafsir ibn Kathir, three of the most reliable books of tafsir available. He divided his book into 313 lessons for further ease of reading. What follows is a complete translation of his 35th lesson, covering the final ayaat of surah al-Baqarah:

الدرس الخامس والثلاثون
Lesson #35

لِّلَّهِ ما فِي السَّمَاواتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَإِن تُبْدُواْ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللهُ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ * آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ * لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and whether you disclose what is in your own selves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things. [2:284]

The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” – and they say, “We hear and we obey. We seek Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and it is to You that we shall return!” [2:285]

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that which he has earned, and he is punished for that which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error. Our Lord! Do not lay a burden on us like that which You did on those before us. Our Lord! And do not put any burden on us greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people. [2:286]

قوله عز وجل: {لِّلَّهِ ما فِي السَّمَاواتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَإِن تُبْدُواْ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللهُ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (284) } . ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

لِّلَّـهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّـهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and whether you disclose what is in your own selves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things. [2:284]

يقول تعالى: {لِّلَّهِ ما فِي السَّمَاواتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ} خلفًا وملكًا وعبيدًا. {وَإِن تُبْدُواْ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللهُ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ} . روى الإمام أحمد وغيره عن أبي هريرة قال: (لما نزلت على رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: {لِّلَّهِ ما فِي السَّمَاواتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَإِن تُبْدُواْ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللهُ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ} اشتد ذلك على أصحاب رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فأتوا رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ثم جثوا على الركب وقالوا: يا رسول الله كلّفنا من الأعمال ما نطيق: الصلاة، والصيام، والجهاد، والصدقة، وقد أنزلت عليك هذه الآية ولا نطيقها: فقال رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: «أتريدون أن تقولوا كما قال أهل الكتابين من قبلكم سمعنا وعصينا؟ بل قولوا: سمعنا وأطعنا غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير» ، فلما أقرّ بها القوم وذلّت بها ألسنتهم أنزل الله في أثرها: {آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ} ، فلما فعلوا ذلك نسخها الله فأنزل الله: {لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا} ) . إلى آخره. ـ

Allah says:

لِّلَّهِ ما فِي السَّمَاواتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ

To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth …

they are His creation, property and slaves

وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّـهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

… and whether you disclose what is in your own selves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it. Then He will forgive whom He wills and punish whom He wills. And Allah is able to do all things.

Imam Ahmad and others relayed a report from Abu Hurayrah that he said:

When this ayah was revealed to Allah’s Messenger, the Companions found that difficult so they went to Allah’s Messenger and knelt on their knees saying, “O Messenger of Allah, we have been charged with deeds we can bear such as prayer, fasting, jihaad, and charity, but then this ayah was revealed to you and we cannot bear it!”

Allah’s Messenger responded by saying, “Do you wish to speak as the Jews and Christians before you did when they said, ‘We hear and disobey’?! Instead say, ‘We hear and we obey. We ask Your forgiveness, our Lord, and it is to You that we shall return!'”

Then when the people accepted this and humbled their tongues to it, Allah subsequently revealed:

آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” – and they say, “We hear and we obey. We seek Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and it is to You that we shall return!” [2:285]

So once they had done that, Allah abrogated it and sent down:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that which he has earned, and he is punished for that which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error … [2:286]

until the end of the ayah.

ولمسلم: (ولما فعلوا ذلك نسخها الله فأنزل الله: {لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا} ، قال: «نعم» {ربنا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا} قال: «نعم» {ربنا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ} قال: «نعم» ، {وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ} قال: «نعم» . ـ

And in the narration of Muslim, it comes as:

… So once they had done that, Allah abrogated it and then revealed:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error …

and Allah said, “Yes”

رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا

… our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us …

and Allah said, “Yes”

رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ

… our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear …

and Allah said, “Yes”

وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

… Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Protector. And give us victory over the disbelieving people.

and Allah said, “Yes.”

وفي رواية له من حديث ابن عباس: قال: (قد فعلت) . ـ

And in another report mentioned by Muslim from ibn ‘Abbaas:

He said, “I have done so.”

