The Four Stages of Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

In his book detailing the different activities of the year, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali wrote the following discussion concerning the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ (the 10th day of the month of Muharram) and its fasting:

وكان للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في صيامه أربع حالات: ـ

The Prophet (ﷺ) went through four different stages regarding the fasting of ‘Aashooraa’:

الحالة الأولى: أنه كان يصومه بمكة ولا يأمر الناس بالصوم ففي الصحيحين عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: كان عاشوراء يوما تصومه قريش في الجاهلية وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يصومه فلما قدم المدينة صامه وأمر بصيامه فلما نزلت فريضة شهر رمضان كان رمضان هو الذي يصومه فترك يوم عاشوراء فمن شاء صامه ومن شاء أفطره وفي رواية للبخاري وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “من شاء فليصمه ومن شاء أفطر”. ـ

○The First Stage: That he used to fast it in Mecca but he did not command the people to fast. There is a narration in the Saheehayn on the authority of ‘Aa’ishah who said:

The Day of ‘Aashooraa’ was a day that the Quraish used to fast during the times of al-Jaahiliyyah and the Prophet (ﷺ) also used to fast it. Then when he came to al-Madinah he fasted it and he commanded its fasting. Then when the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan was revealed, it was Ramadan that he fasted and thus he left off the Day of ‘Aashooraa’, so whoever wished could fast it and whoever wished did not have to fast it.

And in the narration of al-Bukhari, “And the Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘Whoever wishes then let him fast and whoever wishes then do not fast.'”

الحالة الثانية: أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما قدم المدينة ورأى صيام أهل الكتاب له وتعظيمهم له وكان يحب موافقتهم فيما لم يؤمر به صامه وأمر الناس بصيامه وأكد الأمر بصيامه والحث عليه حتى كانوا يصومونه أطفالهم ففي الصحيحين عن ابن عباس قال: قدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة فوجد اليهود صياما يوم عاشوراء فقال لهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ما هذا اليوم الذي تصومونه؟ قالوا: هذا يوم عظيم أنجى الله فيه موسى وقومه وأغرق فرعون وقومه فصامه موسى شكرا فنحن نصومه فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “فنحن أحق وأولى بموسى منكم” فصامه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأمر بصيامه. ـ

○The Second Stage: That the Prophet (ﷺ) came to al-Madinah and he saw the Ahl al-Kitaab fasting it and holding it in high regard, and he was pleased with his having been in accord with them in in the fast which he had not previously ordered the people to do. So he then commanded the people to fast that day and emphasized the command to fast it. He encouraged the people to do so to the extent that even the children would fast it. So there is a report in the Saheehayn on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas who said:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) came to al-Madinah and then he found the Jews fasting the day of ‘Aashooraa, so he said, “What is this day which you are fasting?” They replied, “This is a great day on which Allah saved Moosaa and his people and drowned Fir’awn and his people, so Moosaa fasted it out of gratitude to Allah and so we fast it.” The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “We have more right and are closer to Moosaa than you,” so the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) fasted it and ordered its fasting.

وفي مسند الإمام أحمد عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال: مر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بأناس من اليهود قد صاموا عاشوراء فقال: “ما هذا من الصوم”؟! قالوا: هذا اليوم الذي نجى الله عز وجل موسى عليه السلام وبني إسرائيل من الغرق وغرق فيه فرعون وهذا يوم استوت فيه السفينة على الجودي فصام نوح وموسى عليهما السلام شكرا لله عز وجل فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: “أنا أحق بموسى وأحق بصوم هذا اليوم” فأمر أصحابه بالصوم وفي الصحيحين عن سلمة بن الأكوع رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر رجلا من أسلم: أن أذن في الناس: من أكل فليصم بقية يومه ومن لم يكن أكل فليصم فإن اليوم يوم عاشوراء وفيهما أيضا عن الربيع بنت معوذ قالت: أرسل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم غداة عاشوراء إلى قرى الأنصار التي حول المدينة: “من كان أصبح صائما فليتم صومه ومن كان أصبح مفطرا فليتم بقية يومه” فكنا بعد ذلك نصومه ونصوم صبياننا الصغار منهم ونذهب إلى المسجد فنجعل لهم اللعبة من العهن فإذا بكى أحدهم على الطعام أعطيناه إياها حتى يكون عند الإفطار وفي رواية فإذا سألونا الطعام أعطيناهم اللعبة نلهيهم حتى يتموا صومهم وفي الباب أحاديث كثيرة جدا. ـ

In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, Abu Hurayrah said:

The Prophet (ﷺ) passed by a group of Jews who were fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ so he said, “What is this that you are fasting?”, and they said, “This is the day on which Allah saved Moosaa and Banu Israa’eel from being drowned and the day on which He drowned Fir’awn, and this is the day on which the Ark came to rest on Mount Judie, so Nuh and Moosaa fasted out of gratitude to Allah.”So the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “I have more right to Moosaa and more right to fast this day,” so he commanded his companions to fast.

