Abu Bakr and Umar’s Service to the Qur’an: Tafsir ibn Kathir

al-Haafidh ibn Kathir mentioned the following in the introduction to his tafsir as the second part of his section entitled “The Gathering of the Qur’an” which focused on the preservation and collection of the Qur’an:

قال البخاري : حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل ، حدثنا إبراهيم بن سعد ، حدثنا ابن شهاب ، عن عبيد بن السباق ، أن زيد بن ثابت قال : أرسل إلي أبو بكر – مقتل أهل اليمامة – فإذا عمر بن الخطاب عنده ، فقال أبو بكر : إن عمر بن الخطاب أتاني ، فقال : إن القتل قد استحر بقراء القرآن ، وإني أخشى أن يستحر القتل بالقراء في المواطن فيذهب كثير من القرآن ، وإني أرى أن تأمر بجمع القرآن . فقلت لعمر : كيف نفعل شيئا لم يفعله رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟ قال عمر : هذا والله خير ، فلم يزل عمر يراجعني حتى شرح الله صدري لذلك ، ورأيت في ذلك الذي رأى عمر . قال زيد : قال أبو بكر : إنك رجل شاب عاقل لا نتهمك ، وقد [ ص: 25 ] كنت تكتب الوحي لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فتتبع القرآن فاجمعه ، فوالله لو كلفوني نقل جبل من الجبال ما كان أثقل علي مما أمرني به من جمع القرآن . قلت : كيف تفعلون شيئا لم يفعله رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟ قال : هو والله خير . فلم يزل أبو بكر يراجعني حتى شرح الله صدري للذي شرح له صدر أبي بكر وعمر ، رضي الله عنهما . فتتبعت القرآن أجمعه من العسب واللخاف وصدور الرجال ، ووجدت آخر سورة التوبة مع أبي خزيمة الأنصاري لم أجدها مع غيره : ( لقد جاءكم رسول من أنفسكم عزيز ) [ التوبة : 128 ] حتى خاتمة ” براءة ” ، فكانت الصحف عند أبي بكر حتى توفاه الله ، ثم عند عمر حياته ، ثم عند حفصة بنت عمر ، رضي الله عنهم . ـ

al-Bukhari said … that Zayd ibn Thaabit said:

After the Battle of al-Yamamah, Abu Bakr sent for me, and when I arrived, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab was also there with him. Abu Bakr said, “‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab came to me and said, ‘There were a great number of casualties among the reciters of the Qur’an and I fear that more casualties among the reciters will occur in other battles, therefore resulting in a loss of much of the Qur’an. It is my view that you should order that the Qur’an be collected.” I [Abu Bakr] responded to ‘Umar, “How can we do something which Allah’s Messenger did not do?” But ‘Umar said, “I swear by Allah, this is something good,” and ‘Umar kept urging me to do this until Allah opened up my heart to the idea and I saw that good in it that ‘Umar had seen.

Zayd said: Abu Bakr said to me, “You are a young and intelligent man, we do not have any concerns about you, and you used to write the revelation for Allah’s Messenger. So seek out the Qur’an and collect it together.” I swear by Allah, if they had charged me with moving one of the mountains it would not have been heavier on me than this gathering of the Qur’an that they commanded me to do. I said, “How can you do something which Allah’s Messenger did not do?” He said, “I swear by Allah, this is something good.” So Abu Bakr kept urging me to do this until Allah open up my heart to that which He had opened up the hearts of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with both of them). So I sought out the Qur’an, collecting it from palm leads and stones and from people’s memories. I found the end of surah al-Tawbah with Abu Khazaymah al-Ansari and I did not find that with any one other than him, from

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ

Indeed, a messenger from among yourselves has come to you … [9:128]

until the end of surah al-Baraa’ah [9:128-129]. So the papers on which we recorded the Qur’an remained with Abu Bakr until he passed away, then they stayed with ‘Umar for the remainder of his life, then it went to ‘Umar’s daughter Hafsah – may Allah be pleased with them all.

