Tawbah for the Various Categories of Sins: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

Imam Abu ‘Abdullah al-Qurtubi mentioned the following issue in part of his well-known book of tafsir:

الخامسة : الذنوب التي يتاب منها إما كفر أو غيره ، فتوبة الكافر إيمانه مع ندمه على ما سلف من كفره ، وليس مجرد الإيمان نفس توبة ، وغير الكفر إما حق لله تعالى ، وإما حق لغيره ، [ ص: 203 ] فحق الله تعالى يكفي في التوبة منه الترك ; غير أن منها ما لم يكتف الشرع فيها بمجرد الترك بل أضاف إلى ذلك في بعضها قضاء كالصلاة والصوم ، ومنها ما أضاف إليها كفارة كالحنث في الأيمان والظهار وغير ذلك ، وأما حقوق الآدميين فلا بد من إيصالها إلى مستحقيها ، فإن لم يوجدوا تصدق عنهم ، ومن لم يجد السبيل لخروج ما عليه لإعسار فعفو الله مأمول ، وفضله مبذول ; فكم ضمن من التبعات وبدل من السيئات بالحسنات . وستأتي زيادة بيان لهذا المعنى . ـ

Point 5: Sins from which one can repent fall into the categories of outright kufr (disbelief) or lesser sins.

The repentance of a disbelieving person involves him having eemaan while regretting the disbelief that he had previously committed, as merely having eemaan is not the same as repenting.

As for those sins which are less than kufr, these are either related to the rights of Allah, or the rights of others.

For the sins related to Allah’s rights, abandoning those sins is a sufficient form of repentance. That is, except for those sins for which the divine legislation requires more than simply leaving them off. In fact, some sins require something more than that, such as to make up what one missed in the case of missed prayers or missed fasting, while others also require some sort of expiation, such as in the case of broken oaths, al-thihaar, and others.

Then as for the sin that are connected to the rights of other human beings, one must return those rights to whom they are due. But if the person cannot be found, you should give charity on his behalf. And for those whom poverty prevents them from doing so, then Allah’s pardon is hoped for and His grace is available. For how often does Allah do away with the consequences of sins and replace evil deeds with good? And more explanation of this subject is due to come later.

[Tafsir al-Qurtubi 4/203-204]

See also: Do any sins remain after entering Islam?: Ibn Taymiyah

See also: When Repentance Will No Longer Be Accepted: Sheikh Faisal Aal Mubarak

See also: When One Plans to Sin but then Does Not: Tafsir ibn Kathir

2 thoughts on “Tawbah for the Various Categories of Sins: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

  1. Pingback: Do any sins remain after entering Islam?: Ibn Taymiyah | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: When Repentance Will No Longer Be Accepted: Sheikh Faisal Aal Mubarak | Tulayhah

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