Inheriting al-Jannah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

In his tafsir of surah Maryam, sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote:

قوله تعالى : تلك الجنة التي نورث من عبادنا من كان تقيا ، الإشارة في قوله : تلك [ 19 \ 63 ] ، إلى ما تقدم من قوله : فأولئك يدخلون الجنة ولا يظلمون شيئا جنات عدن التي وعد الرحمن عباده بالغيب الآية ، وقد بين جل وعلا في هذه الآية الكريمة أنه يورث المتقين من عباده جنته ، وقد بين هذا المعنى أيضا في مواضع أخر ، كقوله تعالى : قد أفلح المؤمنون الذين هم في صلاتهم خاشعون – إلى قوله – أولئك هم الوارثون الذين يرثون الفردوس هم فيها خالدون [ 23 \ 1 – 11 ] ، وقوله : وسارعوا إلى مغفرة من ربكم وجنة عرضها السماوات والأرض أعدت للمتقين الآيات [ 3 \ 133 ] ، وقوله تعالى : وسيق الذين اتقوا ربهم إلى الجنة زمرا الآية [ 39 \ 71 ] ، وقوله : ونودوا أن تلكم الجنة أورثتموها بما كنتم تعملون [ 7 \ 43 ] ، إلى غير ذلك من الآيات . ـ

Allah’s statement:

تِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي نُورِ‌ثُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا مَن كَانَ تَقِيًّا

That is Paradise, which We give as inheritance to those of Our servants who exercised taqwa [19:63]

And the thing being indicated here by “That” refers to what came before this ayah, starting from Allah’s statement:

فَأُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا * جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدَ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ عِبَادَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ

for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all. * gardens of perpetual residence which the Most Merciful has promised His servants in the unseen. [19:60-61]

until the ayah.

In this noble ayah Allah clarified that those who exercise taqwa from among His slaves will be granted His Jannah as an inheritance, and He has also explained this meaning in a number of other places. For instance, His statement:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ * الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ

Indeed the believers have succeed * those who are characterized in the prayers with al-khushoo’ [23:1-2]

until His statement:

أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِ‌ثُونَ * الَّذِينَ يَرِ‌ثُونَ الْفِرْ‌دَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those are the inheritors * Who will inherit al-Firdaws. They will abide therein eternally. [23:10-11]

And His statement:

وَسَارِ‌عُوا إِلَىٰ مَغْفِرَ‌ةٍ مِّن رَّ‌بِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْ‌ضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْ‌ضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord and a garden as wide as the heavens and earth, prepared for those who exercise taqwa [3:133]

And His statement:

وَسِيقَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا رَ‌بَّهُمْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ زُمَرً‌ا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوهَا وَفُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُهَا وَقَالَ لَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ طِبْتُمْ فَادْخُلُوهَا خَالِدِينَ

But those who had taqwa of their Lord will be driven to Paradise in groups until, when they reach it while its gates have been opened and its keepers say, “Peace be upon you; you have become pure; so enter it to abide eternally therein.” [39:73]

And His statement:

وَنُودُوا أَن تِلْكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ أُورِ‌ثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

And they will be called, “This is Paradise, which you have been made to inherit for what you used to do.” [7:43]

as well as other ayaat besides these.

ومعنى إيراثهم الجنة : الإنعام عليهم بالخلود فيها في أكمل نعيم وسرور ، قال الزمخشري في ) الكشاف ( : نورث أي : نبقي عليه الجنة كما نبقي على الوارث مال الموروث ، ولأن الأتقياء يلقون ربهم يوم القيامة قد انقضت أعمالهم ، وثمرتها باقية وهي الجنة ، فإذا أدخلهم الجنة فقد أورثهم من تقواهم كما يورث الوارث المال من المتوفى ، وقال بعض أهل العلم : معنى إيراثهم الجنة أن الله تعالى خلق لكل نفس منزلا في الجنة ، ومنزلا في النار ، فإذا دخل أهل الجنة الجنة ; أراهم منازلهم في النار لو كفروا وعصوا الله ليزداد سرورهم وغبطتهم ; وعند ذلك يقولون : الحمد لله الذي هدانا لهذا وما كنا لنهتدي لولا أن هدانا الله الآية [ 7 \ 43 ] ، وكذلك يرى أهل النار منازلهم في الجنة لو آمنوا واتقوا الله لتزداد ندامتهم وحسرتهم ، وعند ذلك يقول الواحد منهم : [ ص: 472 ] لو أن الله هداني لكنت من المتقين ، ثم إنه تعالى يجعل منازل أهل الجنة في النار لأهل النار ، ومنازل أهل النار في الجنة لأهل الجنة فيرثون منازل أهل النار في الجنة ، وهذا هو معنى الإيراث المذكور على هذا القول . ـ

And the meaning of “inheriting al-Jannah” is: their being granted eternal residence within it in the most perfect bliss and pleasure.

al-Zamakhshari said in al-Khashshaaf:

نُورِ‌ثُ

it was given as an inheritance

meaning: We will cause them to remain in al-Jannah just as We make the wealth of the one who is inherited from remain with its inheritor. And this is because when those who had exercised taqwa will meet their Lord on the Day of Resurrection, their deeds will have come to an end but the fruits of those deeds will be ongoing – and that is al-Jannah. So when Allah enters them into al-Jannah then it will have been given to them as an inheritance due to their taqwa, just as the wealth of the deceased is given as an inheritance to the inheritor.

