“For that He created them”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Near the end of surah Hud, Allah says

وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَ‌بُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً ۖ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينَ * إِلَّا مَن رَّ‌حِمَ رَ‌بُّكَ ۚ وَلِذَٰلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ ۗ وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَ‌بِّكَ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ

And if your Lord had willed, He could have made mankind one community; but they will not cease to differ. * Except whom your Lord has given mercy, and for that He created them. But the word of your Lord is to be fulfilled that, “I will surely fill Hell with jinn and men all together.” [11:118-119]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di commented on these ayaat by writing:

يخبر تعالى أنه لو شاء لجعل الناس كلهم أمة واحدة على الدين الإسلامي، فإن مشيئته غير قاصرة، ولا يمتنع عليه شيء، ولكنه اقتضت حكمته، أن لا يزالوا مختلفين، مخالفين للصراط المستقيم‏,‏ متبعين للسبل الموصلة إلى النار، كل يرى الحق، فيما قاله، والضلال في قول غيره‏.‏

Allah informs us that had He wished, He could have made all mankind one nation upon the religion of Islam. For Allah’s will is in no way limited or prevented from doing anything. Rather, His wisdom necessitates that the people would remain differing and going contrary to the Straight Path, following other paths which lead them to the hell-fire, all the while believing the truth to be with them and misguidance to be with others.

‏{‏إِلَّا مَنْ رَحِمَ رَبُّكَ‏}‏ فهداهم إلى العلم بالحق والعمل به، والاتفاق عليه، فهؤلاء سبقت لهم، سابقة السعادة، وتداركتهم العناية الربانية والتوفيق الإلهي‏.‏

إِلَّا مَنْ رَحِمَ رَبُّكَ

Except whom your Lord has given mercy

thus guiding them to know the truth, to act according to it, and to be in agreement on it. For these people, Allah has already decreed that ultimate joy for them, and He gives them extra attention of protection and caring and grants them success.

وأما من عداهم، فهم مخذولون موكولون إلى أنفسهم‏.‏

But as for those who oppose them, they have no help and are left to their own devices.

وقوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَلِذَلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ اقتضت حكمته، أنه خلقهم، ليكون منهم السعداء والأشقياء، والمتفقون والمختلفون، والفريق الذين هدى الله‏,‏ والفريق الذين حقت عليهم الضلالة، ليتبين للعباد، عدله وحكمته، وليظهر ما كمن في الطباع البشرية من الخير والشر، ولتقوم سوق الجهاد والعبادات التي لا تتم ولا تستقيم إلا بالامتحان والابتلاء‏.‏

And His statement:

وَلِذَٰلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ

and for that He created them

meaning: His wisdom entailed that He would created them so that there would be both those of ultimate joy and those of ultimate sorrow among them; those in accord with His guidance and those in opposition to it; a party whom Allah guided and a party who has earned misguidance. This is in order to show His slaves His justice and wisdom, in order to outwardly show the good and evil that is latent and concealed with human nature, and in order to establish the marketplace of striving and worship which would not be complete or even possible without some form of tests and trials.

‏{‏وَ‏}‏ لأنه ‏{‏تَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ‏}‏ فلا بد أن ييسر للنار أهلا، يعملون بأعمالها الموصلة إليها‏.‏

And because of that

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ

the word of your Lord is to be fulfilled that I will surely fill Hell with jinn and men all together

For of course He would make the path to the hell-fire conducive for its people – those who commit the deeds which ultimately take them there.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 452]

For more discussion of these ayaat, see also: “And for that He created them…”: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

See also: The purpose of Allah’s creation: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: Remaining eternally in the Hell-fire and its causes: Imam al-Sa’di

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2 thoughts on ““For that He created them”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

  1. Pingback: “And for that He created them…”: Tafsir al-Qurtubi | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: I have been Commanded to Worship the Lord of this City: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

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