Khutbah on the Fundamentals of the Religion: Imam al-Sa’di

In a collection of more than four hundred sermons from sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di, he delivered the following khutbah on the foundational beliefs of Ahl al-Sunnah w’al-Jamaa’ah:

خطبة في أصول الدين
Khutbah on the Fundamentals of the Religion

الحمد لله المعروف بأسمائه وصفاته ، المتحبب إلى خلقه بجزيل هباته . ـ

All praise belongs to Allah, the One who is known by His names and attributes and beloved to His creation due to the His overflowing bestowals.

وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وحده لا شريك له ، المتفرد بالألوهية والوحدانية ، المتوحد في العظمة والكبرياء والمجد والربوبية . ـ

I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship in truth except Allah alone with no partners. He is One who is absolutely unique in terms of deity and singleness, singular in grandeur, greatness, majesty and Lordship.

وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله ، أكمل الخلق في مراتب العبودية ، وأعلاهم في كل خصلة حميدة ، فهو خير البرية ، اللهم صل وسلم على محمد ، وعلى آله وأصحابه الأخيار ، وعلى التابعين لهم بالأقوال والأفعال والإقرار . ـ

And I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger; the most complete created-being in the various levels of servitude, and the most elevated of them in every praiseworthy quality, for he is the best of the created-beings. O Allah, grant Your peace and blessings upon Muhammad and upon his family and his excellent companions, and upon all those who follow them in speech, action and confession.

أما بعد : أيها الناس ، اتقوا الله تعالى ، واعلموا أن الله خلقكم وأمركم بمعرفته وعبادته ، وحثكم على إخلاص الدين وتحقيق طاعته . قال تعالى : { وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ } . وقال: { يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ } ، وقال: { اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا } ، وقال : { فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ } . ـ

To proceed: O mankind, exercise taqwa of Allah, and know that Allah created you and commanded you to know and worship Him, and He urges you to make your religion sincerely and completely for Him and to make obedience to Him a reality in your lives. He said:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me [51:56]

and He said:

يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, in order that you might exercise taqwa [2:21]

and He said:

اللَّـهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْ‌ضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ‌ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ‌ وَأَنَّ اللَّـهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا

It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them. His command descends among them in order that you may know that Allah is competent over all things and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge. [65:12]

and He said:

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ

So know that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sin as well as for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows of your movement and your resting place. [47:19]

وذلك أنه يجب علينا أن نؤمن ونعترف أن الله هو الخالق الرازق ، المدبر لجميع الأمور ، المتفضل على عباده بالنعم الظاهرة والباطنة ، نعم الدنيا ونعم الدين . وأنه الموصوف بسعة الرحمة وشمول الحكمة ، والعلم المحيط الشامل . المنعوت بالعظمة والكبرياء والعز الكامل . الحي القيوم الذي لا ينام ، ولا ينبغي له أن ينام . ـ

And you should know that it is obligatory upon us to believe and recognize that Allah is the Creator and Sustainer, the manager of all affairs, and the One who bestows favors upon His slaves with blessings both outwardly and inwardly, both in this life and in the hereafter. You should know that He is characterized by expansive mercy, comprehensive wisdom and all-encompassing knowledge. And He is described with grandeur and greatness and complete might. He is al-Hayy al-Qayyoom[1]; He does not sleep nor does it befit Him that He would sleep.

 يخفض القسط ويرفعه ، ويرفع إليه عمل الليل قبل عمل النهار ، وعمل النهار قبل عمل الليل على الكمال والتمام . حجابه النور ، لو كشفه لأحرقت سبحات وجهه ما انتهى إليه بصره من خلقه . فهو الغني المطلق ، ومن سواه إليه فقير ، وهو القوي العزيز ، ومن سواه عاجز ذليل ، وهو الجواد الكريم ، فلا غنى لأحد عن كرمه طرفة عين ، { وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ } . ـ

He lowers and raises the scales, and the deeds of the night are raised to Him before the deeds of the day, and the deeds of the days before the deeds of the night in a perfect and complete manner. His veil is al-Noor (light) – were He to remove it then the splendor of His Face would burn His creation as far as His sight reached. He is al-Ghani (the One Free of Need) in an absolute sense, and all others besides Him are in dire need of Him. And He is al-Qawi al-‘Azeez (the Strong, the Mighty), and all others besides Him are impotent and lowly. And He is the al-Jawaad al-Kareem (the Bounteous, the Generous), for there is no one who is free from needing His generosity even for the blink of an eye.

