The Qur’anic Methods of Calling People to Tawheed: Sheikh Saalih al-Fawzan

In one of Sheikh Saalih al-Fawzan‘s written works in the field of ‘aqeedah, the sheikh devoted a section to listing a number of methods that Allah uses throughout the Qur’an to invite people to worship Him alone. He mentions a total of eleven different methods, providing examples for each type:

أساليب القرآن في الدعوة إلى توحيد الإلهية
The Methods Used in the Qur’an to Call People to the Sole Worship of Allah

لما كان توحيد الربوبية قد أقر به الناس بموجب فطرهم ونظرهم في الكون، وكان الإقرار به وحده لا يكفي للإيمان بالله ولا ينجي صاحبه من العذاب، ركزت دعوات الرسل على توحيد الإلهية، خصوصا دعوة خاتم الرسل نبينا محمد عليه وعليهم أفضل السلام، فكان يطالب الناس بقول‏:‏ لا إله إلا الله، المتضمنة لعبادة الله، وترك عبادة ما سواه، فكانوا ينفرون منه ويقولون‏:‏ ‏{‏أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَهًا وَاحِدًا إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

Since al-Tawheed al-Rububiyyah – Allah’s exclusive role as Lord of all creation – is something which people accept, as is necessitated by their innate disposition towards it and their observation of this universe, and because the mere acceptance of it is not equivalent to eemaan in Allah nor does it alone save anyone from eternal punishment, then the calls of the messengers were centered around and concentrated on al-Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah – Allah’s exclusive right to be worshiped by His created beings. This was all the more emphasized in the call of the seal of the messengers, our Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), for he sought for the people to profess Laa ilaaha illallaah – there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah -, a phrase that entails worshiping Allah and leaving off the worship of anything besides Him. But the people were averse to this, saying

‏أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَهًا وَاحِدًا إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ‏

Has he made the gods all into one God? Indeed, this is something astounding! [38:5]

وحاولوا مع الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يترك هذه الدعوة ويخلي بينهم وبين عبادة الأصنام، وبذلوا في ذلك معه كل الوسائل؛ بالترغيب تارة وبالترهيب تارة، وهو عليه الصلاة والسلام يقول‏:‏ ‏”‏والله، لو وضعوا الشمس بيميني، والقمر بشمالي، على أن أترك هذا الأمر؛ لا أتركه حتى يظهره الله أو أهلك دونه‏”‏‏.‏ ـ

The people made every effort to make the Messenger give up this call and leave them to worship their idols. They took every means at their disposal to reach this end, sometimes offering enticements and other times with threats and intimidation. But the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “I swear by Allah, if they were to place the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left on the condition that I abandon this cause, I would not leave it until Allah grants it victory or I perish therein.”

وكانت آيات الله تتنزل عليه بالدعوة إلى هذا التوحيد، والرد على شبهات المشركين، وإقامة البراهين على بطلان ما هم عليه‏.‏ ـ

Allah’s verses would be sent to him in order to call the people of al-Tawheed, to rebut the doubts of the mushrikoon, and to firmly establish proofs of the futility and falsehood of what they were following.

وقد تنوعت أساليب القرآن في الدعوة إلى توحيد الإلهية، وها نحن نذكر جملة منها؛ فمن ذلك‏:‏ ـ

The Qur’an uses a variety of methods to call people to al-Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah – Allah’s exclusive right to be worshiped – and here we will mention a number of them. These methods include:

ـ 1- أمره سبحانه بعبادته وترك عبادة ما سواه؛ كما في قوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ‏}‏ ‏.‏‏.‏‏.‏ إلى قوله‏:‏ ‏{‏فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

1) Allah commanding the people to worship Him and abandon the worship of any others, for instance in His statement:

‏وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him in worship [4:36]

or His statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ * الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become al-Muttaqun * Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah in worship while you know. [2:21-22]

ـ 2- ومنها إخباره سبحانه أنه خلق الخلق لعبادته؛ كما في قوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

2) Allah informing us that He created the creation in order to worship Him, such as in His statement:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

And I did not create the jinn or mankind except to worship me [51:56]

ـ 3ـ ومنها إخباره أنه أرسل جميع الرسل بالدعوة إلى عبادته والنهي عن عبادة ما سواه؛ كقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولًا أَنِ اُعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

3) Allah informing us that He sent all of the messengers to call to His worship and to forbid the worship of anything besides Him, such as His statement:

‏وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولًا أَنِ اُعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We certainly sent a messenger into every nation, saying, “Worship Allah and avoid false deities.” [16:36]

ـ 4- ومنها الاستدلال على توحيد الإلهية بانفراده بالربوبية والخلق والتدبير؛ كما في قوله سبحانه‏:‏ ‏{‏يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏أَفَمَنْ يَخْلُقُ كَمَنْ لَا يَخْلُقُ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

4) Allah’s uses His al-Tawheed al-Rububiyyah – His exclusive lordship over all creation – and His creation and maintenance of it as a proof for al-Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah – His exclusive right to be worshiped. This is as comes in His statements:

‏يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ‏

O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who created you and those who were before you [2:21]

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ

Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but prostate to Allah who created both of them [41:37]

أَفَمَنْ يَخْلُقُ كَمَنْ لَا يَخْلُقُ

Then is He who creates like one who does not create? [16:17]

ـ 5- ومنها الاستدلال على وجوب عبادته سبحانه بانفراده بصفات الكمال وانتفاء ذلك عن آلهة المشركين؛ كما في قوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا‏}‏ ، وقوله عن خليله إبراهيم‏:‏ إنه قال لأبيه‏:‏ ‏{‏يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنْكَ شَيْئًا‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏إِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا دُعَاءَكُمْ‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَى مِنْ بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَهُ خُوَارٌ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمْ وَلَا يَهْدِيهِمْ سَبِيلًا‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

5) Allah uses His exclusive possession of perfect attributes and the complete absence of these qualities in the gods of the mushrikoon as a proof for the requirement to worship Him. This is as comes in Allah’s statements:

فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا

So worship Him and have patience for His worship. Do you know of anyone who is similar to Him? [19:65]

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا

And the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them [7:180]

And His statement regarding what His Khaleel Ibrahim said to his father:

يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنْكَ شَيْئًا‏

O my father! Why do you worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything? [19:42]

and His statements:

‏إِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا دُعَاءَكُمْ

If you call upon them, they hear not your call [35:14]

وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَىٰ مِن بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ ۚ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمْ وَلَا يَهْدِيهِمْ سَبِيلًا

And in his absence the people of Moosaa made the image of a calf out of their ornaments and took it for worship. It had a sound as if it was mooing. Did they not see that it could neither speak to them nor guide them to the way? [7:148]

ـ 6- ومنها تعجيزه لآلهة المشركين؛ كقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمْ نَصْرًا وَلَا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَنْصُرُونَ‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنْكُمْ وَلَا تَحْوِيلًا‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًا مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَنْ يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ وَإِنْ يَسْلُبْهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيْئًا لَا يَسْتَنْقِذُوهُ مِنْهُ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالْمَطْلُوبُ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

6) Allah shows the weakness and inability of the mushrikoon‘s deities, as in His statements:

‏أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمْ نَصْرًا وَلَا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَنْصُرُونَ

Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but were themselves created? * They cannot give them any help, nor can they help themselves. [7:191-192]

‏قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنْكُمْ وَلَا تَحْوِيلًا‏

Say, “Invoke those you have claimed to be gods besides Him, for they do not possess the ability to remove adversity from you or to alter it.” [17:56]

‏وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًا مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ

And they worship besides Allah that which does not hold any provision at all for them from the heavens or the earth, and in fact are powerless. [16:73]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَنْ يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ وَإِنْ يَسْلُبْهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيْئًا لَا يَسْتَنْقِذُوهُ مِنْهُ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالْمَطْلُوبُ

O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create even a fly, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the fly were to steal something away from them, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued. [22:73]

ـ 7- ومنها تسفيه المشركين الذين يعبدون غير الله؛ كقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏قَالَ أَفَتَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمْ أُفٍّ لَكُمْ وَلِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَنْ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَنْ دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

7) Allah shows the foolishness of the mushrikoon who worship others besides Allah, such as in His statements:

‏قَالَ أَفَتَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمْ أُفٍّ لَكُمْ وَلِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ‏

He said, “Then do you worship instead of Allah that which does not benefit you at all or harm you? * Uff to you and to what you worship instead of Allah. Will you not use reason?” [21:66-67]

‏وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَنْ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَنْ دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ

And who is more astray than he who invokes besides Allah those who will not respond to him until the Day of Resurrection, and they are unaware of their invocation. [46:5]