And in the Saheehayn on the authority of Salamah ibn al-Akwa’ there is a report that the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded two men from the tribe of Aslam to announce to the people, “Whoever has eaten, then let him fast the rest of the day, and whoever has not eaten, then let him fast, for this day is the Day of ‘Aashooraa’.”

And also in the Saheehayn on the authority of Rabee’ bint Ma’oodh who said:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) sent someone to a village of the Ansaar on the outskirts of al-Madinah on the morning of ‘Aashooraa’ saying, “Whoever began the day fasting, then let him complete his fast, and whoever began the day not fasting, then let him fast for the remainder of the day,” so after that we used to fast and our young children used to fast. We would go to the masjid and make some toys for them out of wool so if one of them cried for food we would give him the toy until it was time to break the fast.

And in another narration of that incident she said, “So when they would ask us for food, we would give them the toy to distract them until the fast was completed.” And there are an abundance of ahaadeeth on this subject.

وخرج الطبراني بإسناد فيه جهالة أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يدعو يوم عاشوراء برضعائه ورضعاء ابنته فاطمة فيتفل في أفواههم ويقول لأمهاتهم: “لا ترضعوهم إلى الليل” وكان ريقه صلى الله عليه وسلم يجزئهم. ـ

al-Tabaraani brought a report which has a chain of narration with some unknown narrators in it that on the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ the Prophet (ﷺ) used to call the suckling children of his household and the suckling children of his daughter Fatimah together and he would spit in their mouths and say to their mothers, “Do not breast feed them until the evening,” and his spittle would suffice them.

وقد اختلف العلماء رضي الله عنهم هل كان صوم يوم عاشوراء قبل فرض شهر رمضان واجبا أم كان سنة متأكدة؟ على قولين مشهورين ومذهب أبي حنيفة أنه كان واجبا حينئذ وهو ظاهر كلام الإمام أحمد وأبي بكر الأثرم وقال الشافعي رحمه الله بل كان متأكد الاستحباب فقط وهو قول كثير من أصحابنا وغيرهم. ـ

And the scholars have differed regarding this issue: prior to the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan, was the fast of the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ obligatory, or was it only a strongly emphasized sunnah? According to the two well-known statements [of Imam Ahmad] as well as the madhhab of Abu Haneefah, it was obligatory at that time and that is the clear statement of Imam Ahmad and Abu Bakr al-Athrim. However al-Shaafi’ said, “No, rather it was only a strongly emphasized obligation,” and that is the position of many of our [Hanbali] companions and others as well.

الحالة الثالثة: أنه لما فرض صيام شهر رمضان ترك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر الصحابة بصيام عاشوراء وتأكيده فيه وقد سبق حديث عائشة في ذلك وفي الصحيحين عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال: صام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عاشوراء وأمر بصيامه فلما فرض رمضان ترك ذلك وكان عبد الله لا يصومه إلا أن يوافق صومه وفي رواية لمسلم: إن أهل الجاهلية كانوا يصومون يوم عاشوراء وأن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم صامه والمسلمون قبل أن يفرض رمضان فلما فرض رمضان قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “إن عاشوراء يوم من أيام الله فمن شاء صامه ومن شاء تركه” وفي رواية له أيضا: ” فمن أحب منكم أن يصومه فليصمه ومن كره فليدعه”. ـ

○The Third Stage: That when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was made obligatory, the Prophet (ﷺ) ceased commanding the companions to fast ‘Aashooraa’ and stopped emphasizing it. And the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah on that subject has already been mentioned.