قال ابن حجر في (فتح الباري) : (والمراد بقوله: نسختها أي: أزالت ما تضمنته من الشدة، وبينت أنه وإن وقعت المحاسبة به، لكنها لا تقع المؤاخذة به؛ أشار إلى ذلك الطبري، فرارًا من إثبات دخول النسخ في الأخبار، وأجيب بأنه وإن كان خبرًا لكنه يتضمن حكمًا، ومهما كان من الأخبار يتضمن الأحكام، أمكن دخول النسخ فيه كسائر الأحكام، وإنما الذي لا يدخله النسخ من الأخبار، ما كان خبرًا محضًا لا يتضمن حكمًا، كالإخبار عما مضى من أحاديث الأمم ونحو ذلك؛ ويحتمل أن يكون المراد بالنسخ في الحديث: التخصيص، فإن المتقدمين يطلقون لفظ النسخ عليه كثيرًا، والمراد بالمحاسبة بما يخفي الإنسان ما يصمم عليه ويشرع فيه، دون ما يخطر ولا يستمر عليه. والله أعلم) . انتهى. ـ

Ibn Hajr said ibn Fath al-Bari:

The intended meaning of “I have abrogated it” is: I have removed the difficulty entailed in it and clarified that even if they are taken to account for these things, they will not be punished for them. al-Tabari pointed to this explanation as a way to avoid saying that abrogation of information [as opposed to abrogation of commands] can occur. I would respond to that by saying that while this is a piece of information, it contains a legal ruling, so as long as rulings are included in information it is possible for the information to be abrogated just like any other legal ruling could be. It is only pure information which does not entail any legal rulings, such as information about the bygone events of the previous nations or other such things, that do not allow for any abrogation to take place.

It is also possible that the intended meaning of “abrogation” in this hadeeth is actually just a matter of specification, as the earlier generations frequently used the term “naskh” to convey this meaning. In this case, the meaning of being taken to account for what people concealed would be referring to things that they actually engage in and persisted in, but not what they fell into without persisting in. And Allah knows best.

End quote from ibn Hajr.

وروى الجماعة من حديث أبي هريرة عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال: «إن الله تجاوز لي عن أمتي ما حدثت به أنفسها، ما لم تكلم أو تعمل» . ـ

A number of hadeeth collectors transmitted the narration from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:

Allah forgives my Ummah for what crosses their minds so long as they do not speak it or act upon it.

قوله عز وجل: {آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ (285) } . ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” – and they say, “We hear and we obey. We seek Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and it is to You that we shall return!” [2:285]

قال ابن زيد: {لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ} ، كما صنع القوم يعني: بني إسرائيل قالوا: فلان نبي وفلان ليس نبيًا، وفلان نؤمن به وفلان لا نؤمن به. وعن حكيم بن جابر قال: (لما أنزلت على رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – {آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ} . قال جبريل: إن الله عز وجل قد أحسن الثناء عليك وعلى أمتك، فسل تعطه. فسأل: {لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا) } . رواه ابن جرير. ـ

‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Zayd said:

لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ

“We make no distinction between any of His messengers.”

as a certain people – meaning the Children of Israa’eel – had done. They said, “So-and-so is a prophet but so-and-so is not a prophet. We believe in so-and-so but we do not believe in so-and-so.”

Hakeem ibn Jaabir said:

When this ayah was revealed to the Prophet, Jibreel said, “Allah has given the best form of praise to you and your nation, so ask and you will be given.” So he asked:

لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope … [2:286]

This was transmitted by ibn Jarir al-Tabari.

قوله عز وجل: {لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ (286) } . ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that which he has earned, and he is punished for that which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error. Our Lord! Do not lay a burden on us like that which You did on those before us. Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Protector, and give us victory over the disbelieving people. [2:286]

قال السدي: {لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا} طاقتها، وحديث النفس مما لا يطيقون. وقال ابن عباس: هم المؤمنون، وسع الله عليهم أمر دينهم، فقال الله جل ثناؤه: {وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ} وقال: {يُرِيدُ اللهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ} ، وقال: {فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ} . وقال: قتادة: قوله: {لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ} ، أي: من خير، {وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ} ، أي: من شر، وقوله: {رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا} قال ابن زيد: إن نسينا شيئًا مما افترضته علينا، أو أخطأنا شيئًا مما حرمته علينا. وقال قتادة: بلغني أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال: «إن الله تجاوز لهذه الأمة عن نسيانها وما حدثت بها أنفسها» . وروى ابن ماجة وغيره من حديث ابن عباس عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال: «إن الله تعالى وضع عن أمتي الخطأ والنسيان وما استكرهوا عليه» . ـ

al-Suddi said:

لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْساً إِلا وُسْعَهَا

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope … [2:286]

beyond his ability, and the things that cross his mind fall under the category of what is beyond his ability to control.

ibn ‘Abbaas said:

These are the believers; Allah has granted a certain degree of latitude when it comes to their religion, for He said:

وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ

… and He has not placed any difficulty in the religion upon you … [22:78]

and He said:

يُرِيدُ اللهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ

Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship [2:185]

and He said:

فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ

So have as much taqwa of Allah as you are able [64:16]

Qatadah said:

Allah’s statement:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that which he has earned …

i.e. of good

وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ

… and he is punished for that which he has earned.

i.e. of evil.