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

And He is Allah; there is no deity except Him. To Him belongs all praise in the beginning and the end. And Him alone belongs authority, and to Him you will be returned. [28:70]

ونؤمن أنه الله الذي لا إله إلا هو ، فهو ذو الألوهية والعبودية على خلقه أجمعين . فكما أنه لا رب ولا خالق ولا منعم سواه ، فليس للعباد إله ومعبود إلا الله . فمن أخلص له الدين في ظاهره وباطنه فهو الموحد حقا ، ومن صرف شيئا من العبادة لغيره فهو المشرك صرفا ، قال تعالى : { إِنَّهُ مَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ } ، وقال : { فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ } . ـ

We believe that Allah is the One besides whom none there is no other deity worthy of worship, for He is the One deserving of deification and servitude from all of His creation. Just as there is no rabb and no creator and no bestower of blessing besides Him, then there is no deity or object of worship for the slaves except Him. So whoever makes his deen sincere towards Allah both outwardly and inwardly, then that person is a true monotheist. But whoever diverts any kind of worship to any one or any thing other than Him, then that person is a mushrik (polytheist) diverting worship away from Allah towards others. Allah said:

إِنَّهُ مَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ

Indeed, he who associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden Paradise for him, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not any helpers for the wrongdoers. [5:72]

And He said:

فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۗ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

So call upon Him, making your religion sincerely for Him. All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds. [40:65]

فليس لنا معبود سواه ، فلا نستعين إلا به ، ولا نعبد إلا إياه ، فهو الإله المقصود بالتأله والحب والتعظيم ، وهو المقصود لقضاء الحاجات وتفريج الكربات ، وكل أمر عظيم { يَسْأَلُهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ } . ـ

There is no object of worship for us other than Him, so we do not seek aid except from Him and we do not worship any one other than Him alone. For He is the god and the object of deification, love and exaltation, and He is the One who is sought to fulfill one’s needs and alleviate one’s distress and lift every grave matter.

يَسْأَلُهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ

Whoever is within the heavens and earth asks Him; every day He is bringing about a matter. [55:29]

ـ { أَمَّنْ يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْضِ أَإِلَهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ } . ـ

أَمَّن يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ‌ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْ‌ضِ ۗ أَإِلَـٰهٌ مَّعَ اللَّـهِ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَذَكَّرُ‌ونَ

Who is it that responds to the desperate one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth? Is there any deity alongside Allah? Little do you remember. [27:62]

ونؤمن بنزول ربنا كل ليلة إلى سماء الدنيا ، كما أخبر به الصادق المصدوق ، الذي لا ينطق عن الهوى ، مع أنه العلي الأعلى ، الذي على العرش استوى ، وعلى الملك احتوى { وَإِنْ تَجْهَرْ بِالْقَوْلِ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ وَأَخْفَى * اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى } . ـ

We believe in the descending of our Lord every night to the lowest heaven just as the truthful, trustworthy one has informed us, the one who does not speak of his own desires. This descending occurs despite Him being the highest of the high, the One who is established on the Throne, and Who encompasses His dominion.

وَإِن تَجْهَرْ‌ بِالْقَوْلِ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ‌ وَأَخْفَى * اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ

And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.* Allah! None has the right to be worshiped but He! To Him belong the Best Names. [20:7-8]

ونؤمن أن المؤمنين يرون ربهم في جنة المأوى ، فرؤيته ورضوانه أكبر نعيم يجزل لهم المولى . ـ

We believe that the believers will see their Lord in the Garden of Refuge, for viewing Him and attaining His pleasure is the greatest blessing granted to them by their Master.