There is a report in the Saheehayn on the authority of ibn ‘Umar who said, “The Prophet (ﷺ) fasted ‘Aashooraa’ and commanded its fasting. But then when Ramadan was made obligatory he left that off.” And ‘Abdullah [ibn ‘Umar] used not to to fast it unless the Prophet was also fasting it. And in the narration of Muslim:

The people of al-Jaahiliyyah used to fast the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ and the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and the Muslims fasted it prior to Ramadan being made obligatory. But then when Ramadan was made obligatory the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “‘Aashooraa’ is one of the days of Allah, so whoever wishes can fast it and whoever wishes can leave off fasting it.”

And in the another narration also, “So whoever of you would love to fast it then fast it, and whoever dislikes to do that then let him leave it.”

وفي الصحيحين أيضا عن معاوية قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: “هذا يوم عاشوراء ولم يكتب الله عليكم صيامه وأنا صائم فمن شاء فليصم ومن شاء فليفطر” وفي رواية لمسلم التصريح برفع آخره وفي رواية للنسائي أن آخره مدرج من قول معاوية وليس بمرفوع. ـ

And also in the Saheehayn, there is a report on the authority of Mu’aawiyah who said:

I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, “This is the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ and Allah did not make fasting it obligatory for you but I am fasting it. So whoever wishes then let him fast, and whoever wishes then let him not fast.”

In the narration of this hadeeth that comes in Muslim, it is explicit that the last sentence is attributed to the Prophet, while in the narration of this hadeeth from in al-Nasaa’i, the last sentence is an additional commentary from Mu’aawiyah and not attributed directly to the Prophet himself.

وفي صحيح مسلم عن ابن مسعود أنه قال في يوم عاشوراء: هو يوم كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصومه قبل أن ينزل رمضان فلما نزل شهر رمضان ترك وفي رواية أنه تركه وفيه أيضا عن جابر بن سمرة قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يأمرنا بصيام يوم عاشوراء ويحثنا عليه ويتعاهدنا عنده فلما فرض رمضان لم يأمرنا ولم ينهنا عنه ولم يتعاهدنا عنده وخرج الإمام أحمد والنسائي وابن ماجه من حديث قيس بن سعد قال: أمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بصيام عاشوراء قبل أن ينزل رمضان فلما نزل رمضان لم يأمرنا ولم ينهنا وفي رواية: ونحن نفعله. ـ

In Saheeh Muslim ibn Mas’ood spoke about the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ saying:

It was a day which Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to fast before the obligation of fasting Ramadan was revealed. So when the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan was revealed, he left fasting ‘Aashooraa’.

And in another narration, “He left fasting it.”

Also in Saheeh Muslim there is the report from Jaabir ibn Samurah that:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) commanded us to fast the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ and encouraged us to do so and made us promise to do so, but then when Ramadan was made obligatory he did not command us nor did he prohibit us from it, and he did not make us promise to fast it.

And Imam Ahmad, al-Nasaa’i and ibn Maajah all reported the hadeeth of Qays ibn Sa’d who said:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) commanded us to fast ‘Aashooraa’ prior to the revelation of the obligation of Ramadan. So then after the obligation of Ramadan he did not command us to do it no did he prohibit us from it.

And in another narration there is the addition of, “but we still did it.”

فهذه الأحاديث كلها تدل على أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يجدد أمر الناس بصيامه بعد فرض صيام شهر رمضان بل تركهم على ما كانوا عليه من غير نهي عن صيامه فإن كان أمره صلى الله عليه وسلم بصيامه قبل فرض صيام شهر رمضان للوجوب فإنه ينبني على أن الوجوب إذا نسخ فهل يبقى الإستحباب أم لا؟ وفيه اختلاف مشهور بين العلماء رضي الله عنهم وإن كان أمره للاستحباب المؤكد فقد قيل: إنه زال التوكيد وبقي أصل الإستحباب ولهذا قال قيس بن سعد: ونحن نفعله وقد روي عن ابن مسعود وابن عمر رضي الله عنهما ما يدل على أن أصل استحباب صيامه زال وقال سعيد بن المسيب: لم يصم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عاشوراء وروي عنه عن سعد بن أبي وقاص والمرسل أصح قال الدارقطني. ـ

So all of these ahaadeeth indicate that the Prophet (ﷺ) did not renew the command for the people to fast ‘Aashooraa’ after the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan, but rather that he left them as they were without forbidding them from fasting it. For he (ﷺ) had commanded them to fast it before the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan was instituted and he had established that it was binding.