Allah’s statement:

 رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا

“Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error …

ibn Zayd said:

If we forget some part of what You have made obligatory for us, or if we mistakenly do something that you have forbidden for us.

Qatadah said:

It has reached me that the Prophet said, “Allah forgives this ummah for what we forget to do and for the thoughts that cross our minds.

ibn Majah and others have relayed a hadeeth of ibn ‘Abbaas that the Prophet said:

Allah has forgiven my ummah for mistakes, forgetfulness and what they are forced into doing.

وقوله تعالى: {رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا} . قال مجاهد: {إِصْراً} ، عهدًا. وقال ابن زيد: لاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا ذنبًا ليس فيه توبة ولا كفارة. وقال مالك: الإصر الأمر الغليط. ـ

Allah’s statement:

رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا

Our Lord! Do not lay a burden on us like that which You did on those before us.

Mujahid said:

إِصْراً

burden

means: a covenant.

ibn Zayd said:

Do not lay any sin on us from which we can neither repent nor expiate.

Maalik said:

The word “burden” refers to a heavy and difficult matter.

وقوله: {رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ} ، قال ابن زيد: لا تفترض علينا من الدين ما لا طاقة لنا به، فنعجز عنه، {وَاعْفُ عَنَّا} إن قصرنا عن شيء من أمرك مما أمرتنا به، {وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا} ، إن انتهكنا شيئًا مما نهيتنا عنه، {وَارْحَمْنَا} يقول: لأننا لا نعمل بما أمرتنا به، ولا نترك ما نهيتنا عنه إلا برحمتك. قال: ولم ينج أحد إلا برحمتك. ـ

Allah’s statement:

رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ

Our Lord! And do not put any burden on us greater than we have strength to bear.

Ibn Zayd said:

Do not require us to do anything as part of the religion which we do not have the ability to do, for then we would be unable to do it.

وَاعْفُ عَنَّا

… and pardon us …

if we fall short in any command which You have ordered us to do

وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا

… and forgive us

if we violate anything which You have prohibited us from doing

وَارْحَمْنَا

… and have mercy on us …

because we cannot do what You have commanded us to do nor can we abstain from what You have forbidden us from doing unless You grant us Your mercy.

and he also said:

And no one is saved except by Your mercy.

وقوله تعالى: {أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ} ، ورد في بعض الآثار: (قال الله: قد عفوت عنكم وغفرت لكم ورحمتكم، ونصرتكم على القوم الكافرين) . وكان معاذ رضي الله عنه إذا فرغ من هذه السورة قال: (آمين) . وعن ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه إذا فرغ من هذه السورة قال: (آمين) . ـ

Allah’s statement:

أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

You are our Protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people.

It has been mentioned in some narrations that:

Allah said, “I have pardoned you, forgiven you, and had mercy on you, and I have granted you victory over the disbelieving people.”

and Mu’adh used to say “Ameen” upon finishing this surah. Likewise, it is narrated from ibn Mas’ood that he would say “Ameen” when he would finish this surah.

وعن ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: «من قرأ بالآيتين من آخر سورة البقرة في ليلة كفتاه» . متفق عليه. وعن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: … «أعطيت خواتيم سورة البقرة من كنز تحت العرش لم يعطهن نبي قبلي» . رواه أحمد. وعن علي رضي الله عنه قال: لا أرى أحدًا عقل الإسلام ينام حتى يقرأ آية الكرسي وخواتيم سورة البقرة، فإنها من كنز أعطيه نبيكم – صلى الله عليه وسلم – من تحت العرش. رواه ابن مردويه. والله أعلم. ـ

○ It has been narrated that ibn Mas’ood said:

The Messenger of Allah said, “Whoever recites the two ayahs from the end of surah al-Baqarah in the night, they will suffice him.

This has been reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Abu Dharr said:

Allah’s Messenger said, “I have been given the closing of surah al-Baqarah from a treasure beneath the Throne. No prophet before me has been given this.”

This is reported by Ahmad.

‘Ali said:

I have not seen anyone who truly understands Islam sleep without reciting ayah al-Kursi and the closing of surah al-Baqarah for these come from a treasure that was given to our Prophet from beneath the Throne.

This was reported by ibn Mardawayh. And Allah knows best.

[Tawfeeq al-Rahman Fee Duroos al-Qur’an 1/185-187]

See also: Tafsir of Ayah al-Kursi: Faisal Aal Mubarak

See also: Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

One thought on “Tafsir of the Closing of Surah al-Baqarah: Sheikh Faisal Aal Mubarak

  1. Pingback: Tafsir of Ayah al-Kursi: Faisal Aal Mubarak | Tulayhah

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