ونشهد أن القرآن تنزيل رب العالمين ، نزل به الروح الأمين ، على قلب النبي الكريم ، بلسان عربي مبين ، فهو كلام الله حقا منزل غير مخلوق ، فهو الهدى والرحمة والشفاء والنور ، وعليه المدار في الأصول والفروع والأحكام كلها ، وجميع الأمور . ـ

We bear witness that the Qur’an is the revelation of the Lord of all creation, which the trustworthy Rooh [Jibreel] brought down, upon the heart of the Noble Prophet, in a clear Arabic language [c.f. 26:192-195]. So it is the literal speech of Allah – revealed and not created. It is the guidance and mercy and healing and light. It is the center point around which all foundational matters, secondary issues, legislative rulings, and in fact all issues revolve.

ونشهد أن الله حق ، وقوله حق ، ووعده حق ، ولقاؤه حق ، والنبيون حق ، ومحمد حق ، { وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ } . ـ

We bear witness that Allah is true, and His speech is true, and His promise is true, and the meeting with Him is true, and His prophets are true, and Muhammad is true.

وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ

And surely, the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it, and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves. [22:7]

فيجازيهم بأعمالهم إن خيرا فخير وإن شرا فشر ، فيثيب الطائعين بفضله ، ويعاقب العاصين بحكمته وعدله ، { وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ فَمَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ * وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ } . ـ

So they will be recompensed for their deeds: if the deeds are good then they will be recompensed with good and if the deeds are bad then they will be recompensed with bad. So He will reward the obedient ones out of His bounty and punish the disobedient ones according to His wisdom and justice.

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ فَمَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ * وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ

And the weighing [of deeds] that Day will be the truth. So those whose scales are heavy – it is they who will be the successful. And those whose scales are light – they are the ones who will lose themselves for what injustice they were doing toward Our verses. [7:8-9]

ونؤمن بجميع ما جاء به الكتاب والسنة من أحوال اليوم الآخر ، والشفاعة ، والحوض ، والميزان ، والصراط ، وصحائف الأعمال ، وما ذكر من صفات الجنة والنار ، وصفات أهلهما ، كل ذلك حق لا ريب فيه ، وكله داخل في الأيمان باليوم الآخر. ـ

And we believe in everything that the Book and the Sunnah have brought regarding the events that will take place on the Final Day, and the intercession, and the Hawd, and the Balance of deeds, and the Siraat, and the records of deeds, and what has been mentioned concerning the descriptions of Paradise and the Hell-Fire, and the attributes of their respective peoples. All of this is true without any doubt at all, and all of this falls under having Eemaan in the Final Day.

والحاصل أننا نؤمن بالله وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ، واليوم الآخر ، والقدر خيره وشره ، إيمانا مجملا شاملا ، وإيمانا مفصلا في كتاب ربنا وسنة نبينا. ـ

To summarize all of this: we believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His messengers and the Final Day and al-Qadr – the good of it and the bad – with a general and comprehensive faith and with a detailed belief in the Book of our Lord and the Sunnah of our Prophet.

ونسأله تعالى أن يثبتنا على ذلك ، ويميتنا ويحيينا عليه ، إنه جواد كريم . ـ

And we ask Allah that He would make us firm upon that and cause us to live and die upon that; indeed, He is the Bounteous, the Generous.

[Majmoo’ al-Khutab al-Sa’di pg. 387-390]

[1] Translator’s Note: Imam al-Sa’di explains Allah’s beautiful names al-Hayy al-Qayyoom in an appendix to his tafsir as follows:

ـ [ الحي ، القيوم ] كامل الحياة والقائم بنفسه ، القيوم لأهل السموات والأرض ، القائم بتدبيرهم وأرزاقهم ، وجميع أحوالهم ، ف<الحي> : الجامع لصفات الذات ، و<القيوم> : الجامع لصفات الأفعال . ـ

al-Hayy, al-Qayyoom – the One who has complete and perfect life and who is self-subsisting. He provides for the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, sustaining them by His active management and providing for them and all of their conditions. So al-Hayy is comprehensive of all of His attributes of being, while al-Qayyoom is comprehensive of all of His attributes of action.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg 1116]

Click here to read more khutbahs from Imam al-Sa’di.

See also: Only the Creator is Deserving of Worship: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Imam al-Sa’di

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.