ـ 8- ومنها بيان عاقبة المشركين الذين يعبدون غير الله، وبيان مآلهم مع من عبدوهم، حيث تتبرأ منهم تلك المعبودات في أحرج المواقف؛ كما في قوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكْفُرُونَ بِشِرْكِكُمْ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍ‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَنْ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَنْ دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ النَّاسُ كَانُوا لَهُمْ أَعْدَاءً وَكَانُوا بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَافِرِينَ‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ يَقُولُ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ أَهَؤُلَاءِ إِيَّاكُمْ كَانُوا يَعْبُدُونَ قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ أَنْتَ وَلِيُّنَا مِنْ دُونِهِمْ بَلْ كَانُوا يَعْبُدُونَ الْجِنَّ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنُونَ‏}‏ ، وقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنْتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَهَيْنِ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

8) Allah clearly states the final outcome of the mushrikoon who worship others besides Allah, and He explains the final outcome they will have with those whom they worshiped – that those whom they worshiped will disassociate themselves from that worship at that most critical time. This is as Allah said:

وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ

And if only they who have wronged would consider that when they see the punishment, they will be certain that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment. * when those who have been followed disassociate themselves from those who followed them, and they all see the punishment, and cut off from them are the ties * Those who followed will say, “If only we had another turn at worldly life so we could disassociate ourselves from them as they have disassociated themselves from us.” Thus will Allah show them their deeds as regrets upon them. And they are never to emerge from the Fire. [2:165-167]

‏وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكْفُرُونَ بِشِرْكِكُمْ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍ

And on the Day of Resurrection they will deny your association. And none can inform you like the Acquainted One [35:14]

‏وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَنْ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَنْ دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ النَّاسُ كَانُوا لَهُمْ أَعْدَاءً وَكَانُوا بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَافِرِينَ

And who is more astray than he who invokes besides Allah those who will not respond to him until the Day of Resurrection, and they are unaware of their invocation. * And when the people are gathered, those who were invoked will be enemies to them, and they will be deniers of their worship. [46:5-5]

وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ يَقُولُ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ أَهَؤُلَاءِ إِيَّاكُمْ كَانُوا يَعْبُدُونَ قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ أَنْتَ وَلِيُّنَا مِنْ دُونِهِمْ بَلْ كَانُوا يَعْبُدُونَ الْجِنَّ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنُونَ

And mention the Day when He will gather them all and then say to the angels, “Did these people used to worship you?” * They will say, “Exalted are You! You are our benefactor, not them. Rather, they used to worship the jinn; most of them were believers in them.” [34:40-41]

‏وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنْتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَهَيْنِ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ

And beware the Day when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah?'” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it.” [5:116]

ـ 9- ومنها رده سبحانه على المشركين في اتخاذهم الوسائط بينهم وبين الله بأن الشفاعة ملك له سبحانه؛ لا تطلب إلا منه، ولا يشفع أحد عنده إلا بإذنه، بعد رضاه عن المشفوع له؛ قال سبحانه‏:‏ ‏{‏أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُفَعَاءَ قُلْ أَوَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يَمْلِكُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَعْقِلُونَ قُلْ لِلَّهِ الشَّفَاعَةُ جَمِيعًا لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ‏}‏ ، وقوله سبحانه‏:‏ ‏{‏مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ‏}‏ ، وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَكَمْ مِنْ مَلَكٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ لَا تُغْنِي شَفَاعَتُهُمْ شَيْئًا إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَرْضَى‏}‏ ؛ فبين سبحانه في هذه الآيات أن الشفاعة ملكه وحده، لا تطلب إلا منه، ولا تحصل إلا بعد إذنه للشافع ورضاه عن المشفوع له‏.‏ ـ

9) Allah rebuts the mushrikoon for taking intermediaries between them and Allah because intercession is the complete domain of Allah and it should not be sought from anyone besides Him nor can anyone intercede with Him without His permission, and that can only be done if He is pleased with the one for whom they are interceding. Allah said:

‏أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُفَعَاءَ قُلْ أَوَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يَمْلِكُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَعْقِلُونَ قُلْ لِلَّهِ الشَّفَاعَةُ جَمِيعًا لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ

Or have they taken other than Allah as intercessors? Say, “Even though they do not possess power over anything, nor do they reason?” * Say, “To Allah belongs [the right to allow] intercession entirely. To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth.” [39:43-44]

‏مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ‏

Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? [2:255]

وَكَم مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ لَا تُغْنِي شَفَاعَتُهُمْ شَيْئًا إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّـهُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيَرْضَىٰ

And how many angels there are in the heavens whose intercession will not avail at all except only after Allah has permitted it to whom He wills and approves. [53:36]

So Allah makes it clear in these ayaat that the domain of intercession is His alone, that it should not be sought from anyone else, and that it cannot occur unless He has already given permission to the intercessor and is pleased with the one on whose behalf he is interceding.

