Six Categories of Wrong-Doings: Sheikh al-Raajihi

In surah al-A’raaf, Allah mentioned:

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّـهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّـهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Say, “My Lord has only forbidden immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed – and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know.” [7:33]

Sheikh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Raajihi mentioned the following points of benefit regarding this ayah by saying:

قال بعض العلماء على آية :   قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَنْ تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ . الآية عطف بعضها على بعض ، وإن كان المعطوف داخلا في المعطوف عليه ، فبعضها داخل في بعض ، إذ الإثم والبغي والشرك داخل في الفواحش وعمومها ؛ لأن مظالم العباد بعضهم مع بعض والاعتداء عليهم يكون في ستة أشياء في البدن وفي النسب وفي الدين وفي العرض وفي العقل وفي المال ، فالاعتداء على الإنسان يكون :  في البدن .  وفي النسب .  وفي الدين .  وفي العرض . – وفي العقل .  ـ

Regarding the ayah:

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّـهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّـهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Say, “My Lord has only forbidden immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed – and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know.” [7:33]

some of the scholars have said that this ayah has some overlap in its categories with some overlapping others and that some categories in this listing could fall under other categories, and so some of them are included in others. For sin, oppression, and al-shirk all fall under the category of immoralities and its general encompassing nature. This is all because the wrong-doings and transgressions which human beings perpetrate against one another occur in relation to six things: physical well-being, lineage, religion, honor, intellect, or wealth. So the transgressions against people can be distilled down to:

  • those regarding one’s physical well-being
  • those regarding one’s lineage
  • those regarding one’s religion
  • those regarding one’s honor
  • those regarding one’s intellect, and
  • those regarding one’s wealth

ففي قوله تعالى :   قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ المراد بذلك : الزنا ظاهرًا وباطنًا ، وهذا اعتداء على الأنساب ، وقوله : ” الإثم ” المراد بها : الخمر وهي اعتداء على العقول ، وقوله :   وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ  المراد بها : الاعتداء على الأبدان وعلى الأعراض وعلى الأموال  وقوله :   وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا المراد بها : الاعتداء على الدين  وعليه فانتظمت الآية بذلك مظالم العباد الستة .  ـ

So in Allah’s statement:

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ

Say, “My Lord has only forbidden immoralities…”

and the intended meaning of that is: fornication and adultery, whether openly or secretly. And that is transgression against lineage.

And as for the word:

الْإِثْمَ

“…sins…”

the intended meaning in this case is: intoxicants. And that is transgression against the intellect.

And as for Allah’s phrase:

وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ

“…and oppression without right…”

the intended meaning in this case is: transgressions against physical well-being, transgressions against people’s honor, and transgression regarding their wealth.

And Allah’s phrase:

وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا

“…and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority…”

the intended meaning here is: transgression against the religion.

So according to this explanation, this ayah has thereby included and arranged the six types of wrong-doings that people commit.

[Fawaa’id fee al-Tafsir min Kalaam al-Sheikh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Raajihi #9]

For more explanation of this ayah, please see:

The Fundamentals of the Prohibited Deeds – Khutbah of Imam al-Sa’di

Why Speaking about Allah without Knowledge is more serious than Shrik: Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

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2 thoughts on “Six Categories of Wrong-Doings: Sheikh al-Raajihi

  1. Pingback: Why Speaking about Allah without Knowledge is more serious than Shrik: Ibn ‘Uthaymeen | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: The Fundamentals of the Prohibited Deeds – Khutbah of Imam al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

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