But then when that was abrogated, did the strongly-encouraged nature of fasting it remain in place or not? There is a well-known difference of opinion among the scholars on this matter. If its nature had been one of being strongly-encouraged and stressed, then it is said its stressed nature has ceased but its underlying nature of being highly-encouraged has remained in effect. Along these lines, Qays ibn Sa’d said, “We used to fast it,” and evidence of the encouraged nature of its fasting no longer being in effect has been related that ibn Mas’ood and ibn ‘Umar. Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) did not fast ‘Aashooraa’,” and this was relayed from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqaas, but al-Daraqutni said that it was it is more accurate to say that this was not attributed to any sahaabi.

وأكثر العلماء على استحباب صيامه من غير تأكيد وممن روي عنه صيامه من الصحابة عمر وعلي وعبد الرحمن بن عوف وأبو موسى وقيس بن سعد وابن عباس وغيرهم ويدل على بقاء استحبابه قول ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما: لم أر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصوم يوما يتحرى فضله على الأيام إلا يوم عاشوراء وشهر رمضان وابن عباس إنما صحب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بآخرة وإنما عقل منه صلى الله عليه وسلم من آخر أمره. ـ

Most of the scholars hold the position that fasting ‘Aashooraa’ is strongly-encouraged albeit not stressed. Among the Sahaabah who are reported to have fasted it are ‘Umar, ‘Ali, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Abu Moosaa, Qays ibn Sa’d, and ibn ‘Abbaas, among others. There is a statement of ibn ‘Abbaas that points to the recommended nature of fasting it remaining in place, which is:

I never saw Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) seek out a day for fasting and prioritize it over others aside from the Day of ‘Aashooraa’ and the month of Ramadan.

And ibn ‘Abbaas only accompanied the Prophet (ﷺ) during the last part of his life, and so he only knew what he (ﷺ) did in the last part of his life.

وفي صحيح مسلم عن أبي قتادة أن رجلا سأل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن صيام عاشوراء؟ فقال: “أحتسب على الله أن يكفر السنة التي قبله” وإنما سأله عن التطوع بصيامه فإنه سأله أيضا عن صيام يوم عرفة وصيام الدهر وصيام يوم وفطر يوم وصيام يوم وفطر يومين فعلم أنه إنما سأله عن صيام التطوع وخرج الإمام أحمد والنسائي من حديث حفصة بنت عمر أم المؤمنين رضي الله عنها: أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يكن يدع صيام يوم عاشوراء والعشر وثلاثة أيام من كل شهر وخرجه أبو داود إلا أن عنده عن بعض أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم غير مسماة. ـ

And in Saheeh Muslim on the authority of Abu Qatadah:

a man asked the Prophet (ﷺ) about fasting ‘Aashooraa’, so he said, “I anticipate that Allah will expiate [the sins of] the previous year.”

And this person was only asking about optional fasting, for he also asked him about the fast of the Day of ‘Arafah, continuous fasting, fasting one day on and one day off, and fasting one day and two days off. So the Prophet knew that he was only asking about optional fasting.

And Imam Ahmad and al-Nasaa’i reported the hadeeth of Hafsah bint ‘Umar, the Mother of the Believers, that:

the Prophet (ﷺ) never used to leave fasting the Day of ‘Aashooraa’, the ten days [of the beginning of Dhu’l-Hijjah], and three days out of each month.

Abu Dawood also reported this hadeeth except that he reported it merely from one of the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) without naming her specifically.

الحالة الرابعة: أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عزم في آخر عمره على أن لا يصومه مفردا بل يضم إليه يوما آخر مخالفة لأهل الكتاب في صيامه ففي صحيح مسلم عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما أنه قال حين صام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عاشوراء وأمر بصيامه قالوا: يا رسول الله إنه يوم تعظمه اليهود والنصارى فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “فإذا كان العام المقبل إن شاء الله صمنا اليوم التاسع” قال: فلم يأت العام المقبل حتى توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وفي رواية له أيضا عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “لئن بقيت إلى قابل لأصومن التاسع مع العاشر” يعني عاشوراء وخرجه الطبراني ولفظه “إن عشت إلى قابل صمت التاسع مخافة أن يفوتني عاشوراء”. ـ

○The Fourth Stage: That the Prophet (ﷺ) decided in the latter part of his life to not fast only ‘Aashooraa’ alone but rather to include another day along with it in order to differ from the Ahl al-Kitaab in regards to their fasting of it.