وقد روى البخاري هذا [ الحديث ] في غير موضع من كتابه ، ورواه الإمام أحمد والترمذي والنسائي من طرق عن الزهري به . ـ

al-Bukhari mentioned this hadith in more than one place in his book, and Imam Ahmad, al-Tirmidhi, and al-Nasaa’i also transmitted it through a few different routes all going back to al-Zuhri.

وهذا من أحسن وأجل وأعظم ما فعله الصديق ، رضي الله عنه ، فإنه أقامه الله بعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مقاما لا ينبغي لأحد بعده ؛ قاتل الأعداء من مانعي الزكاة ، والمرتدين ، والفرس والروم ، ونفذ الجيوش ، وبعث البعوث والسرايا ، ورد الأمر إلى نصابه بعد الخوف من تفرقه وذهابه ، وجمع القرآن العظيم من أماكنه المتفرقة حتى تمكن القارئ من حفظه كله ، وكان هذا من سر قوله تعالى : ( إنا نحن نزلنا الذكر وإنا له لحافظون ) [ الحجر : 9 ] فجمع الصديق الخير وكف الشرور ، رضي الله عنه وأرضاه . ولهذا روى غير واحد من الأئمة منهم وكيع وابن زيد وقبيصة عن سفيان الثوري عن إسماعيل بن عبد الرحمن السدي الكبير عن عبد خير ، عن علي بن أبي طالب ، رضي الله عنه ، أنه قال : أعظم الناس أجرا في المصاحف أبو بكر ؛ إن أبا بكر كان أول من جمع القرآن بين اللوحين . إسناده صحيح . وقال أبو بكر بن أبي داود في كتاب المصاحف : حدثنا هارون بن إسحاق ، حدثنا عبدة ، عن هشام ، عن أبيه ، أن أبا بكر هو الذي جمع القرآن بعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، يقول : ختمه . صحيح أيضا . ـ

This was the best thing that Abu Bakr did, as well as the most important and the most significant thing he did – may Allah be pleased with him – for after the death of the Prophet, Allah had put him in a position that no one else was worthy of. He fought those enemies who left Islam and who withheld the zakah, as well as the Persians and the Romans. He dispatched the soldiers and sent them on excursions and expeditions and restored the rule and the situation to how it had been after it was feared that things would fracture and pass away. And he gathered the Qur’an all together from the various places so that a reciter would be able to memorize all of it, and this is one part of the deeper meaning of Allah’s statement:

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

Indeed, We have revealed the Qur’an, and We will be its guardian [15:9]

So, in sum, Abu Bakr combined both enacting good and halting evil and harm – may Allah be pleased with him and he with Him.

In this vein, it has been transmitted from more than one of the great scholars of hadith – among them Wakee’, ibn Zayd, and Qabeesah – … that ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib said, “The person with the greatest reward as it relates to the written copies of the Qur’an is Abu Bakr; Abu Bakr was the first person to collect the entire Qur’an between two covers.” And the chain of narration for this is sound.

In his Kitaab al-Musaahif, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Dawud said … that ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr said that it was Abu Bakr who gathered the Qur’an after the death of the Prophet. ‘Urwah said, “He completed it.” And this chain of narration is also sound.

