Makki and Madani Series Part 2 – Importance: al-Suyooti

In his famous handbook of the Qur’anic Sciences, al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyooti dedicated his first main chapter to the subject of Makki and Madani revelation, which we have made into the this Makki and Madani Series of articles. What follows is the second of four sections of that chapter as abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool. This particular section focuses on the value of this field, some of its benefits, and a listing of its sub-fields:

[شرف هذه النوع وأقسامه]

The Value of this Branch of Knowledge and its Sub-Fields

قال أبو القاسم الحسن بن محمد بن حبيب النيسابوري في كتاب ” التنبيه على فضل علوم القرآن ” : من أشرف علوم القرآن علم نزوله وجهاته ، وترتيب ما نزل بمكة والمدينة ، وما نزل بمكة وحكمه مدني ، وما نزل بالمدينة وحكمه مكي ، وما نزل بمكة في أهل المدينة ، وما نزل بالمدينة في أهل مكة ، وما يشبه نزول المكي في المدني ، وما يشبه نزول المدني في المكي ، وما نزل بالجحفة ، وما نزل ببيت المقدس ، وما نزل بالطائف . وما نزل بالحديبية ، وما نزل ليلا وما نزل نهارا ، وما نزل مشيعا وما نزل مفردا ، والآيات المدنيات في السور المكية ، والآيات المكيات في السور المدنية ، وما حمل من مكة إلى المدينة ، وما حمل من المدينة إلى مكة ، وما حمل من المدينة إلى أرض الحبشة ، وما نزل مجملا ، وما نزل مفسرا ، وما اختلفوا فيه ، فقال بعضهم مدني وبعضهم مكي . فهذه خمسة وعشرون وجها من لم يعرفها ويميز بينها لم يحل له أن يتكلم في كتاب الله – تعالى – . ـ

In his book al-Tanbeeh ‘alaa Fadhl ‘Uloom al-Qur’an, Abu’l-Qasim al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Habeeb al-Naysaboori wrote:

One of the most valuable of the Qur’anic sciences is knowledge of

• (1-2) the Qur’an’s revelation and to whom is what addressed,
• (3) the order in which it was revealed in Mecca and al-Madinah
• (4-5) what was revealed in Mecca while functioning as if it were Madani, and what was revealed in al-Madinah while functioning as if it were Makki
• (6-7) what was revealed in Mecca regarding the people of al-Madinah and what was revealed in al-Madinah regarding the people of Mecca
• (8-9) what appears to be a Makki revelation among the Madani verses, and what appears to be a Madani revelation among the Makki verses
• (10-13) what was revealed at al-Juhfah, what was revealed in Jerusalem, what was revealed in al-Ta’if, what was revealed at al-Hudaybiyyah
• (14-15) what was revealed during the night or during the day time
• (16-17) what was revealed together and what was revealed separately
• (18-19) the Madani verses located within a Makki surah and the Makki verses located within a Madani surah
(20-22) what was brought from Mecca to al-Madinah or from al-Madinah to Mecca or from al-Madinah to Ethiopia
• (23-24) what was revealed in general terms and what was revealed to provide more explanation
• (25) what was people differ about, some saying that it is Madani while others claim it to be Makki.

These are 25 different aspects to consider, and whoever does not know these or cannot distinguish between them is not qualified to put forth his own opinions about Allah’s Book.

قلت : وقد أشبعت الكلام على هذه الأوجه ، فمنها ما أفردته بنوع ، ومنها ما تكلمت عليه في ضمن بعض الأنواع . ـ

I [al-Suyooti] say: I have gone into detail regarding all of these aspects, some of them having their own chapters and others being mentioned within in the midst of other sections.

وقال ابن العربي في كتابه ” الناسخ والمنسوخ ” : الذي علمناه على الجملة من القرآن أن منه مكيا ومدنيا ، وسفريا وحضريا ، وليليا ونهاريا ، وسمائيا وأرضيا ، وما نزل بين السماء والأرض ، وما نزل تحت الأرض في الغار . ـ

In his book al-Naasikh wa’l-Mansookh, ibn al-‘Arabi wrote:

According to what we know, parts of the Qur’an are Makki and others Madani, parts revealed while traveling and others while in residence, parts during the night and parts during the day, parts in the heavens and parts on the earth, and also what was revealed between the heavens and the earth, as well as what was revealed beneath the earth’s surface in the cave.

[من فوائد هذه النوع]

Some of the Benefits of this Sub-Field

ومن فوائد معرفة ذلك : العلم بالمتأخر ، فيكون ناسخا أو مخصصا ، على رأي من يرى تأخير المخصص . ـ

One of the benefits of this is knowing what was revealed later in time, which could therefore be abrogating, amending or specifying what came earlier. That is, according to the view of those who hold that what is revealed later specifies what was revealed earlier.

[Tahdheeb wa Tarteeb al-Itqan fee ‘Uloom al-Qur’an pg 102-103]

Explore this series further with Makki and Madani Series

For more detail about the sub-sections mentioned above, visit:

Makki and Madani Series Part 3 – Characteristics: al-Suyooti

Makki and Madani Series Part 4 – Details: al-Suyooti

See also: Surah Yusuf and the People of al-Madinah

2 thoughts on “Makki and Madani Series Part 2 – Importance: al-Suyooti

  1. Pingback: Surah Yusuf and the People of al-Madinah | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: Makki and Madani Series Part 4 – Details: al-Suyooti | Tulayhah

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