Makki and Madani Series Part 4 – Details: al-Suyooti

In his famous handbook of the Qur’anic Sciences, al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyooti dedicated his first main chapter to the subject of Makki and Madani revelation, which we have made into the this Makki and Madani Series of articles. What follows is the fourth of four sections of that chapter as abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool. This particular section primarily focuses on some of the sub-fields of Makki and Madani revelation which were initially listed in section two but not yet discussed:

تنبيه 

A Note

قد تبين بما ذكرناه من الأوجه التي ذكرها ابن حبيب : المكي والمدني ، وما اختلف فيه ، وترتيب نزول ذلك ، والآيات المدنيات في السور المكية والآيات المكيات في السور المدنية ، وبقي أوجه تتعلق بهذا النوع ذكر هو أمثلتها فنذكره . ـ

Already a number of the different sub-fields of this knowledge mentioned by ibn Habeeb have been explained in the course of what we have discussed: Makki, Madani and what people disagreed about, the chronological ordering the their revelation, the Madani ayaat in the Makki surahs and the Makki ayaat in the Madani surahs. Now for the rest of the sub-fields related to this subject that ibn Habeeb mentioned he provided some examples which we will reproduce now:

مثال ما نزل بمكة وحكمه مدني : ياأيها الناس إنا خلقناكم من ذكر وأنثى [ الحجرات : 13 ] الآية نزلت بمكة يوم الفتح ، وهي مدنية ; لأنها نزلت بعد الهجرة . وقوله اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم [ المائدة : 3 ] كذلك . ـ

• Some examples of what was revealed in Mecca but whose ruling is Madani is

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ

O mankind, We have created you from male and female … [49:13]

This ayah was revealed in Mecca on the Day of the Conquest of Mecca, however it is a Madani ayah because it was revealed after the Hijrah. And Allah’s statement

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

This day I have completed your deen for you [5:3]

is also like that.

ـ [قال السيوطي :] وكذا قوله إن الله يأمركم أن تؤدوا الأمانات إلى أهلها [ النساء : 58 ] في آيات أخر . ـ

[al-Suyooti said] And likewise with Allah’s statement:

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا

Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due … [4:58]

to take another example.

ومثال ما نزل بالمدينة وحكمه مكي : سورة الممتحنة ; فإنها نزلت بالمدينة مخاطبة لأهل مكة . وقوله في النحل : والذين هاجروا [ النحل : 41 ] إلى آخرها ، نزل بالمدينة مخاطبا به أهل مكة . وصدر براءة ، نزل بالمدينة خطابا لمشركي أهل مكة . ـ

• Examples of ayaat revealed in al-Madinah whose ruling is Makki come in surah al-Mumtahinah (60) for this surah was revealed in al-Madinah addressing the people of Mecca.

Allah’s statement in surah al-Nahl

وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا

And those emigrated … [16:41]

was revealed in al-Madinah addressing the people of Mecca.

And the beginning of surah al-Tawbah (09) was revealed in al-Madinah addressed to the Mushrikoon of Mecca.

ومثال ما يشبه تنزيل المدني في السور المكية : قوله في النجم : الذين يجتنبون كبائر الإثم والفواحش إلا اللمم .  [ النجم : 32 ] . فإن الفواحش كل ذنب فيه حد ، والكبائر كل ذنب عاقبته النار ، واللمم ما بين الحدين من الذنوب . ولم يكن بمكة حد ، ولا نحوه . ـ

• Examples of ayaat that resemble Madani revelations in a Makki surah include Allah’s statement in surah al-Najm:

الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَائِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَاحِشَ إِلَّا اللَّمَمَ

Those who avoid the kaba’ir al-ithm and fawahish, only committing lamam. [53:32]

because fawahish refers to any sin that entails a prescribed punishment, the kaba’ir refers to any sin whose end result is the Hell-fire, and the lamam are those sins which do not entail any prescribed punishment. But there were no prescribed punishments or anything similar to that during the Makki period.