And some of the people of knowledge said: The meaning of their inheriting al-Jannah is that for every one of the creation, Allah created a dwelling place in al-Jannah and a dwelling place in the Hell-fire. So when the people of al-Jannah enter al-Jannah, they will be shown what their dwelling places in the Hell-fire would have been if they had disbelieved and disobeyed Allah in order that their joy and delight might be increased. At that, they will say:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي هَدَانَا لِهَـٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لِنَهْتَدِيَ لَوْلَا أَنْ هَدَانَا اللَّـهُ

Praise to Allah, who has guided us to this; and we would never have been guided if Allah had not guided us [7:43]

And similarly, the people of the Hell-fire will see what their dwelling places in al-Jannah would have been if they had only believed and had taqwa of Allah, in order that their regret and sorrow might be increased. And at that, one of them will say:

لَوْ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ هَدَانِي لَكُنتُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

If only Allah had guided me, I would have been among the righteous. [39:57]

Then Allah will make the people of al-Jannah‘s would-be dwelling places in the Hell-fire for the people of the Hell-fire, and the the people of the Hell-fire’s would-be dwelling places in al-Jannah for the people of al-Jannah. So they will be given the people of the Hell-fire’s would-be dwellings in al-Jannah as an inheritance, and this is the meaning of the aforementioned inheritance according to this opinion. [End of quote from al-Zamakhshari]

قال مقيده عفا الله عنه وغفر له : قد جاء حديث يدل لما ذكر من أن لكل أحد منزلا في الجنة ومنزلا في النار ، إلا أن حمل الآية عليه غير صواب ; لأن أهل الجنة يرثون من الجنة منازلهم المعدة لهم بأعمالهم وتقواهم ، كما قد قال تعالى : ونودوا أن تلكم الجنة أورثتموها بما كنتم تعملون [ 7 \ 43 ] ، ونحوها من الآيات ، ولو فرضنا أنهم يرثون منازل أهل النار فحمل الآية على ذلك يوهم أنهم ليس لهم في الجنة إلا ما أورثوا من منازل أهل النار والواقع بخلاف ذلك كما ترى ، والحديث المذكور هو ما رواه الإمام أحمد في المسند ، والحاكم في المستدرك من حديث أبي هريرة ” كل أهل الجنة يرى مقعده من النار فيقول : لولا أن الله ، هداني فيكون له أشكر ، وكل أهل النار يرى مقعده من الجنة فيقول : لو أن الله هداني ، فيكون عليه حسرة ” اهـ ، وعلم في الجامع الصغير على هذا الحديث علامة الصحة ، وقال شارحه المناوي : قال الحاكم : صحيح على شرطهما وأقره الذهبي ، وقال الهيثمي رجال أحمد رجال الصحيح . اهـ . ـ

I [al-Shinqitee] say: There is a hadeeth which indicates what al-Zamakhshari mentioned about every person having a dwelling place in al-Jannah and a dwelling place in the Hell-fire; however, interpreting this ayah in that way is not correct. This is because the people of al-Jannah receive their inheritance of al-Jannah in the form of their own dwelling places which were prepared for them according to their deeds and their taqwa, just as Allah said:

وَنُودُوا أَن تِلْكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ أُورِ‌ثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

And they will be called, “This is Paradise, which you have been made to inherit for what you used to do.” [7:43]

as well as other similar ayaat. And if we were to force the interpretation that they are made to inherit the dwelling places of the people of the Hell-fire onto this ayah, then people would be misled to think that there is nothing for them in al-Jannah except what they will be made to inherit of the people of the Hell-fire’s dwelling places. But the reality of the situation is quite contrary to that, as you can see.

And the hadeeth in question here is what is narrated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, as well as al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak from the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah:

Every inhabitant of al-Jannah will be shown his place in the Hell-fire and will say, “What would have been, had Allah not guided me!” and so he will become more grateful to Allah. And every inhabitant of the Hell-fire will be shown his place in al-Jannah and will say, “If only Allah had guided me!” So that will be a cause of sorrow for him.

And it is seen in al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer that this hadeeth has the indications of being authentic. al-Manawi commented on it by saying:

al-Haakim said that it is Saheeh according to the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim, and al-Dhahabi affirmed that. And al-Haythami said, “the men in imam Ahmad’s narration are men of authentic narrations.”

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 3/472-473]

See also: Qualities of the Successful Believers Series

This series is a translation of Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee’s explanation of the opening of surah al-Mu’minoon, in which Allah describes the qualities of the successful believers who will inherit Jannah.

See also: “That is your rescue from the hell-fire”: Sharh al-Nawawi

See also: “Are you recompensed except for what you used to do?”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: A Discussion of the People of Jannah: Tafsir al-Qurtubi & Tafsir al-Sa’di

Advertisements

3 thoughts on “Inheriting al-Jannah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

  1. Pingback: Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 7/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: “That is your rescue from the hell-fire”: Sharh al-Nawawi | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: A Discussion of the People of Jannah: Tafsir al-Qurtubi & Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.