ـ 10- ومنها أنه بين سبحانه أن هؤلاء المعبودين من دونه لا يحصل منهم نفع لمن عبدهم من جميع الوجوه، ومن هذا شأنه لا يصلح للعبادة، كما في قوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِيهِمَا مِنْ شِرْكٍ وَمَا لَهُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ ظَهِيرٍ وَلَا تَنْفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا لِمَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ‏}‏ ‏.‏ ـ

10) Allah clearly states that those who are worshiped besides Him cannot bring about any benefit for those who worship them in any way, shape or form, and so anyone in such a condition is not deserving of worship in the first place. This is as Allah said:

‏قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِيهِمَا مِنْ شِرْكٍ وَمَا لَهُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ ظَهِيرٍ وَلَا تَنْفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا لِمَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ

Say, “Invoke those you claim as deities besides Allah.” They do not possess an ant’s weight in the heavens or on the earth, nor do they have any share in ownership of either realm, nor are any of them an assistant to Him. [34:22]

ـ 11- ومنها أنه سبحانه ضرب أمثلة كثيرة في القرآن يتضح بها بطلان الشرك، من ذلك قوله سبحانه‏:‏ ‏{‏وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ‏}‏ ؛ شبه سبحانه التوحيد في علوه وارتفاعه وسعته وشرفه بالسماء، وشبه تارك التوحيد بالساقط من السماء إلى أسفل سافلين؛ لأنه سقط من أوج الإيمان إلى حضيض الكفر، وشبه الشياطين التي تقلقه بالطير التي تمزق أعضاءه، وشبه هواه الذي يبعده عن الحق بالريح التي ترمي به في مكان بعيد‏.‏ هذا مثال واحد من أمثلة كثيرة في القرآن ذكرها الله سبحانه لبيان بطلان الشرك وخسارة المشرك في الدنيا والآخرة‏.‏ ـ

11) Allah strikes many examples throughout the Qur’an to clarify the futility of al-shirk. Take for instance His statement:

وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ

And he who associates with Allah – it is as though he had fallen from the sky and was snatched by the birds or the wind carried him down into a remote place. [22:31]

Allah likens al-Tawheed with its lofty, elevated, expansive and ennobled nature to the sky and He likens abandoning that tawheed to one who is falling from the sky down to the lowest low. In other words, that he fell from the summit of al-eemaan to the depths of disbelief. And He likened the shayaateen who beset him to birds who tear apart his limbs. And He likened the lowly desires which took him away from the truth to the wind which shoots him off to a distant place. This is just one of the many parables in the Qur’an which Allah mentions in order to clarify the futility of al-shirk and the losing position of the mushrik both in this life and the next.

وما سقناه في هذا الدرس من أساليب القرآن في الدعوة إلى توحيد الإلهية وإبطال الشرك قليل من كثير، وما على المسلم إلا أن يقرأ القرآن بتدبر ليجد الخير الكثير والأدلة المقنعة والبراهين الساطعة التي ترسخ عقيدة التوحيد في قلب المؤمن وتقتلع منه كل شبهة‏.‏ ـ

The methods that we have mentioned which the Qur’an uses to call people of al-Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah and invalidate al-shirk are just a small piece of the total. In light of this, the Muslim ought to read the Qur’an with contemplation to find the abundant good, the convincing evidences, and the amazing proofs which will fortify his belief in al-tawheed in the heart of the mu’min and uproot every doubt from it.

[al-Irshad ila Saheeh al-I’tiqad pg. 25-28]

See also: The Three Categories of Tawheed according to the Qur’an: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: The Entire Qur’an is about al-Tawheed: ibn al-Qayyim

See also: The Means and Objectives of Calling to Allah: Imam al-Sa’di

4 thoughts on “The Qur’anic Methods of Calling People to Tawheed: Sheikh Saalih al-Fawzan

  1. Pingback: The Entire Qur’an is about al-Tawheed: ibn al-Qayyim | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: The Means and Objectives of Calling to Allah: Imam al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: Allah Presents a Parable From Your Own Selves: Tafsir ibn Kathir | Tulayhah

  4. Pingback: A Parable of Two Slaves: Ibn al-Qayyim | Tulayhah

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