 وكان عمر بن الخطاب ، رضي الله عنه ، هو الذي تنبه لذلك لما استحر القتل بالقراء ، أي اشتد القتل وكثر في قراء القرآن يوم اليمامة ، يعني : يوم اليمامة ، يعني يوم قتال مسيلمة الكذاب وأصحابه ومن بني حنيفة بأرض اليمامة في حديقة الموت ، وذلك أن مسيلمة التف معه من المرتدين قريب من مائة ألف ، فجهز الصديق لقتاله خالد بن الوليد في قريب من ثلاثة عشر ألفا ، فالتقوا معهم فانكشف الجيش الإسلامي لكثرة من فيه من الأعراب ، فنادى القراء من كبار الصحابة : يا خالد ، يقولون : ميزنا من هؤلاء الأعراب فتميزوا منهم ، وانفردوا ، فكانوا قريبا من ثلاثة آلاف ، ثم صدقوا الحملة ، وقاتلوا قتالا شديدا ، وجعلوا يتنادون : يا أصحاب سورة البقرة ، فلم يزل ذلك دأبهم حتى فتح الله [ ص: 26 ] عليهم وولى جيش الكفار فارا ، وأتبعتهم السيوف المسلمة في [ أقنيتهم ] قتلا وأسرا ، وقتل الله مسيلمة ، وفرق شمل أصحابه ، ثم رجعوا إلى الإسلام ، ولكن قتل من القراء يومئذ قريب من خمسمائة ، رضي الله عنهم ، فلهذا أشار عمر على الصديق بأن يجمع القرآن ؛ لئلا يذهب منه شيء بسبب موت من يكون يحفظه من الصحابة بعد ذلك في مواطن القتال ، فإذا كتب وحفظ صار ذلك محفوظا فلا فرق بين حياة من بلغه أو موته ، فراجعه الصديق قليلا ليثبت في الأمر ، ثم وافقه ، وكذلك راجعهما زيد بن ثابت في ذلك ثم صارا إلى ما رأياه ، رضي الله عنهم أجمعين . ـ

And ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) was the one who drew Abu Bakr’s attention to this matter after the high number of reciter casualties, i.e. the intensity of the fighting and the large number of reciters present at the Battle of al-Yamamah. The Battle of al-Yamamah was the day of confrontation with Musaylamah The Liar, his followers and those of Banu Haneefah at the region of al-Yamamah in a place that came to be known as “The Garden of Death”. Musaylamah had close to 100,000 apostates following him, so Abu Bakr commissioned Khalid ibn al-Walid to fight him and supplied him with 13,000 men. The two groups met in battle and the Islamic forces suffered some initial defeats due to the many desert Bedouins they had in their ranks, so those senior Sahabah who had memorized the Qur’an addressed Khalid saying, “Set us apart as a separate unit from these desert Bedouins,” and so he divided them into a separate unit and they operated independently of the Bedouins, having about 3,000 in their ranks. Then they were able to go on the offensive. They fought very fiercely, and would call out to one another by saying, “O holder of surah al-Baqarah“. They did not let up until Allah granted them victory and the disbelieving forces turned away in retreat, at which point the Muslim soldiers chased them down to kill them or take them as prisoners of war. Allah destroyed Musaylamah and caused his followers to split, after which they returned back to the fold of Islam. However close to 500 hundred reciters had been killed on that day, may Allah be pleased with them.

It was because of all this that ‘Umar advised and encouraged Abu Bakr to gather the Qur’an together so that none of it would be lost due to death of those Sahabah who had memorized it in any future battles. For if it was both written down and memorized then it would be saved and it would not make a difference if anyone who had conveyed it was alive or dead. Abu Bakr spent some time contemplating this idea in order to evaluate it, but after a short time he agreed with ‘Umar. Similarly, Zayd ibn Thaabit spent some time thinking it over but then came around to their point of view – may Allah be pleased with all of them.

وهذا المقام من أعظم فضائل زيد بن ثابت الأنصاري ؛ ولهذا قال أبو بكر بن أبي داود : حدثنا عبد الله بن محمد بن خلاد ، حدثنا يزيد ، حدثنا مبارك بن فضالة ، عن الحسن ؛ أن عمر بن الخطاب سأل عن آية من كتاب الله فقيل : كانت مع فلان فقتل يوم اليمامة ، فقال : إنا لله ، فأمر بالقرآن فجمع فكان أول من جمعه في المصحف . ـ

Fulfilling this role was one of the greatest virtues of Zayd ibn Thaabit al-Ansaari. In line with this, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Dawud said … al-Hasan relayed that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab asked about a certain ayah from the Qur’an and it was said to him, “That was with so-and-so but he was killed at the Battle of al-Yamamah,” so ‘Umar expressed grief and commanded for the Qur’an to be gathered, and thus he was the first person to compile the Qur’an in a mushaf.

