♦ Two Types of Prohibited Things
Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di wrote in his famous book of tafsir:
وأن المحرم نوعان: إما محرم لذاته, وهو الخبيث الذي هو ضد الطيب، وإما محرم لما عرض له, وهو المحرم لتعلق حق الله, أو حق عباده به, وهو ضد الحلال.ـ
Prohibited things fall into one of two categories:
1) Either something is prohibited in and of itself – and these are the filthy things which are the opposite of the good things [al-tayyib] – or,
2) it is prohibited due to what arises from it – and these are the prohibited things which are connected to the rights of Allah or to the rights of His slaves, and these are the opposite of permissible [al-halaal].
[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 77]
♦ A Supplication of the Prophet Dawud
al-Haafidh Ismaa’eel ibn Kathir mentioned the following narration of a supplication that Dawud made for his son Sulayman in part of his tafsir:
وروي عن بعض السلف أنه قال : بلغني عن داود [ عليه السلام ] أنه قال : ” إلهي كن لسليمان كما كنت لي ” : فأوحى الله إليه : أن قل لسليمان : يكون لي كما كنت لي ، أكون له كما كنت لك .
One of the salaf said: It has reached them that the Prophet Dawud said, “My God! Be towards Sulayman as You were towards me.” So Allah inspired him, “Tell Sulayman to be towards Me as you were towards Me, and I will be towards him as I was towards you.”
[Tafsir ibn Kathir 7/73]
♦ The Entire Deen is Built on Two Foundational Principles
Ibn Taymiyah wrote in part of a longer discussion concerning the practice of some Sufis who leave off the legislated adhkaar and instead merely repeat the name “Allah, Allah” or “huwa, huwa” as their dhikr:
وجماع الدين أصلان : أن لا نعبد إلا الله ، ولا نعبده إلا بما شرع ، لا نعبده بالبدع
And the whole of the deen is two foundational principles:
1) that we do not worship any one or any thing except Allah, and
2) that we only worship Him except in the manner that He has legislated; we do not worship Him with innovations.
[Majmoo’a al-Fataawa 10/134]
♦ Sometimes Allah will come between you and a thing you desire, but it is out of His Wisdom, and a protective preservation for you.
‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood said:
قال ابن مسعود : أن العبد ليهم بالامر من التجارة والامارة حتى ييسر له ، فينظر الله إليه فيقول للملائكة : اصرفوه عنه ، فإني إن يسرته له أدخلته النار . فيصرفه الله عنه ، فيظل يتطير ، يقول : سبقني فلان ، دهاني فلان ، وما هو إلا فضل الله عز وجل
A servant intends a business venture or a position of leadership, hoping that it will be facilitated for him. Then Allah will look at him and say to the angels, “Avert him from it, for verily if I were to facilitate it for him, it would cause him to enter the hell-fire.” So Allah averted him from it, and he would complain in a state agitation, “So-and-so has surpassed me, so-and-so has outsmarted me!” But it is only the favor of Allah, Exalted and Magnificent.
[Majmoo’a Rasaa’il Ibn Rajab 3/108]
♦ Deaf, Dumb and Blind
Allah says in surah al-Baqarah:
مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَاءً وَنِدَاءً ۚ صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts to those that hear nothing but calls and cries. Deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand. [2:171]
The scholars of tafsir have offered numerous explanations of this ayah. Imam al-Baghawi summarizes one of the most common opinions by writing:
معناه كما أن البهائم تسمع صوت الراعي ولا تفهم ولا تعقل ما يقال لها كذلك الكافر لا ينتفع بوعظك إنما يسمع صوتك
Its meaning is that just like the cattle hear the voice of their herder and do not understand or comprehend what is being said to them, similarly the disbelievers do not benefit from your admonition; they only hear your voice.
[Tafsir al-Baghawi 1/182-183]
♦ Avoiding the Holidays of the Disbelievers
From the understanding of the salaf is that a characteristic of the believers is that they do not partake in the holidays of the mushrikoon.
Allah describes some of the characteristics of His believing slaves towards the end of surah al-Furqaan, and among them He mentions:
وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
And those who do not partake of al-zoor … [25:72]
The mufassiroon brought various explanations of al-zoor. al-haafidh ibn Kathir mentions several in his book of tafsir, including:
وقال أبو العالية ، وطاوس ، ومحمد بن سيرين ، والضحاك ، والربيع بن أنس ، وغيرهم : هي أعياد المشركين .ـ
Abu ‘Aaliayh, Taawoos, Muhammad ibn Sireen, al-Dahhaak, al-Rabee’ ibn Anas, and others said: it is the holidays of the mushrikoon.
[Tafsir ibn Kathir 6/131]
And in the course of mentioning the various explanations, Imam al-Qurtubi also wrote:
وفي رواية عن ابن عباس أنه أعياد المشركين
In a narration from ibn ‘Abbaas, he said that it means the holidays of the mushrikoon.
[Jaami’ li-Ahkam al-Qur’an 13/77]
♦ He who Purifies Himself Has Succeeded
Allah says in surah al-‘Aalaa:
قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ
He who tazakkaa has certainly succeeded [87:14]
In Imam al-Qurtubi‘s extensive discussion of this ayah, he mentioned the following point of linguistic benefit:
وقيل : هي زكاة الأعمال ، لا زكاة الأموال ، أي تطهر في أعماله من الرياء والتقصير ; لأن الأكثر أن يقال في المال : زَكَّى ، لا تَزَكَّى
And it is said: This is referring to the zakaah of action, not the zakaah of wealth. I.e.: to purify ones actions from desiring to be seen by others and from deficiencies. For it is most common to say zakkaa, and not tazakkaa, when talking about wealth.
[Jaami’ li-Ahkam al-Qur’an 20/21]
Learn more about these and other mufassiroon (those who explained the Qur’an) with our Mufassir Profiles
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