So it comes in Saheeh Muslim on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbaas that:

when Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) fasted ‘Aashooraa’ and commanded it to be fasted, the Companions said, “O Messenger of Allah, this is a day which the Jews and Christians venerate,” so Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) replied, “When next year comes we will fast the ninth day, inshaAllaah.” And ibn ‘Abbaas said, “But the next year didn’t come before the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) has already passed away.”

And in another narration also from ibn ‘Abbaas he said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘If I live until the next year, then I will definitely fast the ninth along with the tenth,” meaning ‘Aashooraa’. And al-Tabaraani reported this narration with the wording, “If I live until the next year I will fast the ninth as a precaution that I do not miss out on the tenth.”

وفي مسند الإمام أحمد عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: “صوموا يوم عاشوراء وخالفوا اليهود صوموا قبله يوما وبعده يوما” وجاء في رواية: “أو بعده” فإما أن تكون “أو” للتخير أو يكون شكا من الراوي: هل قال قبله أو بعده وروي هذا الحديث بلفظ آخر وهو: “لئن بقيت لآمرن بصيام يوم قبله ويوم بعده” يعني عاشوراء وفي رواية أخرى: “لئن بقيت إلى قابل لأصومن التاسع ولآمرن بصيام يوم قبله ويوم بعده” يعني عاشوراء أخرجهما الحافظ أبو موسى المديني. ـ

In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas it comes that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Fast the day of ‘Aashooraa’ and differ from the Jews by fasting a day before it and a day afterwards,” and in another narration it came as, “or afterwards.”

So the word “or” was either an indication of an option, or it was an indication of the narrator’s uncertainty – did he said ‘before’ or did he say ‘after’? This hadeeth is also narrated with yet another wording, which is, “If I am still alive, then I will definitely command the fasting of a day before it and a day following it,” meaning before and after ‘Aashooraa’.

And in another narration, “If I live until next year then I will certainly fast the ninth and I will certainly command fasting a day before and a day afterwards,” meaning before and after ‘Aashooraa’, and these narrations were collected by al-Haafidh Abu Moosaa al-Madeeni.

وقد صح هذا عن ابن عباس من قوله من رواية ابن جريج قال: أخبرنا عطاء أنه سمع ابن عباس يقول في يوم عاشوراء: خالفوا اليهود صوموا التاسع والعاشر قال الإمام أحمد أنا أذهب إليه. ـ

And this has been authentically transmitted from ibn ‘Abbaas via the narration of ibn Jurayj who said, “‘Ataa’ informed us that he heard ibn ‘Abbaas say the following regarding the day of ‘Aashooraa’: differ from the Jews by fasting the ninth and the tenth.” Imam Ahmad said, “I follow this position.”

وروي عن ابن عباس: أنه صام التاسع والعاشر وعلل بخشية فوات عاشوراء وروى ابن أبي ذئب عن شعبة مولى ابن عباس عن ابن عباس: أنه كان يصوم عاشوراء في السفر ويوالي بين اليومين خشية فواته وكذلك روي عن ابن اسحاق أنه صام يوم عاشوراء ويوما قبله ويوما بعده وقال: إنما فعلت ذلك خشية أن يفوتني وروي عن ابن سيرين أنه كان يصوم ثلاثة أيام عند الإختلاف في هلال الشهر احتياطا ـ

And it is relayed from ibn ‘Abbaas that he would fast the ninth and the tenth and he explained this as a precaution against missing ‘Aashooraa’. Ibn Abi Dhi’b narrated on the authority of Shu’bah, the freed slave of ibn ‘Abbaas, that ibn ‘Abbaas used to fast ‘Aashooraa’ [even] while traveling and he would fast two days consecutively out of fear of missing it. It is similarly relayed by ibn Ishaaq that he would fast ‘Aashooraa’ as well as a day before it and a day after it, saying, “I only did that out of fear that I might miss it.” And it is related by ibn Sireen that he used to fast three days when there would be differing as to the sighting of the new moon as a precautionary measure.

[Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif pg. 102-109]

See also: Khutbah regarding ‘Aashooraa’: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: A brief clarification on ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Sharh al-Nawawi

See also: Voluntary fasting in Muharram and its virtues: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

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3 thoughts on “The Four Stages of Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

  1. Pingback: Khutbah regarding ‘Aashooraa’: Imam al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: A brief clarification on ‘Aashooraa’: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: Fasting ‘Aashooraa’: Sharh al-Nawawi | Tulayhah

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