هذا منقطع ، فإن الحسن لم يدرك عمر ، ومعناه : أشار بجمعه فجمع ؛ ولهذا كان مهيمنا على حفظه وجمعه كما رواه ابن أبي داود حيث قال : حدثنا أبو الطاهر حدثنا ابن وهب ، حدثنا عمر بن طلحة الليثي ، عن محمد بن عمرو بن علقمة ، عن يحيى بن عبد الرحمن بن حاطب ، أن عمر لما جمع القرآن كان لا يقبل من أحد شيئا حتى يشهد شاهدان . ـ

However this narration has a gap in its chain as al-Hasan never met ‘Umar. And the meaning here is that ‘Umar advised and encouraged for it to be collected and thus it was gathered together. In this role, he acted like a protector and guard over the preservation and compilation of the Qur’an. This is just as ibn Abi Dawud relayed when he said … that when ‘Umar was gathering the Qur’an he would not accept anything from anyone unless they had two witnesses.

وذلك عن أمر الصديق له في ذلك ، كما قال أبو بكر بن أبي داود : حدثنا أبو الطاهر ، حدثنا ابن وهب ، أخبرني ابن أبي الزناد ، عن هشام بن عروة ، عن أبيه قال : لما استحر القتل بالقراء يومئذ فرق أبو بكر ، رضي الله عنه ، أن يضيع ، فقال لعمر بن الخطاب ولزيد بن ثابت : فمن جاءكما بشاهدين على شيء من كتاب الله فاكتباه . منقطع حسن . ـ

And that was at the instruction of Abu Bakr, as ibn Abi Dawud said … ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr said, “After the heavy casualties among the reciters on that day Abu Bakr became concerned that the Qur’an might be lost, so he said to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab and Zayd ibn Thaabit, ‘Whoever comes to you with two witnesses attesting to something being part of the Qur’an, then you two can write it.”

This chain of narration has a gap in it, but the narration is still acceptable.

ولهذا قال زيد بن ثابت : وجدت آخر سورة التوبة ، يعني قوله تعالى : ( لقد جاءكم رسول من أنفسكم ) إلى آخر الآيتين [ التوبة : 128 ، 129 ] ، مع أبي خزيمة الأنصاري ، وفي رواية : مع خزيمة بن ثابت الذي جعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم شهادته بشهادتين لم أجدها مع غيره فكتبوها عنه لأنه جعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم شهادته بشهادتين في قصة الفرس التي ابتاعها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من الأعرابي ، فأنكر الأعرابي البيع ، فشهد خزيمة هذا بتصديق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فأمضى شهادته وقبض الفرس من الأعرابي . والحديث رواه أهل السنن وهو مشهور ، وروى أبو جعفر الرازي عن الربيع عن أبي العالية أن أبي بن كعب أملاها عليهم مع خزيمة بن ثابت . وقد روى ابن وهب عن عمرو بن طلحة الليثي ، عن محمد بن عمرو بن علقمة ، عن يحيى [ ص: 27 ] بن عبد الرحمن بن حاطب ؛ أن عثمان شهد بذلك أيضا . ـ

That is why Zayd ibn Thaabit said, “I found the last part of surah al-Tawbah” – referring to Allah’s statement

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ

Indeed, a messenger from among yourselves has come to you … [9:128]

until the end of those two ayaat [9:128-129] – “with Abu Khuzaymah al-Ansaari.” And in another narration, it comes as, “… with Khuzaymah ibn Thaabit, the one who the Prophet took his testimony as equivalent to two witnesses. I did not find it with anyone other than him.” So they wrote down what they took from him because the Prophet had made his testimony equivalent to that of two witnesses in the story of the horse that Allah’s Messenger purchased from a bedouin, but then the bedouin denied that this exchange had ever happened. Khuzaymah testified in favor of the Prophet which settled the matter and so the Prophet took the horse from the bedouin. This hadith is well-known and has been relayed in the Sunan collections.