ومثال ما يشبه تنزيل مكة في السور المدنية : قوله : ( والعاديات ضبحا ) وقوله في الأنفال : وإذ قالوا اللهم إن كان هذا هو الحق الآية [ الأنفال : 32 ] . ـ

• Examples of ayaat that resemble Makki revelations in a Madani surah include Allah’s statement:

وَالْعَادِيَاتِ ضَبْحًا

By the charging horses, panting [100:1]

and His statement in surah al-Anfal:

وَإِذْ قَالُوا اللَّـهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَـٰذَا هُوَ الْحَقَّ مِنْ عِندِكَ فَأَمْطِرْ عَلَيْنَا حِجَارَةً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ أَوِ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

And remember when they said, “O Allah, if this should be the truth from You, then rain down upon us stones from the sky or bring us a painful punishment.” [8:32]

ومثال ما حمل من مكة إلى المدينة : سورة يوسف ، والإخلاص .[وسورة ( سبح اسم ربك الاعلى)] ـ

Examples of what was brought from Mecca to al-Madinah include surah Yusuf and surah al-Ikhlas [as well as surah al-A’laa].

ومثال ما حمل من المدينة إلى مكة : يسألونك عن الشهر الحرام قتال فيه [ البقرة : 217 ] وآية الربا ، وصدر براءة ، وقوله : إن الذين توفاهم الملائكة ظالمي أنفسهم [ النساء : 97 ] الآيات . ـ

• Examples of what was brought from al-Madinah to Mecca include

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ

They ask you about the sacred month – about fighting therein. [2:217]

the ayah of Riba, the beginning of surah al-Tawbah, and Allah’s statement:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ

Indeed, those whom the angels take in death while wronging themselves … [4:97]

until the end of the passage.

ومثال ما حمل إلى الحبشة : قل ياأهل الكتاب تعالوا إلى كلمة سواء [ آل عمران : 64 ] الآيات . ـ

• Examples of the what was brought to Ethiopia includes

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ

Say, “O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable …” [3:64]

until the end of the passage.

ـ [قال السيوطي] : صح حملها إلى الروم . وينبغي أن يمثل لما حمل إلى الحبشة بسورة مريم ، فقد صح أن جعفر بن أبي طالب قرأها على النجاشي ، وأخرجه أحمد في مسنده . ـ

[al-Suyooti said] Actually this was brought to Byzantium. An example that should be used for what was brought to Ethiopia is surah Maryam, for it has been authentically transmitted that Ja’far ibn Abi Taalib recited that surah to al-Najashi, as Ahmad reported in his Musnad.

وأما ما أنزل بالجحفة والطائف وبيت المقدس والحديبية ; فسيأتي ، ويضم إليه ما نزل بمنى وعرفات وعسفان وتبوك وبدر وأحد وحراء وحمراء الأسد . ـ

As for what was revealed in al-Juhfah, al-Ta’if, Jerusalem, and al-Hudaybiyyah – then we will come to these later. We also included discussion of what was revealed in Mina, ‘Arafat, ‘Usfan, Tabook, Badr, Uhud, Hiraa’, and Hamra’ al-Asad in that same section.

ـ [من المصنفات في هذا النوع] ـ

Some of the Works Authored on This Subject

أفرده بالتصنيف جماعة ، منهم مكي ، والعز الديريني . ـ

A number of scholars have written works focusing specifically on this topic, including Makki and al-‘Izz al-Direeni.

[Tahdheeb wa Tarteeb al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an pg 107-108]

See also: Zakah al-Fitr in the Qur’an: Tafsir al-Baghawi

See also: Surah Yusuf and the People of al-Madinah

Explore this series further with Makki and Madani Series

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One thought on “Makki and Madani Series Part 4 – Details: al-Suyooti

  1. Pingback: Makki and Madani Series Part 2 – Importance: al-Suyooti | Tulayhah

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