And Abu Ja’far al-Razi relayed that … in addition to Khuzaymah ibn Thaabit, Ubay ibn Ka’b also recited this ayah to those who were collecting the Qur’an.

And Ibn Wahb transmitted that … ‘Uthman also attested to the validity of these ayaat.

وأما قول زيد [ بن ثابت ] فتتبعت القرآن أجمعه من العسب واللخاف وصدور الرجال وفي رواية : من العسب والرقاع والأضلاع ، وفي رواية : من الأكتاف والأقتاب وصدور الرجال . ـ

As for Zayd ibn Thaabit’s statement, “So I sought out the Qur’an, collecting it from palm leafs and rocks and from people’s memories”, it also comes is another narration as, “…from palm leafs, scraps of fabric, and rib bones …”, and in another as “… from shoulder bones, saddles and from people’s memories.”

أما العسب فجمع عسيب . قال أبو النصر إسماعيل بن حماد الجوهري : وهو من السعف فويق الكرب لم ينبت عليه الخوص ، وما نبت عليه الخوص فهو السعف . ـ

The word al-‘Usub – palm branches – is the plural of ‘Aseeb – a palm branch. Abu’l-Nasr Ismaa’eel ibn Hammaad al-Jawhari said that they are the palm branches right above their stems which do not have any other vegetation on them.

واللخاف : جمع لخفة وهي القطعة من الحجارة مستدقة ، كانوا يكتبون عليها وعلى العسب وغير ذلك ، مما يمكنهم الكتابة عليه مما يناسب ما يسمعونه من القرآن من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم . ـ

And the word al-Likhaaf – rocks – is the plural of Lakhfah which is a thin piece of rock. People used to fill the entire space of these rock fragments, palm branches and other such things writing the sections of the Qur’an that they had heard from the Prophet.

ومنهم من لم يكن يحسن الكتابة أو يثق بحفظه ، فكان يحفظه ـ

And then there were some people who did not know how to write or who simply had a strong memory and had memorized it.

 فتلقاه زيد بن ثابت من هذا من عسيبه ، ومن هذا من لخافه ، ومن صدر هذا ، أي من حفظه ، وكانوا أحرص شيء على أداء الأمانات وهذا من أعظم الأمانة ؛ لأن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أودعهم ذلك ليبلغوه إلى من بعده كما قال [ الله ] تعالى : ( ياأيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك ) [ المائدة : 67 ] ، ففعل ، صلوات الله وسلامه عليه ، ما أمر به ؛ ولهذا سألهم في حجة الوداع يوم عرفة على رءوس الأشهاد ، والصحابة أوفر ما كانوا مجتمعين ، فقال : إنكم مسئولون عني فما أنتم قائلون ؟ . فقالوا : نشهد أنك قد بلغت وأديت ونصحت ، فجعل يشير بأصبعه إلى السماء ، وينكبها عليهم ويقول : اللهم اشهد ، اللهم اشهد ، اللهم اشهد . رواه مسلم عن جابر . ـ

So Zayd ibn Thaabit took some parts of the Qur’an from these palm branches, other parts from those rock fragments, and other parts from people’s memories. And the people had the utmost concern to faithfully discharge their duties, and there was no duty more important than this one. For Allah’s Messenger charged them with this task, that they would convey and transmit the Qur’an to whose who would come after Him. This is just as Allah said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ

O Messenger, proclaim what has been sent down to you from your Lord [5:67]

and he carried out what he had been commanded to do. In was in light of this, it was during the Farewell Hajj on the Day of ‘Arafah, in front of the largest gathering of people when there were more Sahabah gathered together than at any other time, that the Prophet asked them, “You will certainly be asked about me, so what will you say?” They said, “We will testify that you most certainly proclaimed the message, fulfilled the trust, and were sincere to us.” So he pointed his finger to sky and indicated to the people, saying, “O Allah, be a witness! O Allah, be a witness! O Allah, be a witness! ”

Muslim transmitted this from Jaabir.

 وقد أمر أمته أن يبلغ الشاهد الغائب وقال : بلغوا عني ولو آية يعني : ولو لم يكن مع أحدكم سوى آية واحدة فليؤدها إلى من وراءه ، فبلغوا عنه ما أمرهم به ، فأدوا القرآن قرآنا ، والسنة سنة ، لم يلبسوا هذا بهذا ؛ ولهذا قال عليه الصلاة والسلام : من كتب عني سوى القرآن فليمحه أي : لئلا يختلط بالقرآن ، وليس معناه : ألا يحفظوا السنة ويرووها ، والله أعلم . ـ

And the Prophet had instructed his Ummah that the one who was present should convey to those who were not present, and he said, “Convey from me, even if only an ayah,” meaning: If any one of you were to have even a single ayah, then they should deliver it to those who would come later. And they did convey what he commanded them to transmit. So they transmitted the Qur’an as the Qur’an and the Sunnah as Sunnah without mixing the two together. It was in this vein that the Prophet said, “Whoever wrote something that I said other than the Qur’an, let him erase it,” i.e. lest it become mixed and confused with the Qur’an, not that the Sunnah should not be preserved or transmitted. And Allah knows best.

فلهذا نعلم بالضرورة أنه لم يبق من القرآن مما أداه الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم إليهم إلا وقد بلغوه إلينا ، ولله الحمد والمنة ، فكان الذي فعله الشيخان أبو بكر وعمر ، رضي الله عنهما ، من أكبر المصالح الدينية وأعظمها ، من حفظهما كتاب الله في الصحف ؛ لئلا يذهب منه شيء بموت من تلقاه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ثم كانت تلك الصحف عند الصديق أيام حياته ، ثم أخذها عمر بعده محروسة معظمة مكرمة ، فلما مات كانت عند حفصة أم المؤمنين ، رضي الله عنها ، حتى أخذها منها أمير المؤمنين عثمان بن عفان ، رضي الله عنه ، كما سنذكره إن شاء الله تعالى . ـ

So we know without any doubt that there is no part of the Qur’an that the Prophet delivered to his companions which has not been conveyed to us, and this is a blessing from Allah, and to Him belongs the praise. For the action of the two sheikhs, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both), was one of the greatest and most significant acts of service and benefit for this religion – that they preserved the Book of Allah on these sheets of paper so that none of what had been received from Allah’s Messenger would be lost with the death of anyone. After completing that task, these sheets remained with Abu Bakr for the remainder of his life, then ‘Umar took possession of it after that in order to protect it and honor it. Then when he passed away, it went into the hands of Hafsah, the Mother of the Believers (may Allah be pleased with her), until the Ameer al-Mu’mineen ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan (may Allah be pleased with him) received it from her, as we shall mention shortly, inshaAllaah.

[Tafsir ibn Kathir 1/24-27]

This article is the second part of the Gathering of the Qur’an Series. Follow the link to learn more.

See also: The Collection of Abu Bakr and the Mushaf of ‘Uthman: ibn Hajr

See also: Preservation of the Wordings and Meanings of the Qur’an among the Salaf: Tafsir ibn Kathir

See also: The Preservation of the Qur’an and the Preservation of the Tawrah: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: A Brief History of the Preservation of the Qur’an: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad

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3 thoughts on “Abu Bakr and Umar’s Service to the Qur’an: Tafsir ibn Kathir

  1. Pingback: A Brief History of the Preservation of the Qur’an: Sheikh ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: The Collection of Abu Bakr and the Mushaf of ‘Uthman: ibn Hajr | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: ibn Mas’ood and the ‘Uthmani Mushaf: Tafsir ibn Kathir | Tulayhah

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